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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Biomarkers for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%.The lack of established strategies for early detection contributes to this poor prognosis. Although several novel candidate biomarkers have been proposed for earlier diagnosis, none have been adopted into routine clinical use. In this review, the authors examine the challenges associated with finding new pancreatic cancer diagnostic biomarkers and explore why translation of biomarker research for patient benefit has thus far failed. The authors also review recent progress and highlight advances in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer that may lead to improvements in biomarker detection and implementation.
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Serum CA19-9 is significantly up-regulated up to 2 years prior to diagnosis with pancreatic cancer: implications for early disease detection.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Purpose: Biomarkers for the early detection of pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether increased levels of serum CA19-9, CA125, CEACAM1 and REG3A are present prior to clinical presentation of pancreatic cancer and to assess the performance of combined markers for early detection and prognosis. Experimental Design: This nested case control study within UKCTOCS included 118 single- and 143 serial-serum samples from 154 post-menopausal women who were subsequently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and 304 matched non-cancer controls. Samples were split randomly into independent training and test sets. CA19-9, CA125, CEACAM1 and REG3A were measured using ELISA and/or CLIA. Performance of markers to detect cancers at different times prior to diagnosis and for prognosis was evaluated. Results: At 95% specificity, CA19-9 (>37 U/mL) had a sensitivity of 68% up to 1 year, and 53% up to 2 yrs before diagnosis. Combining CA19-9 and CA125 improved sensitivity as CA125 was elevated (>30 U/mL) in ~20% of CA19-9-negative cases. CEACAM1 and REG3A were late markers adding little in combined models. Average lead times of 20-23 months were estimated for test-positive cases. Pre-diagnostic levels of CA19-9 and CA125 were associated with poor overall survival (HR 2.69 and 3.15, respectively). Conclusions: CA19-9 and CA125 have encouraging sensitivity for detecting pre-clinical pancreatic cancer and both markers can be used as prognostic tools. This work challenges the prevailing view that CA19-9 is up-regulated late in the course of pancreatic cancer development.
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Serum cytokine biomarker panels for discriminating pancreatic cancer from benign pancreatic disease.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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We investigated whether combinations of serum cytokines, used with logistic disease predictor models, could facilitate the detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer.
Brian M Wolpin, Cosmeri Rizzato, Peter Kraft, Charles Kooperberg, Gloria M Petersen, Zhaoming Wang, Alan A Arslan, Laura Beane-Freeman, Paige M Bracci, Julie Buring, Federico Canzian, Eric J Duell, Steven Gallinger, Graham G Giles, Gary E Goodman, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric J Jacobs, Aruna Kamineni, Alison P Klein, Laurence N Kolonel, Matthew H Kulke, Donghui Li, Nuria Malats, Sara H Olson, Harvey A Risch, Howard D Sesso, Kala Visvanathan, Emily White, Wei Zheng, Christian C Abnet, Demetrius Albanes, Gabriella Andreotti, Melissa A Austin, Richard Barfield, Daniela Basso, Sonja I Berndt, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Michelle Brotzman, Markus W Büchler, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Peter Bugert, Laurie Burdette, Daniele Campa, Neil E Caporaso, Gabriele Capurso, Charles Chung, Michelle Cotterchio, Eithne Costello, Joanne Elena, Niccola Funel, J Michael Gaziano, Nathalia A Giese, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Megan J Gorman, Myron Gross, Christopher A Haiman, Manal Hassan, Kathy J Helzlsouer, Brian E Henderson, Elizabeth A Holly, Nan Hu, David J Hunter, Federico Innocenti, Mazda Jenab, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Eric A Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Vittorio Krogh, Juozas Kupcinskas, Robert C Kurtz, Andrea LaCroix, Maria T Landi, Stefano Landi, Loic Le Marchand, Andrea Mambrini, Satu Mannisto, Roger L Milne, Yusuke Nakamura, Ann L Oberg, Kouros Owzar, Alpa V Patel, Petra H M Peeters, Ulrike Peters, Raffaele Pezzilli, Ada Piepoli, Miquel Porta, Francisco X Real, Elio Riboli, Nathaniel Rothman, Aldo Scarpa, Xiao-Ou Shu, Debra T Silverman, Pavel Soucek, Malin Sund, Renata Talar-Wojnarowska, Philip R Taylor, George E Theodoropoulos, Mark Thornquist, Anne Tjønneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Pavel Vodicka, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Nicolas Wentzensen, Chen Wu, Herbert Yu, Kai Yu, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Robert Hoover, Patricia Hartge, Charles Fuchs, Stephen J Chanock, Rachael S Stolzenberg-Solomon, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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We performed a multistage genome-wide association study including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.84, P = 3.0 × 10(-12)), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.30-1.65, P = 1.1 × 10(-10)), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1, OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20, P = 2.4 × 10(-9)) and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3, OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.12-1.25, P = 1.2 × 10(-8)). We identified an independent signal in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098, OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.85, P = 9.8 × 10(-14)). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer that are worthy of follow-up studies.
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cAMP inhibits migration, ruffling and paxillin accumulation in focal adhesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells: Effects of PKA and EPAC.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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We demonstrated that increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations result in the inhibition of migration of PANC-1 and other pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell types. The rise of cAMP was accompanied by rapid and reversible cessation of ruffling, by inhibition of focal adhesion turnover and by prominent loss of paxillin from focal adhesions. All these phenomena develop rapidly suggesting that cAMP effectors have a direct influence on the cellular migratory apparatus. The role of two primary cAMP effectors, exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) and protein kinase A (PKA), in cAMP-mediated inhibition of PDAC cell migration and migration-associated processes was investigated. Experiments with selective activators of EPAC and PKA demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of cAMP on migration, ruffling, focal adhesion dynamics and paxillin localisation is mediated by PKA, whilst EPAC potentiates migration.
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Somatic mutations in exocrine pancreatic tumors: association with patient survival.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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KRAS mutations are major factors involved in initiation and maintenance of pancreatic tumors. The impact of different mutations on patient survival has not been clearly defined. We screened tumors from 171 pancreatic cancer patients for mutations in KRAS and CDKN2A genes. Mutations in KRAS were detected in 134 tumors, with 131 in codon 12 and only 3 in codon 61. The GGT>GAT (G12D) was the most frequent mutation and was present in 60% (80/134). Deletions and mutations in CDKN2A were detected in 43 tumors. Analysis showed that KRAS mutations were associated with reduced patient survival in both malignant exocrine and ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). Patients with PDACs that had KRAS mutations showed a median survival of 17 months compared to 30 months for those without mutations (log-rank P?=?0.07) with a multivariate hazard ratio (HR) of 2.19 (95%CI 1.09-4.42). The patients with G12D mutation showed a median survival of 16 months (log-rank-test P?=?0.03) and an associated multivariate HR 2.42 (95%CI 1.14-2.67). Although, the association of survival in PDAC patients with CDKN2A aberrations in tumors was not statistically significant, the sub-group of patients with concomitant KRAS mutations and CDKN2A alterations in tumors were associated with a median survival of 13.5 months compared to 22 months without mutation (log-rank-test P?=?0.02) and a corresponding HR of 3.07 (95%CI 1.33-7.10). Our results are indicative of an association between mutational status and survival in PDAC patients, which if confirmed in subsequent studies can have potential clinical application.
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The unfolded protein response regulator GRP78 is a novel predictive biomarker in colorectal cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based (5-FU) chemotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC), but only provides benefit for a subset of patients. To improve stratification we examined (for the first time in CRC), whether analysis of GRP78 expression provides a predictive biomarker and performed functional studies to examine the role of GRP78 in sensitivity to 5-FU. 396 CRC patient samples were collected in a prospective uniform manner and GRP78 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays using a well-validated antibody. Expression was correlated with clinicopathological parameters and survival. The role of GRP78 in 5-FU sensitivity was examined in CRC cells using siRNA, drug inhibition and flow cytometry. GRP78 expression was significantly elevated in cancer tissue (p < 0.0001), and correlated with depth of invasion (p = 0.029) and stage (p = 0.032). Increased overall 5-year survival was associated with high GRP78 expression (p = 0.036). Patients with stage II cancers treated by surgery alone, with high GRP78 also had improved survival (71% v 50%; p = 0.032). Stage III patients with high GRP78 showed significant benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (52% vs. 28%; p = 0.026), whereas patients with low GRP78 failed to benefit (28% vs. 32%; p = 0.805). Low GRP78 was an independent prognostic indicator of reduced overall 5-year survival (p = 0.004; HR = 1.551; 95%CI 1.155-2.082). In vitro, inhibition of GRP78 reduces apoptosis in response to 5-FU in p53 wild-type cells. GRP78 expression may provide a simple additional risk stratification to inform the adjuvant treatment of CRC and future studies should combine analysis with determination of p53 status.
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Circulating microRNAs as potential markers of human drug-induced liver injury.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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New biomarkers of liver injury are required in the clinic and in preclinical pharmaceutical evaluation. Previous studies demonstrate that two liver-enriched microRNAs (miR-122 and miR-192) are promising biomarkers of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury (APAP-ALI) in mice. We have examined these molecules, for the first time, in humans with APAP poisoning. Serum miR-122 and miR-192 were substantially higher in APAP-ALI patients, compared to healthy controls (median ??Ct [25th, 75th percentile]) (miR-122: 1,265 [491, 4,270] versus 12.1 [7.0, 26.9], P < 0.0001; miR-192: 6.9 [2.0, 29.2] versus 0.44 [0.30, 0.69], P < 0.0001). A heart-enriched miR-1 showed no difference between APAP-ALI patients and controls, whereas miR-218 (brain-enriched) was slightly higher in the APAP-ALI cohort (0.17 [0.07, 0.50] versus 0.07 [0.04, 0.12]; P = 0.01). In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, miR-122 and -192 were modestly higher, compared to controls (miR-122: 32.0 [21.1, 40.9] versus 12.1 [7.0, 26.9], P = 0.006; miR-192: 1.2 [0.74, 1.9] versus 0.44 [0.30, 0.69], P = 0.005), but miR-122 and -192 were substantially higher in APAP-ALI patients than CKD patients (miR-122: P < 0.0001; miR-192: P < 0.0004). miR-122 correlated with peak ALT levels in the APAP-ALI cohort (Pearson R = 0.46, P = 0.0005), but not with prothrombin time. miR-122 was also raised alongside peak ALT levels in a group of patients with non-APAP ALI. Day 1 serum miR-122 levels were almost 2-fold higher in APAP-ALI patients who satisfied Kings College Criteria (KCC), compared to those who did not satisfy KCC, although this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.15).
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Pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci and their role in survival.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Pancreatic cancer has one of the worst mortality rates of all cancers. Little is known about its etiology, particularly regarding inherited risk. The PanScan project, a genome-wide association study, identified several common polymorphisms affecting pancreatic cancer susceptibility. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABO, sonic hedgehog (SHH), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 (NR5A2) were found to be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Moreover the scan identified loci on chromosomes 13q22.1 and 15q14, to which no known genes or other functional elements are mapped. We sought to replicate these observations in two additional, independent populations (from Germany and the UK), and also evaluate the possible impact of these SNPs on patient survival. We genotyped 15 SNPs in 690 cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and in 1277 healthy controls. We replicated several associations between SNPs and PDAC risk. Furthermore we found that SNP rs8028529 was weakly associated with a better overall survival (OS) in both populations. We have also found that NR5A2 rs12029406_T allele was associated with a shorter survival in the German population. In conclusion, we found that rs8028529 could be, if these results are replicated, a promising marker for both risk and prognosis for this lethal disease.
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Tetracycline-inducible protein expression in pancreatic cancer cells: effects of CapG overexpression.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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To establish stable tetracycline-inducible pancreatic cancer cell lines.
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Nrf2 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer: implications for cell proliferation and therapy.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Nrf2 is a key transcriptional regulator of a battery of genes that facilitate phase II/III drug metabolism and defence against oxidative stress. Nrf2 is largely regulated by Keap1, which directs Nrf2 for proteasomal degradation. The Nrf2/Keap1 system is dysregulated in lung, head and neck, and breast cancers and this affects cellular proliferation and response to therapy. Here, we have investigated the integrity of the Nrf2/Keap1 system in pancreatic cancer.
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Pancreatic cancer in 2010: new insights for early intervention and detection.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Pancreatic cancer is usually detected at an advanced stage and responds poorly to treatment. In 2010 new insights were gained into understanding the complex biology of pancreatic cancer. Importantly, these insights offer novel opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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Low molecular weight heat shock protein HSP27 is a prognostic indicator in rectal cancer but not colon cancer.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2010
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There are currently no biomarkers in routine clinical use for determining prognosis in rectal cancer. In a preliminary proteomic study, variation in the levels of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in colorectal cancer samples was observed. The expression of HSP27 in a cohort of 404 patients with colorectal cancer with a predominantly poor prognosis was characterised and an investigation was undertaken of whether the differences were related to clinical outcome. HSP27 levels in diagnostic rectal biopsies were compared with matched surgical samples to determine whether changes in expression occurred in the time between biopsy and surgery and to investigate whether preoperative radiotherapy affected expression. Finally, the relationship between HSP27 expression and outcome was examined in an independent cohort of 315 patients with a predominantly good prognosis.
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Analysis of serum proteins by LC-MS/MS.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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Serum contains a vast array of proteins, some of which are specific to blood whilst others are secreted into blood from tissues and organs. The so-called tissue leakage factors reveal information about the tissue from which they originate and are therefore of great potential importance as disease biomarkers. There are already a number of blood-borne biomarkers in routine clinical use that aid in the diagnosis or management of cancer. However, there is a pressing need for additional markers, and new methods to find them are under development. Here we provide a protocol for serum protein profiling using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Included in this procedure, we detail the pre-processing steps of lipid and high-abundance protein removal. These procedures can also be employed up-stream of quantification methods such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Chapter 12 is devoted to the iTRAQ approach for quantifying proteins, and it is therefore not described in this chapter.
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Smad4 loss is associated with fewer S100A8-positive monocytes in colorectal tumors and attenuated response to S100A8 in colorectal and pancreatic cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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S100A8 and its dimerization partner S100A9 are emerging as important chemokines in cancer. We previously reported that Smad4-negative pancreatic tumors contain fewer stromal S100A8-positive monocytes than their Smad4-positive counterparts. Here, we studied S100A8/A9-expressing cells in colorectal tumors relating their presence to clinicopathological parameters and Smad4 status. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (n = 12) revealed variation in the levels of S100A8 protein in colorectal cancer tumors, whereas immunohistochemical analysis (n = 313) showed variation in the numbers of stromal S100A8-positive and S100A9-positive cells. Loss of Smad4 expression was observed in 42/304 (14%) colorectal tumors and was associated with reduced numbers of S100A8-positive (P = 0.03) but not S100A9-positive stromal cells (P = 0.26). High S100A9 cell counts were associated with large tumor sizes (P = 0.0006) and poor differentiation grade (P = 0.036). However, neither S100A8 nor S100A9 cell counts predicted poor survival, except for patients with Smad4-negative tumors (P = 0.02). To address the impact of environmental S100A8/A9 chemokines on tumor cells, we examined the effects of exogenously added S100A8 and S100A9 proteins on cellular migration and proliferation of colorectal and pancreatic cancer cells. S100A8 and S100A9 enhanced migration and proliferation in Smad4-positive and Smad4-negative cancer cells. However, transient depletion of Smad4 resulted in loss of responsiveness to exogenous S100A8, but not S100A9. S100A8 and S100A9 activated Smad4 signaling as evidenced by phosphorylation of Smad2/3; blockade of the receptor for the advanced glycation end products inhibited this response. In conclusion, Smad4 loss alters the tumors interaction with stromal myeloid cells and the tumor cells response to the stromal chemokine, S100A8.
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Dual-color proteomic profiling of complex samples with a microarray of 810 cancer-related antibodies.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Antibody microarrays have the potential to enable comprehensive proteomic analysis of small amounts of sample material. Here, protocols are presented for the production, quality assessment, and reproducible application of antibody microarrays in a two-color mode with an array of 1,800 features, representing 810 antibodies that were directed at 741 cancer-related proteins. In addition to measures of array quality, we implemented indicators for the accuracy and significance of dual-color detection. Dual-color measurements outperform a single-color approach concerning assay reproducibility and discriminative power. In the analysis of serum samples, depletion of high-abundance proteins did not improve technical assay quality. On the contrary, depletion introduced a strong bias in protein representation. In an initial study, we demonstrated the applicability of the protocols to proteins derived from urine samples. We identified differences between urine samples from pancreatic cancer patients and healthy subjects and between sexes. This study demonstrates that biomedically relevant data can be produced. As demonstrated by the thorough quality analysis, the dual-color antibody array approach proved to be competitive with other proteomic techniques and comparable in performance to transcriptional microarray analyses.
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Pancreatic cancer: proteomic approaches to a challenging disease.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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To describe progress in the application of proteomic approaches to advance our understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer as well as contribute potential protein biomarkers for this disease.
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A technically detailed and pragmatic protocol for quantitative serum proteomics using iTRAQ.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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Blood is recognised as a highly important source of disease-related biomarkers, and proteomic approaches for identifying novel blood-borne biomarkers are in demand. The complexity and dynamic protein concentration range of plasma/serum however complicates the analysis process. A number of strategies for simplification of blood prior to proteomic analysis have been developed. In addition, methods for quantifying the levels of proteins in samples, such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) are emerging. However, the successful application of these procedures is not always straightforward and technical hurdles must be overcome. Here we provide a technically detailed working protocol for iTRAQ-based quantification of serum proteins following immunodepletion of high abundance proteins. To improve the number of proteins identified and quantified we have introduced several modifications to the standard iTRAQ protocol. We report identifications of 217 proteins (5773 peptides) with a false discovery rate of 1% or 254 proteins with 95% confidence, respectively. Relative quantification data were obtained for 234 (95% confidence) serum proteins, including species present in the concentration range of tissue leakage factors. The samples described here relate to pancreatic cancer; however the protocol can be applied to serum from other control or disease types.
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Confounding effect of obstructive jaundice in the interpretation of proteomic plasma profiling data for pancreatic cancer.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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It is well established that variation in sampling, processing and storage protocols can alter the levels of potential biomarkers in serum and plasma. Here, using pancreatic cancer as an example, we demonstrate that consideration of clinical parameters related to the patients illness is equally important when seeking cancer-specific biomarkers. Bile duct-obstruction is a feature of pancreatic disease that can cause jaundice. Comparing patients with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis or biliary duct obstruction, we observed that the plasma levels of apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin, and apolipoprotein E, when examined in isolation, were each associated with pancreatic cancer. However, when the effect of bile duct obstruction was considered, only transthyretin levels were independently associated with cancer likelihood. Our results demonstrate the importance of accounting for disease-related confounding factors when analyzing data for the detection of cancer biomarkers.
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Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and its functional characterisation: the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium.
Dig Liver Dis
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Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the European Union and in the USA, but little is known about its genetic susceptibility. The PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium was established to unite the efforts of different research groups; its aim is to create a large bio-database to uncover new genetic factors for pancreatic cancer risk, response to treatment, and patient survival. So far 2220 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a smaller number of cases of endocrine pancreatic tumours (n=86), chronic pancreatitis (n=272) and 3847 healthy controls have been collected. As a collective effort of the consortium, SNPs associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk from a genome-wide association study performed in Caucasians were replicated. The possibility that the same genetic polymorphisms may influence patient survival as well was also addressed. This collective effort is particularly important for pancreatic cancer because it is a relatively rare disease for which little is known about aetiopathogenesis and risk factors. The recruitment of additional collaborators and partner institutions is continuously on-going.
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The role of inflammatory cells in fostering pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion.
Front Physiol
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The pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) microenvironment accommodates a variety of cell types and a plethora of complex interactions between tumor cells, host cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Here we review the role of inflammatory cells, in particular mast cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, macrophages, T regulatory cells, T helper cells and neutrophils. The picture that emerges is that of a tumor microenvironment, in which the immune response is actively suppressed, and inflammatory cells contribute in a variety of ways to tumor progression.
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New biomarkers and targets in pancreatic cancer and their application to treatment.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
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Late diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (pancreatic cancer) and the limited response to current treatments results in an exceptionally poor prognosis. Advances in our understanding of the molecular events underpinning pancreatic cancer development and metastasis offer the hope of tangible benefits for patients. In-depth mutational analyses have shed light on the genetic abnormalities in pancreatic cancer, providing potential treatment targets. New biological studies in patients and in mouse models have advanced our knowledge of the timing of metastasis of pancreatic cancer, highlighting new directions for the way in which patients are treated. Furthermore, our increasing understanding of the molecular events in tumorigenesis is leading to the identification of biomarkers that enable us to predict response to treatment. A major drawback, however, is the general lack of an adequate systematic approach to advancing the use of biomarkers in cancer drug development, highlighted in a Cancer Biomarkers Collaborative consensus report. In this Review, we summarize the latest insights into the biology of pancreatic cancer, and their repercussions for treatment. We provide an overview of current treatments and, finally, we discuss novel therapeutic approaches, including the role of biomarkers in therapy for pancreatic cancer.
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Nanotechnology advances in upper gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic cancer.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
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Cancers of the upper GI tract, liver and pancreas have some of the poorest prognoses of any malignancies. Advances in diagnosis and treatment are sorely needed to improve the outcomes of patients. Nanotechnology offers the potential for constructing tailor-made therapies capable of targeting specific cancers. The particles themselves may be endowed with multifunctional properties that can be exploited for both diagnosis and treatment. Although development of therapies is still in the early stages, the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is widespread in diagnostic applications and will probably involve all areas of medicine in the future. Research into NPs is ongoing for upper gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic cancers, and their use is becoming increasingly popular as contrast media for radiological investigations. Although more sophisticated technologies capable of active targeting are still in the early stages of assessment for clinical use, a small number of NP-based therapies are in clinical use.
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Diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis by measurement of microRNA abundance in blood and tissue.
PLoS ONE
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A solid process for diagnosis could have a substantial impact on the successful treatment of pancreatic cancer, for which currently mortality is nearly identical to incidence. Variations in the abundance of all microRNA molecules from peripheral blood cells and pancreas tissues were analyzed on microarrays and in part validated by real-time PCR assays. In total, 245 samples from two clinical centers were studied that were obtained from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma or chronic pancreatitis and from healthy donors. Utilizing the minimally invasive blood test, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the corresponding area under the curve (AUC) analysis demonstrated very high sensitivity and specificity of a distinction between healthy people and patients with either cancer or chronic pancreatitis; respective AUC values of 0.973 and 0.950 were obtained. Confirmative and partly even more discriminative diagnosis could be performed on tissue samples with AUC values of 1.0 and 0.937, respectively. In addition, discrimination between cancer and chronic pancreatitis was achieved (AUC = 0.875). Also, several miRNAs were identified that exhibited abundance variations in both tissue and blood samples. The results could have an immediate diagnostic value for the evaluation of tumor reoccurrence in patients, who have undergone curative surgical resection, and for people with a familial risk of pancreatic cancer.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.