JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The impact of body mass on inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Objective: To evaluate inflammatory markers and insulin resistance (IR) in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with different body mass index (BMI). Methods: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in serum samples from 40 women in reproductive age. Patients were divided into four groups: I (non-eutrophic with PCOS, n?=?12), II (non-eutrophic without PCOS, n?=?10), III (eutrophic with PCOS, n?=?8) and IV (eutrophic without PCOS, n?=?10) being non-eutrophic, the overweight and obese women with BMI?>?25?kg/m(2) and eutrophic women with BMI?
Related JoVE Video
Hepatobiliary agents and their role in LI-RADS.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) was introduced with the goal of standardizing the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The 2014 version of LI-RADS incorporates the use of hepatobiliary contrast agents (HBAs) into the diagnostic algorithm, including gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine. Three new ancillary features are introduced: hepatobiliary phase (HBP) hypointensity and HBP hypointense rim favor malignancy, while HBP isointensity favors benignity. HBP hyperintensity favors neither malignancy nor benignity. In this review, we describe how to use these new features as well as numerous pitfalls associated with the use ofHBAs, including hemangiomas, cholangiocarcinomas, and focal confluent fibrosis. Importantly, findings on the HBP are not included as major criteria and therefore the criteria for the diagnosis of LI-RADS 5 observations remain unchanged, and so congruence with the Organ Procurement Transplant Network system remains intact. Additionally, we review how the major features in LI-RADS, arterial phase hyperenhancement, threshold growth, and washout and capsule appearance, may be affected with HBAs. Notably with HBAs, hypointensity on the delayed phase, termed the transitional phase, does not qualify as washout appearance due to the possibility of early parenchymal enhancement. It is hoped that the incorporation of HBAs into LI-RADS will help create consistency when interpreting HBA enhanced MRIs.
Related JoVE Video
18F-FDG Kinetics Parameters Depend on the Mechanism of Injury in Early Experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PET with (18)F-FDG allows for noninvasive assessment of regional lung metabolism reflective of neutrophilic inflammation. This study aimed at determining during early acute lung injury whether local (18)F-FDG phosphorylation rate and volume of distribution were sensitive to the initial regional inflammatory response and whether they depended on the mechanism of injury: endotoxemia and surfactant depletion.
Related JoVE Video
Collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate reduces surgical site infection in vascular surgery: A prospective cohort study.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after vascular surgery. It may cause exposure of the underlying prosthesis causing graft infection, which may require the removal of the vascular graft, increasing amputation and mortality risks. Graft contamination usually occurs during operative procedure or by direct spread from an infected wound. It is therefore advisable to a strong effort in reducing SSI. Topic antibiotics have not been fully studied in vascular surgery, but collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate has shown to reduce SSI in cardiac surgery, orthopaedics, and general surgery procedures.
Related JoVE Video
Dental trauma: knowledge and attitudes of community health workers.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The international literature emphasizes the importance of evaluating the knowledge of different groups such as teachers, students, dentists, physicians, parents, and athletes regarding dental injuries. In Brazil, community health workers are professionals who can reach a wide variety of people and who have a marked influence on prevention and health promotion strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers regarding dental trauma.
Related JoVE Video
Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumonia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document.
Related JoVE Video
Separation and sensitive determination of sphingolipids at low femtomole level by using HPLC-PIESI-MS/MS.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A highly sensitive paired ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PIESI-MS) approach was developed for the trace determination of sphingolipids. Apart from their structure role, specific sphingolipids can play a role in cell signaling and as disease markers. With the optimal pairing reagents, detection limits ranged from low femtomole to picomole levels for 14 selected sphingolipids. This improved the detection sensitivity of ESI-MS for many of these analytes up to ~4000 times.
Related JoVE Video
Urolithiasis and pregnancy.
J Bras Nefrol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The diagnosis of urolithiasis during pregnancy is common, even though no additional measures are required in asymptomatic cases. Renal colic or complications of urinary lithiasis occur more frequently during the last months of pregnancy, and there are several particularities for the diagnosis and treatment of this subset of women. The present manuscript aim to review the current knowledge concerning this subject and present authors personal experience.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.
Prev. Vet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding system may be a source of NDV. These data can be used to establish appropriate biosecurity and husbandry measures for this type of breeding system to prevent NDV spread in Brazil.
Related JoVE Video
Rating of perceived exertion and affective responses during Tai Chi Chuan.
Percept Mot Skills
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and affective responses were assessed during Tai Chi Chuan. A total of 16 women (M age = 61.2 yr., SD = 8.8) participated in this study. Individuals practiced Tai Chi Chuan three times/week during seven weeks, and were assessed session-by-session (21 Wu Tai Chi Chuan sessions) in three moments (15, 30, and 45 min.) using Borg's scale (CR 0-10) and the Feeling Scale (+5/-5). With regard to RPE, there was a difference between 15 and 30 min. and between 15 and 45 min. The same pattern of differences was observed for the affective response. The RPE during the seven weeks ranged from "fairly light" to "moderate" and the affective response from "good" to "very good." Thus, Tai Chi Chuan was perceived as a low-moderate intensity and pleasurable (positive affect) exercise by middle-aged and elderly women.
Related JoVE Video
Neurology in Federico Fellini?s work and life.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The authors present a historical review of the neurological diseases related to the famous moviemaker Federico Fellini. There is an account of diseases depicted on his movies as well as his ischemic stroke and consequent neurological deficit - left spatial neglect.
Related JoVE Video
Ureaplasma diversum as a cause of pustular vulvovaginitis in bovine females in Vale Guapore, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with various reproductive problems in cattle that include granular vulvovaginitis, weak calves, and abortion. This study was conducted in a beef herd situated in the Middle-West region of Brazil, and the objectives were to verify the presence of U. diversum and to elucidate its possible relationships with independent variables in this bovine herd population. A total of 134 vaginal mucous swabs were taken for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of these, 51 (38 %) were PCR positive for U. diversum. Of the 58 heifers with vulvovaginal lesions characterized by hyperemia, granulated lesions, and edema distributed throughout the vulvar mucosa, 37 (64 %) were U. diversum positive; of the 76 heifers without reproductive lesions, 14 (18 %) were U. diversum positive. All tested samples were negative for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the following two variables were significantly associated with the presence of U. diversum: the presence of vulvar lesions (p?=?0.001) and the presence of a progesterone (P4) device (p?=?0.001). These findings indicate that U. diversum should be considered a pathogen that is associated with pustular vulvovaginitis in heifers from the Mato Grosso state and that additional studies of the risk factors associated with intravaginal P4 device transmission should be performed.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of local tidal lung strain on inflammation in normal and lipopolysaccharide-exposed sheep*.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regional tidal lung strain may trigger local inflammation during mechanical ventilation, particularly when additional inflammatory stimuli are present. However, it is unclear whether inflammation develops proportionally to tidal strain or only above a threshold. We aimed to 1) assess the relationship between regional tidal strain and local inflammation in vivo during the early stages of lung injury in lungs with regional aeration heterogeneity comparable to that of humans and 2) determine how this strain-inflammation relationship is affected by endotoxemia.
Related JoVE Video
Performance of ICU ventilators during noninvasive ventilation with large leaks in a total face mask: a bench study.
J Bras Pneumol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Discomfort and noncompliance with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) interfaces are obstacles to NIV success. Total face masks (TFMs) are considered to be a very comfortable NIV interface. However, due to their large internal volume and consequent increased CO2 rebreathing, their orifices allow proximal leaks to enhance CO2 elimination. The ventilators used in the ICU might not adequately compensate for such leakage. In this study, we attempted to determine whether ICU ventilators in NIV mode are suitable for use with a leaky TFM.
Related JoVE Video
Human glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer in the Brazilian population.
Int Braz J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 in the risk of developing Prostate Cancer (PCa) in a population of Rio de Janeiro and compare the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphisms analyzed in the present study population with other regions in the country and different ethnic groups.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions.
Related JoVE Video
Severe hypoxemia during veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: exploring the limits of extracorporeal respiratory support.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation for respiratory support has emerged as a rescue alternative for patients with hypoxemia. However, in some patients with more severe lung injury, extracorporeal support fails to restore arterial oxygenation. Based on four clinical vignettes, the aims of this article were to describe the pathophysiology of this concerning problem and to discuss possibilities for hypoxemia resolution.
Related JoVE Video
Unusual complication after genioplasty.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Facial beauty depends on shape, proportion, and harmony between the facial thirds. The chin is one of the most important components of the inferior third and has an important role on the definition of facial aesthetic and harmony in both frontal and lateral views. There are 2 principal therapeutic approaches that one can choose to treat mental deformities, alloplastic implants, and mental basilar ostectomy, also known as genioplasty. The latest is more commonly used because of great versatility in the correction of three-dimensional deformities of the chin and smaller taxes of postoperative complications. Possible transoperative and postoperative complications of genioplasty include mental nerve lesion, bleeding, damage to tooth roots, bone resorption of the mobilized segment, mandibular fracture, ptosis of the lower lip, and failure to stabilize the ostectomized segment. The study presents 2 cases of displacement of the osteotomized segment after genioplasty associated with facial trauma during postoperative orthognathic surgery followed by rare complications with no reports in the literature.
Related JoVE Video
[Is the ICU staff satisfied with the computerized physician order entry? A cross-sectional survey study].
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the satisfaction of the intensive care unit staff with a computerized physician order entry and to compare the concept of the computerized physician order entry relevance among intensive care unit healthcare workers.
Related JoVE Video
Early inflammation mainly affects normally and poorly aerated lung in experimental ventilator-induced lung injury*.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The common denominator in most forms of ventilator-induced lung injury is an intense inflammatory response mediated by neutrophils. PET with [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose can be used to image cellular metabolism, which, during lung inflammatory processes, mainly reflects neutrophil activity, allowing the study of regional lung inflammation in vivo. The aim of this study was to assess the location and magnitude of lung inflammation using PET imaging of [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in a porcine experimental model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Producing acoustic 'Frozen Waves': simulated experiments with diffraction/attenuation resistant beams in lossy media.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The so-called Localized Waves (LW), and the "Frozen Waves" (FW), have raised significant attention in the areas of Optics and Ultrasound, because of their surprising energy localization properties. The LWs resist the effects of diffraction for large distances, and possess an interesting self-reconstruction -self-healing- property (after obstacles with size smaller than the antenna's); while the FWs, a sub-class of LWs, offer the possibility of arbitrarily modeling the longitudinal field intensity pattern inside a prefixed interval, for instance 0?z?L, of the wave propagation axis. More specifically, the FWs are localized fields "at rest", that is, with a static envelope (within which only the carrier wave propagates), and can be endowed moreover with a high transverse localization. In this paper we investigate, by simulated experiments, various cases of generation of ultrasonic FW fields, with the frequency of f0=1 MHz in a water-like medium, taking account of the effects of attenuation. We present results of FWs for distances up to L=80 mm, in attenuating media with absorption coefficient ? in the range 70???170 dB/m. Such simulated FW fields are constructed by using a procedure developed by us, via appropriate finite superpositions of monochromatic ultrasonic Bessel beams. We pay due attention to the selection of the FW parameters, constrained by the rather tight restrictions imposed by experimental Acoustics, as well as to some practical implications of the transducer design. The energy localization properties of the Frozen Waves can find application even in many medical apparatus, such as bistouries or acoustic tweezers, as well as for treatment of diseased tissues (in particular, for the destruction of tumor cells, without affecting the surrounding tissues; also for kidney stone shuttering, etc.).
Related JoVE Video
Electronic and magnetic structures of coronene-based graphitic nanoribbons.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We study the electronic properties of a series of coronene-derived graphitic nanoribbons recently synthesized in a pre-programmed, nanotube assisted, chemical route [Talyzin et al. Nano Lett., 2011, 11, 4352 and Fujihara et al. J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 15141]. We employ a combination of density functional theory and spin-polarized tight-binding methods to show how details of the molecular building blocks and their assembly uniquely determine the electronic structure of the resulting ribbon. We demonstrate the onset of multiple magnetic states for these systems and a non-trivial dependence of the electronic bandgap with both atomic structure and spin configuration, which make these coronene-based ribbons potential candidates for applications in nanoelectronics.
Related JoVE Video
Electronic transport in three-terminal triangular carbon nanopatches.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The electronic transport properties of three-terminal graphene-based triangular patches are investigated using a combination of semi-empirical tight-binding calculations and Green's function-based transport theory within Landauer's framework. The junctions are composed of a triangular structure based on armchair edged graphene nanoribbons. We show how details of the central region influence the resonant electronic transport across the triangular patches and highlight the unique features of the current flow as a function of geometry. These properties indicate an array of functionalities for the development of carbon-based complex nanocircuits and operational devices at the nanoscale.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1 and its gp120 inhibits the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in an IFITM3-dependent fashion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-1-infected patients co-infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 surprisingly presented benign clinical outcome. The knowledge that HIV-1 changes the host homeostatic equilibrium, which may favor the patient resistance to some co-pathogens, prompted us to investigate whether HIV-1 infection could influence A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in vitro. We show here that exposure of A(H1N1)pdm09-infected epithelial cells to HIV-1 viral particles or its gp120 enhanced by 25% the IFITM3 content, resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. This event was dependent on toll-like receptor 2 and 4. Moreover, knockdown of IFITM3 prevented HIV-1 ability to inhibit A(H1N1)pdm09 replication. HIV-1 infection also increased IFITM3 levels in human primary macrophages by almost 100%. Consequently, the arrival of influenza ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to nucleus of macrophages was inhibited, as evaluated by different approaches. Reduction of influenza RNPs entry into the nucleus tolled A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in macrophages earlier than usual, limiting influenza's ability to induce TNF-?. As judged by analysis of the influenza hemagglutin (HA) gene from in vitro experiments and from samples of HIV-1/A(H1N1)pdm09 co-infected individuals, the HIV-1-induced reduction of influenza replication resulted in delayed viral evolution. Our results may provide insights on the mechanisms that may have attenuated the clinical course of Influenza in HIV-1/A(H1N1)pdm09 co-infected patients during the recent influenza form 2009/2010.
Related JoVE Video
De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of contrasting sugarcane varieties.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species.
Related JoVE Video
Optimization of o3-acyl kojic Acid derivatives as potent and selective human neutrophil elastase inhibitors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is an attractive target for treating chronic and acute inflammatory lung diseases. An optimization campaign of the kojic acid scaffold to develop new potent HNE inhibitors is reported. O3-Pivaloyl derivatives were shown to be the most potent inhibitors with IC5o values down to 80 nM. These compounds presented excellent selectivity and cytotoxicity profiles with suitable ligand efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Ulcerated anterior maxillary swelling showing radiopaque bodies on cone beam computed tomography.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare benign tumor of epithelial origin of locally aggressive behavior, which represents less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors affecting the oral cavity. The lesion usually presents as a nonulcerated painless mass of slow growth, commonly affecting the posterior region of the mandible. Depending on the stages of development, CEOTs may present variable radiographic appearances. To date, a few number of cases affecting the anterior maxillary region have been published in the English-language literature. This article describes an interesting and rare case of an anterior ulcerated maxillary swelling diagnosed as a CEOT based on clinical, cone beam computed tomography and pathologic findings. Functional results were obtained with the surgical approach, and no recurrence of the lesion during a 2-year follow-up period was observed.
Related JoVE Video
Spontaneous Effort Causes Occult Pendelluft during Mechanical Ventilation.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rationale: In normal lungs, local changes in pleural pressure (Ppl) are generalized over the whole pleural surface. However, in a patient with injured lungs, we observed (using electrical impedance tomography) a pendelluft phenomenon (movement of air within the lung from nondependent to dependent regions without change in tidal volume) that was caused by spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation. Objectives: To test the hypotheses that in injured lungs negative Ppl generated by diaphragm contraction has localized effects (in dependent regions) that are not uniformly transmitted, and that such localized changes in Ppl cause pendelluft. Methods: We used electrical impedance tomography and dynamic computed tomography (CT) to analyze regional inflation in anesthetized pigs with lung injury. Changes in local Ppl were measured in nondependent versus dependent regions using intrabronchial balloon catheters. The airway pressure needed to achieve comparable dependent lung inflation during paralysis versus spontaneous breathing was estimated. Measurements and Main Results: In all animals, spontaneous breathing caused pendelluft during early inflation, which was associated with more negative local Ppl in dependent regions versus nondependent regions (-13.0 ± 4.0 vs. -6.4 ± 3.8 cm H2O; P < 0.05). Dynamic CT confirmed pendelluft, which occurred despite limitation of tidal volume to less than 6 ml/kg. Comparable inflation of dependent lung during paralysis required almost threefold greater driving pressure (and tidal volume) versus spontaneous breathing (28.0 ± 0.5 vs. 10.3 ± 0.6 cm H2O, P < 0.01; 14.8 ± 4.6 vs. 5.8 ± 1.6 ml/kg, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Spontaneous breathing effort during mechanical ventilation causes unsuspected overstretch of dependent lung during early inflation (associated with reciprocal deflation of nondependent lung). Even when not increasing tidal volume, strong spontaneous effort may potentially enhance lung damage.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring internal training load and mucosal immune responses in futsal athletes.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and their relationships with training loads (TLs) during a 4-week period of intensive training during the competitive season in elite Brazilian futsal players. Twelve athletes (age: 19 ± 1 years; height: 180 ± 4 cm; and body mass: 73 ± 7 kg) participated in the study. The training program included tactical, technical, specific conditioning and strength training, and competition matches. Training load was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion. Salivary immunoglobulin A, salivary cortisol and symptoms of URTIs were assessed weekly. A significant decrease in weekly TL was observed for week 4 (tapering) compared with that of other weeks (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for cortisol and SIgA during the study (p > 0.05). There was a significant decrease in URTI symptom severity during week 4 as compared with that of weeks 1 and 2 (p < 0.05), with a significant correlation between weekly TL and URTI severity and weekly TL during week 4 (rs = 0.75; p < 0.05). The present findings suggest that futsal athletes are more susceptible to high URTI symptom severity in the periods of higher training. Therefore, the reduction in TLs before competitions is an appropriate strategy to minimize URTI symptoms ensuring the athletes ability to train and compete.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil.
Rev Bras Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people.
Related JoVE Video
Structure and growth of sialoliths: computed microtomography and electron microscopy investigation of 30 specimens.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Theories have been put forward on the etiology of sialoliths; however, a comprehensive understanding of their growth mechanisms is lacking. In an attempt to fill this gap, the current study has evaluated the internal architecture and growth patterns of a set of 30 independent specimens of sialoliths characterized at different scales by computed microtomography and electron microscopy. Tomography reconstructions showed cores in most of the sialoliths. The cores were surrounded by concentric or irregular patterns with variable degrees of mineralization. Regardless of the patterns, at finer scales the sialoliths consisted of banded and globular structures. The distribution of precipitates in the banded structures is compatible with a Liesegang-Ostwald phenomenon. On the other hand, the globular structures appear to arise from surface tension effects and to develop self-similar features as a result of a viscous fingering process. Electron diffraction patterns demonstrated that Ca- and P-based electrolytes crystallize in a structure close to that of hydroxyapatite. The organic matter contained sulfur with apparent origin from sulfated components of secretory material. These results cast new light on the mechanisms involved in the formation of sialoliths.
Related JoVE Video
[Heart rate variability as a method of assessing the autonomic nervous system in polycystic ovary syndrome].
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. These factors are associated with adrenergic overactivity, which is an important prognostic factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders. Given the common cardiometabolic disturbances occurring in PCOS women, over the last years studies have investigated the cardiac autonomic control of these patients, mainly based on heart rate variability (HRV). Thus, in this review, we will discuss the recent findings of the studies that investigated the HRV of women with PCOS, as well as noninvasive methods of analysis of autonomic control starting from basic indexes related to this methodology.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring external and internal loads of brazilian soccer referees during official matches.
J Sports Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to assess the external and internal loads of Brazilian soccer referees during official matches. A total of 11 field referees (aged 36.2 ± 7.5 years) were monitored during 35 matches. The external (distance covered, mean and maximal speed) and internal load parameters (session ratings of perceived exertion [RPE] training load [TL], Edwards TL, and time spent in different heart rate [HR] zones) were assessed in 3-4 matches per referee. External load parameters were measured using a wrist Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. No differences in distance covered (5.219 ± 205 vs. 5.230 ± 237 m) and maximal speed (19.3 ± 1.0 vs. 19.4 ± 1.4 km·h(-1)) were observed between the halves of the matches (p > 0.05). However, the mean speed was higher in the first half of the matches (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 6.4 ± 0.3 km·h(-1)) (p < 0.05) than in the second half. The mean HR during the matches was ~89% of HRmax. In ~95% of the matches, the referees demonstrated a HR ? 80% of HRmax. Nonetheless, the time spent at 90-100% of HRmax was higher in the first half (59.9 vs. 52.3%) (p < 0.05). Significant correlations between session RPE TL and distance covered at 90-100% of HRmax (r = 0.62) and session RPE TL and maximal speed (r = 0.54) (p < 0.05) were noted. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between session RPE TL and Edwards TL (r = 0.61) (p < 0.05). Brazilian soccer referees demonstrated high external and internal load demands during official matches. The portable GPS/HR monitors and session RPE method can provide relevant information regarding the magnitude of the physiological strain during official matches. Key PointsHigh external and internal loads were imposed on Brazilian soccer referees during official matches.There was a high positive correlation between a subjective marker of internal load (session RPE) and parameters of external load (distance covered between 90-100% of HRmax and maximal speed).There was a high positive correlation between session RPE method and Edwards method.Session RPE seems to be a reliable marker of internal load.The portable GPS/HR monitors and the session RPE method can provide relevant information regarding the magnitude of external and internal loads of soccer referees during official matches.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of ventilation strategy on distribution of lung inflammatory cell activity.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Leukocyte infiltration is central to the development of acute lung injury, but it is not known how mechanical ventilation strategy alters the distribution or activation of inflammatory cells. We explored how protective (vs. injurious) ventilation alters the magnitude and distribution of lung leukocyte activation following systemic endotoxin administration.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro-in vivo correlation of efavirenz tablets using GastroPlus®.
AAPS PharmSciTech
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present work was to use GastroPlus™ software for the prediction of pharmacokinetic profiles and in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) as tools to optimize the development of new generic medications. GastroPlus™ was used to simulate the gastrointestinal compartment and was based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model. Powder dissolution and efavirenz tablet dissolution studies were carried out to generate data from which correlation was established. The simulated plasma profile, based on the physicochemical properties of efavirenz, was almost identical to that observed in vivo for biobatches A and B. A level A IVIVC was established for the dissolution method obtained for the generic candidate using the Wagner-Nelson (r (2) = 0.85) and for Loo-Riegelman models (r(2) = 0.92). The percentage of fraction absorbed indicated that 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate may be considered a biorelevant dissolution medium for efavirenz tablets. The simulation of gastrointestinal bioavailability and IVIVC obtained from immediate-release tablet formulations suggests that GastroPlus™ is a valuable in silico method for IVIVC and for studies directed at developing formulations of class II drugs.
Related JoVE Video
A suitable device for cystic lesions close to the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Different devices for decompression of cystic lesions of the jaw have been described in the literature. Although there are no rigorous rules for choosing a particular design or method, the choice depends on situational needs. Although minor, most techniques are associated with certain difficulties and complications, such as the need for long-term monitoring, inappropriate decompression tube size, soft tissue trauma, suture dehiscence, soft tissue invagination, dislodgement, and malpositioning of the tube into the lesion. These complications may have a negative impact on the level of treatment acceptance, especially when devices are used over long periods. The aim of this study was to present a new suitable device for cystic lesions close to tooth-bearing areas of the jaws.
Related JoVE Video
Care of patients with Huntingtons disease in South America: a survey.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Huntingtons disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a multitude of symptoms, which requires access to specialized multidisciplinary care for adequate management. The aim of this study was to survey the characteristics of care in various HD centers in South America (SA). Methods A questionnaire was sent to 24 centers involved in the care for HD patients in SA. Results Of the total 24 centers, 19 (79.2%) are academic units. The majority of centers (62.5%) are general movement disorders clinics. Multidisciplinary care is available in 19 (79.2%) centers and in 20 (83.3%) care is provided free of charge. Genetic testing and counseling are available in 25 and 66.6% of centers, respectively. The majority of centers (83.3%) have no institutional support for end-stage care. Conclusions Although HD centers in SA are committed to providing multidisciplinary care, access to genetic counseling and end-stage care are lacking in most centers.
Related JoVE Video
Acute improvement in insulin resistance after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: is 3 days enough to correct insulin metabolism?
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although medium- to long-term improvement in insulin resistance and T2DM after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is well documented, few studies have analyzed the acute effects after surgery. Understanding these effects might help explain the physiologic adjustments after surgery and help in managing insulin resistance and controlling the hypoglycemic treatment for bariatric patients.
Related JoVE Video
The new definition for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: is there room for improvement?
Curr Opin Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To review the new (Berlin) definition of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to propose potential improvements.
Related JoVE Video
Asthma and the socio-economic reality in Brazil.
World Allergy Organ J
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asthma is a prevalent disease that is considered a health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of a cohort of asthmatics receiving specialized outpatient treatment in a tertiary/teaching public hospital in Brazil.
Related JoVE Video
A phosphoramidon-sensitive metalloprotease induces apoptosis of human endothelial cells by Group B Streptococcus.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We explored Group B Streptococcus (GBS)-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the role of phosphoramidon, a zinc metalloprotease inhibitor, in this process. GBS 90186 strain (serotype V, a blood isolate) and concentrated supernatant (CS) were used to investigate the viability and morphological alterations in HUVEC by Trypan blue uptake, electrophoresis in 2 % agarose gel and scanning electron microscopy assays. Apoptosis before and after phosphoramidon-treatment were verified by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC labeling. Differences were considered significant when P < 0.05 using unpaired Students t test. GBS and CS induced HUVEC death by apoptosis (76.5 and 32 %, respectively) with an increasing pro-apoptotic Bax expression and decreasing anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression. Caspase-3 was activated during GBS-induced endothelial apoptosis. Phosphoramidon reduced 89.3 and 100 % of GBS and CS cell death by apoptosis, respectively. Some GBS strains may induce cell death by apoptosis with involvement of metalloproteases and signaling through the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, which may contribute to GBS survival during sepsis of adults and neonates.
Related JoVE Video
PIUS: peptide identification by unbiased search.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present PIUS, a tool that identifies peptides from tandem mass spectrometry data by analyzing the six-frame translation of a complete genome. It differs from earlier studies that have performed such a genomic search in two ways: (i) it considers a larger search space and (ii) it is designed for natural peptide identification rather than proteomics. Differently from other peptidomics tools designed for genome-wide searches, PIUS does not limit the analysis to a set of sequences that match a list of de novo reconstructions.
Related JoVE Video
A new restricted access molecularly imprinted polymer capped with albumin for direct extraction of drugs from biological matrices: the case of chlorpromazine in human plasma.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new restricted access molecularly imprinted polymer coated with bovine serum albumin (RAMIP-BSA) was developed, characterized, and used for direct analysis of chlorpromazine in human plasma samples. The RAMIP-BSA was synthesized using chlorpromazine, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. Glycerol dimethacrylate and hydroxy methyl methacrylate were used to promote a hydrophilic surface (high density of hydroxyl groups). Afterward, the polymer was coated with BSA using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker, resulting in a protein chemical shield around it. The material was able to eliminate ca. 99% of protein when a 44-mg mL(-1) BSA aqueous solution was passed through it. The RAMIP-BSA was packed in a column and used for direct analysis of chlorpromazine in human plasma samples in an online column switching high-performance liquid chromatography system. The analytical calibration curve was prepared in a pool of human plasma samples with chlorpromazine concentrations ranging from 30 to 350 ?g L(-1). The correlation coefficient obtained was 0.995 and the limit of quantification was 30 ?g L(-1). Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy presented variation coefficients and relative errors lower than 15% and within -15 and 15%, respectively. The sample throughput was 3 h(-1) (sample preparation and chromatographic analysis steps) and the same RAMIP-BSA column was efficiently used for about 90 cycles.
Related JoVE Video
Lingual cortical mandibular bone depression: frequency and clinical-radiological features in a Brazilian population.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to report the frequency and clinical-radiological features of cases of lingual cortical mandibular bone depressions (LCMBD) diagnosed in consecutive panoramic radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans from a Brazilian population. The methods included a retrospective analysis of consecutive panoramic radiographs, charts from the Oral Medicine clinic and consecutive CBCT scans. All cases diagnosed as LCMBD were selected and clinical-radiological data were retrieved from the clinical charts and by the analysis of the image exams. Twenty LCMBD cases diagnosed in 18 patients were found, including 2 from 3,000 consecutive panoramic radiographs (0.07%), 6 from 2,421 Oral Medicine patients (0.25%) and 10 from 1,684 CBCT scans (0.59%). The 18 patients had a mean age of 51.5 years and 13 were males. Two patients presented bilateral lesions. Fourteen images (70%) were classified as well-defined. Eighteen affected the posterior area of the mandible and two affected the anterior mandible. Size of the lesions was larger in younger patients. In conclusion, there seemed to be a considerable radiological heterogeneity when comparing the LCMBD cases and it seemed that the images decreased in size with the increase of patients age.
Related JoVE Video
Regional lung derecruitment and inflammation during 16 hours of mechanical ventilation in supine healthy sheep.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung derecruitment is common during general anesthesia. Mechanical ventilation with physiological tidal volumes could magnify derecruitment, and produce lung dysfunction and inflammation. The authors used positron emission tomography to study the process of derecruitment in normal lungs ventilated for 16 h and the corresponding changes in regional lung perfusion and inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Ultra-protective tidal volume: how low should we go?
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Applying tidal volumes of less than 6 mL/kg might improve lung protection in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. In a recent article, Retamal and colleagues showed that such a reduction is feasible with conventional mechanical ventilation and leads to less tidal recruitment and overdistension without causing carbon dioxide retention or auto-positive end-expiratory pressure. However, whether the compensatory increase in the respiratory rate blunts the lung protection remains unestablished.
Related JoVE Video
Apical ballooning syndrome (Takotsubo Syndrome): case report.
Int Arch Med
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The apical ballooning syndrome (ABS) is a single reversible cardiomyopathy often triggered by a stressful event. We aimed to present a case report regarding this disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) on markers of muscle damage: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and strength performance) in the biceps brachii. Twenty-two physically active men were randomized into two groups: placebo and laser. All volunteers were submitted to an exercise-induced muscle damage protocol for biceps brachii (biceps curl, 10 sets of 10 repetitions with load of 50 % of one-repetition maximum test (1RM)). Active LLLT (808 nm; 100 mW; 35.7 W/cm(2), 357.14 J/cm(2) per point, energy of 1 J per point applied for 10 s on four points of the biceps brachii belly of each arm) or placebo was applied between the sets of the biceps curl exercise. CK activity and maximum strength performance (1RM) were measured before, immediately after, 24, 48, and 72 h after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol. There was an increase in CK activity after the muscle damage protocol in both groups; however, this increase was attenuated in the laser group compared to the placebo group at 72 h (placebo?=?841 vs. laser?=?357 %; p?
Related JoVE Video
A reconfigurable arbitrary waveform generator using PWM modulation for ultrasound research.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In ultrasound imaging systems, the digital transmit beamformer is a critical module that generates accurate control over several transmission parameters. However, such transmit front-end module is not typically accessible to ultrasound researchers. To overcome this difficulty, we have been developing a compact and fully programmable digital transmit system using the pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique for generating simultaneous arbitrary waveforms, specifically designed for research purposes.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of abiotic factors on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan.
J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In an effort to bypass the adverse secondary effects attributed to the traditional therapeutic approaches used to treat skin disorders (such as atopic dermatitis), alternative antimicrobials have recently been suggested. One such antimicrobial is chitosan, owing to the already proved biological properties associated with its use. However, the influence of abiotic factors on such activities warrants evaluation. This research effort assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan upon skin microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in vitro when subject to a combination of different abiotic factors such as pH, ionic strength, organic acids and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids, ionic strength and pH significantly affected chitosans capability of reducing the viable numbers of S. aureus. This antimicrobial action was potentiated in the presence of palmitic acid and a lower ionic strength (0.2% NaCl), while a higher ionic strength (0.4% NaCl) favored chitosans action upon the reduction of viable numbers of S. epidermidis and E. coli. Although further studies are needed, these preliminary results advocate that chitosan can in the future be potentially considered as an antimicrobial of choice when handling symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis.
Related JoVE Video
Determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an experimental model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has gained renewed interest in the treatment of respiratory failure since the advent of the modern polymethylpentene membranes. Limited information exists, however, on the performance of these membranes in terms of gas transfers during multiple organ failure (MOF). We investigated determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer as well as biochemical alterations after the circulation of blood through the circuit in a pig model under ECMO support before and after induction of MOF. A predefined sequence of blood and sweep flows was tested before and after the induction of MOF with fecal peritonitis and saline lavage lung injury. In the multivariate analysis, oxygen transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope?=?66, P<0.001) and a negative association with pre-membrane PaCO(2) (slope?=?-0.96, P?=?0.001) and SatO(2) (slope?=?-1.7, P<0.001). Carbon dioxide transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope?=?17, P<0.001), gas flow (slope?=?33, P<0.001), pre-membrane PaCO(2) (slope?=?1.2, P<0.001) and a negative association with the hemoglobin (slope?=?-3.478, P?=?0.042). We found an increase in pH in the baseline from 7.50[7.46,7.54] to 7.60[7.55,7.65] (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 7.19[6.92,7.32] to 7.41[7.13,7.5] (P<0.001). Likewise, the PCO(2) fell in the baseline from 35 [32,39] to 25 [22,27] mmHg (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 59 [47,91] to 34 [28,45] mmHg (P<0.001). In conclusion, both oxygen and carbon dioxide transfers were significantly determined by blood flow. Oxygen transfer was modulated by the pre-membrane SatO(2) and CO(2), while carbon dioxide transfer was affected by the gas flow, pre-membrane CO(2) and hemoglobin.
Related JoVE Video
Local hemostatic measures in anticoagulated patients undergoing oral surgery: a systematized literature review.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To conduct a systematized review of the literature about the main local hemostatic measures to control postoperative bleeding in anticoagulated patients.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Improvement in clinical signs and cellular immunity of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis using the immunomodulator P-MAPA.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated the immunotherapeutic potential of the protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride immuno-modulator (P-MAPA) on canine visceral leishmaniasis. Twenty mongrel dogs presenting clinical symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis and diagnosis confirmed by the detection of anti-leishmania antibodies were studied. Ten dogs received 15 doses of the immunomodulator (2.0 mg/kg) intramuscularly, and 10 received saline as a placebo. Skin and peripheral blood samples were collected following administration of the immunomodulator. The groups were followed to observe for clinical signals of remission; parasite load in the skin biopsies using real-time PCR, the cytokines IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-? in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in vitro with either total promastigote antigen or phytohemagglutinin measured by capture ELISA, and changes in CD4? and CD8? T cell subpopulations evaluated by flow cytometry. Comparison between the groups showed that treatment with the immunomodulator promoted improvement in clinical signs and a significant reduction in parasite load in the skin. In peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, supernatants showed a decrease in IL-10 levels and an increase in IL-2 and IFN-?. An increase in CD8? T cells was observed in peripheral blood. In addition, the in vitro leishmanicidal action of P-MAPA was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and no leishmanicidal activity was detected. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as an immunotherapeutic drug in canine visceral leishmaniasis, since it assists in reestablishing partial immunocompetence of infected dogs.
Related JoVE Video
Bedside estimation of nonaerated lung tissue using blood gas analysis.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies correlating the arterial partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of nonaerated lung assessed by CT shunt yielded inconsistent results. We systematically analyzed this relationship and scrutinized key methodological factors that may compromise it. We hypothesized that both physiological shunt and the ratio between PaO2 and the fraction of inspired oxygen enable estimation of CT shunt at the bedside.
Related JoVE Video
Carbohydrate use and reduction in number of balance beam falls: implications for mental and physical fatigue.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Artistic Gymnastics is a sport where athletes are frequently fatigued. One element that might influence this aspect is carbohydrate, an important energy substrate for the muscles and the CNS. Our goal was to investigate the influence of fatigue over artistic gymnastics athletes performance and the effects of a carbohydrate supplementation on their performance.
Related JoVE Video
Top-down clustering for protein subfamily identification.
Evol. Bioinform. Online
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We propose a novel method for the task of protein subfamily identification; that is, finding subgroups of functionally closely related sequences within a protein family. In line with phylogenomic analysis, the method first builds a hierarchical tree using as input a multiple alignment of the protein sequences, then uses a post-pruning procedure to extract clusters from the tree. Differently from existing methods, it constructs the hierarchical tree top-down, rather than bottom-up and associates particular mutations with each division into subclusters. The motivating hypothesis for this method is that it may yield a better tree topology with more accurate subfamily identification as a result and additionally indicates functionally important sites and allows for easy classification of new proteins. A thorough experimental evaluation confirms the hypothesis. The novel method yields more accurate clusters and a better tree topology than the state-of-the-art method SCI-PHY, identifies known functional sites, and identifies mutations that alone allow for classifying new sequences with an accuracy approaching that of hidden Markov models.
Related JoVE Video
Lip lesions in a Brazilian population.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The lips represent one of the most important parts of the facial complex because of a large number and variety of injuries that may be related to this anatomic site such as inflammatory processes and benign and malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to describe the pathologic features of the lip lesions seen in a Brazilian outpatient service.
Related JoVE Video
Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma associated with numb chin syndrome.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metastatic tumors to the oral cavity are rare and account for approximately 1% of all malignant oral neoplasms. About 765 cases have been published in the English- and Chinese-language literature since 1950, with less than 6% of these cases corresponding to prostate cancer metastasis. Because of their uncommon incidence, the diagnosis of oral metastases, especially those originating from the prostate gland, may represent a challenge for general dentists, oral pathologists, and oral radiologists. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe an interesting case of prostate adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the posterior mandible. In addition, association with numb chin syndrome present in this case was discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Worldwide incidence of odontogenic tumors.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the study was to determine the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors (OTs) in the world population, directing an epidemiologic profile to these lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Use of corticocancellous allogeneic bone blocks impregnated with bone marrow aspirate: a clinical, tomographic, and histomorphometric study.
Gen Dent
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of allogeneic block grafts impregnated with autologous bone marrow in horizontal ridge augmentation therapy. Ten patients with severe ridge volume deficiency in the anterior maxilla were treated with horizontal ridge augmentation. The patients were randomized into two groups: Five patients, using two allogeneic block grafts, were in the control group, and five patients, using two allogeneic block grafts impregnated with autologous bone marrow, were in the test group. Hematologists collected 4 mL of bone marrow from the iliac crest of the patients in the test group immediately prior to the surgeries. The blocks were fixed using titanium screws to obtain rigid fixation and to standardize the reference points for measurement purposes. CT scans were obtained both preoperatively and six months postoperatively to allow evaluation of horizontal bone gain. After a healing period of six months, the sites were reopened and the screws were removed. Before implant placement, bone cores were harvested and prepared for histologic and histomorphometric evaluation. Tomographic and histomorphometric measurements were recorded. The test group demonstrated better tomographic results (P < 0.05) in augmenting alveolar thickness, with a mean value of 4.60 ± 1.43 mm (118.23 ± 56.93%), while the control group had bone gain of 2.15 ± 0.47 mm (49.91 ± 20.24%). Despite the different results in alveolar thickness gained between groups, all sites received dental implants. The histomorphometric analysis also showed better results (P < 0.05) in the amount of vital mineralized bone in the test group as compared to the control group. The findings of this study suggest that an autologous bone marrow aspirate can increase the regenerative potential of corticocancellous allogeneic bone grafts.
Related JoVE Video
Maxillary cementoblastoma in a child.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cementoblastoma is a rare benign tumor that almost always occurs in the premolar or molar region and more commonly in the mandible than in the maxilla. We present a unique incisor maxillary cementoblastoma in an 11-year-old child not previously described. To our knowledge, only 2 maxillary cases, both related to canine teeth, were described in the international literature. Thus, the aim of this article was to discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment of a patient with a cementoblastoma in the anterior maxillary region.
Related JoVE Video
Regional lung perfusion estimated by electrical impedance tomography in a piglet model of lung collapse.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The assessment of the regional match between alveolar ventilation and perfusion in critically ill patients requires simultaneous measurements of both parameters. Ideally, assessment of lung perfusion should be performed in real-time with an imaging technology that provides, through fast acquisition of sequential images, information about the regional dynamics or regional kinetics of an appropriate tracer. We present a novel electrical impedance tomography (EIT)-based method that quantitatively estimates regional lung perfusion based on first-pass kinetics of a bolus of hypertonic saline contrast. Pulmonary blood flow was measured in six piglets during control and unilateral or bilateral lung collapse conditions. The first-pass kinetics method showed good agreement with the estimates obtained by single-photon-emission computerized tomography (SPECT). The mean difference (SPECT minus EIT) between fractional blood flow to lung areas suffering atelectasis was -0.6%, with a SD of 2.9%. This method outperformed the estimates of lung perfusion based on impedance pulsatility. In conclusion, we describe a novel method based on EIT for estimating regional lung perfusion at the bedside. In both healthy and injured lung conditions, the distribution of pulmonary blood flow as assessed by EIT agreed well with the one obtained by SPECT. The method proposed in this study has the potential to contribute to a better understanding of the behavior of regional perfusion under different lung and therapeutic conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Anthropometric indices of central obesity how discriminators of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Central obesity is highly prevalent in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Related JoVE Video
Histomorphometric assessment of bone necrosis produced by two cryosurgery protocols using liquid nitrogen: an experimental study on rat femurs.
J Appl Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryosurgery on the femoral diaphysis of rats.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of surfactant depletion on regional pulmonary metabolic activity during mechanical ventilation.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation during mechanical ventilation is thought to depend on regional mechanical stress. This can be produced by concentration of stresses and cyclic recruitment in low-aeration dependent lung. Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) allows for noninvasive assessment of regional metabolic activity, an index of neutrophilic inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that, during mechanical ventilation, surfactant-depleted low-aeration lung regions present increased regional (18)F-FDG uptake suggestive of in vivo increased regional metabolic activity and inflammation. Sheep underwent unilateral saline lung lavage and were ventilated supine for 4 h (positive end-expiratory pressure = 10 cmH(2)O, tidal volume adjusted to plateau pressure = 30 cmH(2)O). We used PET scans of injected (13)N-nitrogen to compute regional perfusion and ventilation and injected (18)F-FDG to calculate (18)F-FDG uptake rate. Regional aeration was quantified with transmission scans. Whole lung (18)F-FDG uptake was approximately two times higher in lavaged than in nonlavaged lungs (2.9 ± 0.6 vs. 1.5 ± 0.3 10(-3)/min; P < 0.05). The increased (18)F-FDG uptake was topographically heterogeneous and highest in dependent low-aeration regions (gas fraction 10-50%, P < 0.001), even after correction for lung density and wet-to-dry lung ratios. (18)F-FDG uptake in low-aeration regions of lavaged lungs was higher than that in low-aeration regions of nonlavaged lungs (P < 0.05). This occurred despite lower perfusion and ventilation to dependent regions in lavaged than nonlavaged lungs (P < 0.001). In contrast, (18)F-FDG uptake in normally aerated regions was low and similar between lungs. Surfactant depletion produces increased and heterogeneously distributed pulmonary (18)F-FDG uptake after 4 h of supine mechanical ventilation. Metabolic activity is highest in poorly aerated dependent regions, suggesting local increased inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitation of drugs via molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: benzodiazepines in human plasma.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association of solid phase extraction with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is applied to the direct extraction and quantitation of benzodiazepines in human plasma. The target analytes are sequestered by MIP and directly analyzed by ESI-MS. Due to the MIP highly selective extraction, ionic suppression during ESI is minimized; hence no separation is necessary prior to ESI-MS, which greatly increases analytical speed. Benzodiazepines (medazepam, nitrazepam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam and midazolam) in human plasma were chosen as a proof-of-principle case of drug analyses by MIP-ESI-MS in a complex matrix. MIP-ESI-MS displayed good figures of merits for medazepam, nitrazepam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and midazolam, with analytical calibration curves ranging from 10 to 250 ?g L(-1) (r > 0.98) with limit of quantification <10 ?g L(-1) and acceptable within-day and between-day precision and accuracy.
Related JoVE Video
simple hit counter

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.