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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Deficiency of the NR4A orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 in hematopoietic stem cells accelerates atherosclerosis.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The NR4A orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 functions as a constitutively active transcription factor regulating cellular inflammation and proliferation. In this study, we used bone marrow transplantation to determine the selective contribution of NOR1 expression in hematopoietic stem cells to the development of atherosclerosis. Reconstitution of lethally irradiated apoE(-/-) mice with NOR1-deficient hematopoietic stem cells accelerated atherosclerosis formation and macrophage recruitment following feeding a diet enriched in saturated fat. NOR1 deficiency in hematopoietic stem cells induced splenomegaly and monocytosis, specifically the abundance of inflammatory Ly6C(+) monocytes. Bone marrow transplantation studies further confirmed that NOR1 suppresses the proliferation of macrophage and dendritic progenitor (MDP) cells. Expression analysis identified RUNX1, a critical regulator of hematopoietic stem cell expansion, as a target gene suppressed by NOR1 in MDP cells. Finally, in addition to inducing Ly6C(+) monocytosis, NOR1 deletion increased the replicative rate of lesional macrophages and induced local foam cell formation within the atherosclerotic plaque. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that NOR1 deletion in hematopoietic stem cells accelerates atherosclerosis formation by promoting myelopoiesis in the stem cell compartment and by inducing local proatherogenic activities in the macrophage, including lesional macrophage proliferation and foam cell formation.
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Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? by angiotensin II via transforming growth factor-?1-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in aortic smooth muscle cells.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) ligands attenuate angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced atherosclerosis through interactions with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-specific PPAR? in hypercholesterolemic mice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of Ang II-mediated intracellular regulation of PPAR? in VSMCs.
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Glutathione depletion prevents diet-induced obesity and enhances insulin sensitivity.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, emerging evidence suggests a physiologic role of ROS in cellular signaling and insulin sensitivity. In this study, we demonstrate that pharmacologic depletion of the antioxidant glutathione in mice prevents diet-induced obesity, increases energy expenditure and locomotor activity, and enhances insulin sensitivity. These observations support a beneficial role of ROS in glucose homeostasis and warrant further research to define the regulation of metabolism and energy balance by ROS.
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Transcriptional regulation of S phase kinase-associated protein 2 by NR4A orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 in vascular smooth muscle cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Members of the NR4A subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily have emerged as key transcriptional regulators of proliferation and inflammation. NOR1 constitutes a ligand-independent transcription factor of this subgroup and induces cell proliferation; however, the transcriptional mechanisms underlying this mitogenic role remain to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that the F-box protein SKP2 (S phase kinase-associated protein 2), the substrate-specific receptor of the ubiquitin ligase responsible for the degradation of p27(KIP1) through the proteasome pathway, constitutes a direct transcriptional target for NOR1. Mitogen-induced Skp2 expression is silenced in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) isolated from Nor1-deficient mice or transfected with Nor1 siRNA. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of NOR1 induces Skp2 expression in VSMC and decreases protein abundance of its target p27. Transient transfection experiments establish that NOR1 transactivates the Skp2 promoter through a nerve growth factor-induced clone B response element (NBRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed that NOR1 is recruited to this NBRE site in the Skp2 promoter in response to mitogenic stimulation. In vivo Skp2 expression is increased during the proliferative response underlying neointima formation, and this transcriptional induction depends on the expression of NOR1. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of Skp2 rescues the proliferative arrest of Nor1-deficient VSMC. Collectively, these results characterize Skp2 as a novel NOR1-regulated target gene and detail a previously unrecognized transcriptional cascade regulating mitogen-induced VSMC proliferation.
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Oxidative stress accumulates in adipose tissue during aging and inhibits adipogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Aging constitutes a major independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and is accompanied by insulin resistance and adipose tissue dysfunction. One of the most important factors implicitly linked to aging and age-related chronic diseases is the accumulation of oxidative stress. However, the effect of increased oxidative stress on adipose tissue biology remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that aging in mice results in a loss of fat mass and the accumulation of oxidative stress in adipose tissue. In vitro, increased oxidative stress through glutathione depletion inhibits preadipocyte differentiation. This inhibition of adipogenesis is at least in part the result of reduced cell proliferation and an inhibition of G(1)?S-phase transition during the initial mitotic clonal expansion of the adipocyte differentiation process. While phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) by cyclin/cdk complexes remains unaffected, oxidative stress decreases the expression of S-phase genes downstream of Rb. This silencing of S phase gene expression by increased oxidative stress is mediated through a transcriptional mechanism involving the inhibition of E2F recruitment and transactivation of its target promoters. Collectively, these data demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of oxidative stress in the regulation of adipogenesis which may contribute to age-associated adipose tissue dysfunction.
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Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation by histone deacetylase inhibition.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive.
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Telomerase activation in atherosclerosis and induction of telomerase reverse transcriptase expression by inflammatory stimuli in macrophages.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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Telomerase serves as a critical regulator of tissue renewal. Although telomerase activity is inducible in response to various environmental cues, it remains unknown whether telomerase is activated during the inflammatory remodeling underlying atherosclerosis formation. To address this question, we investigated in the present study the regulation of telomerase in macrophages and during atherosclerosis development in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.
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Telomerase deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells attenuates angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
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Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are an age-related vascular disease and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we sought to determine whether the catalytic component of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), modulates angiotensin (Ang) II-induced AAA formation.
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Deficiency of the NR4A orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 decreases monocyte adhesion and atherosclerosis.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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The orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 is a member of the evolutionary highly conserved and ligand-independent NR4A subfamily of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Members of this subfamily have been characterized as early response genes regulating essential biological processes including inflammation and proliferation; however, the role of NOR1 in atherosclerosis remains unknown.
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Deficiency of the NR4A neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 attenuates neointima formation after vascular injury.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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The neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (NOR1) belongs to the evolutionary highly conserved and most ancient NR4A subfamily of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Members of this subfamily function as early-response genes regulating key cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Although NOR1 has previously been demonstrated to be required for smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro, the role of this nuclear receptor for the proliferative response underlying neointima formation and target genes trans-activated by NOR1 remain to be defined.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.