Stroke in the developing brain is an important cause of neurological morbidity. We determined the impact of human cord blood-derived CD34(+)-enriched mononuclear cells (CBSC) intraperitoneally injected 48?h after an ischemic stroke at postnatal day 12 by evaluating poststroke neurogenic niche proliferation, glial response, and recovery in CD1 mice. Percent brain atrophy was quantified from Nissl-stained sections. Density of BrdU, Iba-1, and GFAP staining were quantified in the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Immunohistochemistry for human nuclear antibody, human mitochondrial antibody, and human CD34(+) cells was done on injured and uninjured brains from CBSC- and vehicle-treated mice. Developmental neurobehavioral milestones were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. No significant differences in stroke severity were noted between CBSC and vehicle-treated injured animals. With a 1×10(5) CBSC dose, there was a significant increase in subgranular zone (SGZ) proliferation in the CBSC-versus vehicle-treated stroke-injured male mice. SVZ glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was increased contralaterally in injured females treated with CBSC but suppressed in injured males. Significant negative correlations between severity of the stroke-injury and spleen weights, and between spleen weights and SGZ proliferation, and a positive correlation between GFAP expression and severity of brain injury were noted in the vehicle-treated injured mice but not in the CBSC-treated mice. GFAP expression and SVZ proliferation were positively correlated. In conclusion, neurogenic niche proliferation and glial brain responses to CBSC after neonatal stroke may involve interactions with the spleen and are sex dependent.
Whole-body bioimaging was used to study dissemination of vaccinia virus (VACV) in normal and in immune deficient (nu(-)/nu(-)) mice protected from lethality by postchallenge administration of ST-246. Total fluxes were recorded in the liver, spleen, lungs, and nasal cavities of live mice after intranasal infection with a recombinant IHD-J-Luc VACV expressing luciferase. Areas under the flux curve were calculated for individual mice to assess viral loads. Treatment for 2 to 5 days of normal BALB/c mice with ST-246 at 100 mg/kg starting 24 h postchallenge conferred 100% protection and reduced viral loads in four organs compared to control mice. Mice also survived after 5 days of treatment with ST-246 at 30 mg/kg, and yet the viral loads and poxes were higher in these mice compared to 100-mg/kg treatment group. Nude mice were not protected by ST-246 alone or by 10 million adoptively transferred T cells. In contrast, nude mice that received T cells and 7-day treatment with ST-246 survived infection and exhibited reduced viral loads compared to nonreconstituted and ST-246-treated mice after ST-246 was stopped. Similar protection of nude mice was achieved using adoptively transferred 1.0 and 0.1 million, but not 0.01 million, purified T cells or CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in conjunction with ST-246 treatment. These data suggest that ST-246 protects immunocompetent mice from lethality and reduces viral dissemination in internal organs and poxvirus lesions. Furthermore, immune-deficient animals with partial T cell reconstitution can control virus replication after a course of ST-246 and survive lethal vaccinia virus challenge.
Whole-body bioimaging was employed to study the effects of passive immunotherapies on lethality and viral dissemination in BALB/c mice challenged with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing luciferase. WRvFire and IHD-J-Luc vaccinia viruses induced lethality with similar times to death following intranasal infection, but WRvFire replicated at higher levels than IHD-J-Luc in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Three types of therapies were tested: licensed human anti-vaccinia virus immunoglobulin intravenous (VIGIV); recombinant anti-vaccinia virus immunoglobulin (rVIG; Symphogen, Denmark), an investigational product containing a mixture of 26 human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) against mature virion (MV) and enveloped virion (EV); and HuMAb compositions targeting subsets of MV or EV proteins. Bioluminescence recorded daily showed that pretreatment with VIGIV (30 mg) or with rVIG (100 ?g) on day -2 protected mice from death but did not prevent viral replication at the site of inoculation and dissemination to internal organs. Compositions containing HuMAbs against MV or EV proteins were protective in both infection models at 100 ?g per animal, but at 30 ?g, only anti-EV antibodies conferred protection. Importantly, the t statistic of the mean total fluxes revealed that viral loads in surviving mice were significantly reduced in at least 3 sites for 3 consecutive days (days 3 to 5) postchallenge, while significant reduction for 1 or 2 days in any individual site did not confer protection. Our data suggest that reduction of viral replication at multiple sites, including respiratory tract, spleen, and liver, as monitored by whole-body bioluminescence can be used to predict the effectiveness of passive immunotherapies in mouse models.
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