Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disease associated with ineffective production of antibodies. It is usually diagnosed in adulthood, but a variable proportion of children develop CVID. Early identification of patients with potentially worse prognosis may help to avoid serious complications. The goal of this study was to associate the clinical phenotype of patients with early onset CVID with peripheral B-cell maturation profile. Four color flow cytometry was used to define distribution of peripheral B-cell subsets in 49 children with early-onset CVID. All clinical data were extracted from medical records. A proportion of patients demonstrated diminishing with time total B-lymphocytes pool, beyond physiological age-related changes. Irrespective from duration of the follow-up period the B-cell maturation profile in individual patients remained unchanged. We identified six different aberrant peripheral B cell maturation profiles associated with different clinical characteristics. Patients with an early B-cell maturation block earlier required replacement therapy and were at significantly greater risk of enteropathy, granuloma formation, cytopenia, and lymphoproliferation. B-cell maturation inhibited at the natural effector stage was associated with higher risk of autoimmune manifestations other than autoimmune cytopenia. Prevalence of male patients was observed among patients with B-cell maturation inhibited at naïve B-cell stage. In conclusion, the diagnostic process in patients with suspected early-onset CVID shall include routine analysis of peripheral B-cell maturation to provide surrogate markers identifying patients at greater risk of developing certain complications.
The hyper-IgE syndromes are rare, complex primary immunodeficiencies characterized by clinical manifestation diversity, by particular susceptibility to staphylococcal and mycotic infections as well as by a heterogeneous genetic origin. Two distinct entities--the classical hyper-IgE syndrome which is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and the autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome--have been recognized. The autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome is associated with a cluster of facial, dental, skeletal, and connective tissue abnormalities which are not observable in the recessive type. In the majority of affected patients with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome a mutation in the signal transducer and the activator of the transcription 3 gene has been identified, leading to an impaired Th17 cells differentiation and to a downregulation of an antimicrobial response. A mutation in the dedicator of the cytokinesis 8 gene has been identified as the cause of many cases with autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome and, in one patient, a mutation in tyrosine kinase 2 gene has been demonstrated. In this paper, the authors provide a review of the clinical manifestations in the hyper-IgE syndromes with particular emphasis on the diversity of their phenotypic expression and present current diagnostic guidelines for these diseases.
The hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections of the lung and skin, elevated serum IgE, and involvement of the soft and bony tissues. Recently, HIES has been associated with heterozygous dominant-negative mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and severe reductions of T(H)17 cells.
Ataxia-telangiectasia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the ATM gene. Hallmarks of the disease comprise progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasiae, cancer susceptibility, and variable humoral and cellular immunodeficiency. We report a patient who, because of the pattern of her immunodeficiency, was primarily diagnosed as an autosomal recessive hyper-IgM syndrome. Only a mild cerebellar ataxia was present at the age of 7 years then she developed a Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma). Conventional radiotherapy for the malignancy led to fatal consequences. Postmortem studies confirmed diagnosis of ataxia-telangiectasia.
Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency (PID) characterized by recurrent skin abscesses (S. aureus), recurrent pneumonia with pneumatocele formation, atopic dermatitis and elevated levels of serum IgE (>2000 IU/ml). HIES is a sporadic disease, however, two distinct entities - classic HIES inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern (AD HIES), and an autosomal recessive HIES (AR HIES) have been described. Some cases of AD HIES with predominant pulmonary manifestation are caused by mutation in STAT3 gene. It is important to differentiate cases of atopic dermatitis and AD HIES where it is necessary to implement antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis. Opportunity of performing genetic analysis in suspicion of AD HIES leads to definitive diagnosis of the disease and earlier institution of appropriate treatment. We present the case of a 22-year-old patient with typical course of autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome, confirmed in the Royal Free Hospital, University College London, UK, by finding mutation in STAT3 gene.
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect of phagocyte NADPH-oxidase and characterized by severe, recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with CGD. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy with CGD, who developed IA despite antifungal prophylaxis. His treatment consisted of a 10-month-long multi-drug antifungal therapy, together with surgery, but these did not cause any substantial clinical improvement. BMT in high-risk patients with CGD remains a challenge due to both, higher risk of graft rejection and inflammatory flare in the course of immune recovery. Our patient rejected the first matched unrelated donor (MUD) allograft after RIC regimen recommended by the EBMT Inborn Errors Working Party for high-risk patients. After treosulfan-based conditioning and second MUD peripheral blood stem cell transplantation both, full reconstitution of the granulocytic series and complete recovery from IA, were achieved.
Antibody deficiency may have genetic basis or be secondary to other diseases or iatrogenic factors. Recurrent respiratory, gastrointestinal and skin infections consist on the most frequent clinical picture. Severe course of these infections, recurrences and difficulties in treatment may suggest immunodeficiency. Antibody deficiency may be associated with numerous complications. Intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin substitution is the way of treating these patients. Prevention of infection in primary and secondary antibody deficiency also includes vaccinations, prophylaxis with antibiotics and education of patients, parents and caregivers.
Childhood herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) may result from single-gene inborn errors of TLR3 immunity. TLR3-dependent induction of IFN-?/? or IFN-? is crucial for protective immunity against primary HSV-1 infection in the central nervous system (CNS). We describe here two unrelated children with HSE carrying different heterozygous mutations (D50A and G159A) in TBK1, the gene encoding TANK-binding kinase 1, a kinase at the crossroads of multiple IFN-inducing signaling pathways. Both mutant TBK1 alleles are loss-of-function but through different mechanisms: protein instability (D50A) or a loss of kinase activity (G159A). Both are also associated with an autosomal-dominant (AD) trait but by different mechanisms: haplotype insufficiency (D50A) or negative dominance (G159A). A defect in polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced TLR3 responses can be detected in fibroblasts heterozygous for G159A but not for D50A TBK1. Nevertheless, viral replication and cell death rates caused by two TLR3-dependent viruses (HSV-1 and vesicular stomatitis virus) were high in fibroblasts from both patients, and particularly so in G159A TBK1 fibroblasts. These phenotypes were rescued equally well by IFN-?2b. Moreover, the IFN responses to the TLR3-independent agonists and viruses tested were maintained in both patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells and fibroblasts. The narrow, partial cellular phenotype thus accounts for the clinical phenotype of these patients being limited to HSE. These data identify AD partial TBK1 deficiency as a new genetic etiology of childhood HSE, indicating that TBK1 is essential for the TLR3- and IFN-dependent control of HSV-1 in the CNS.
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