To develop a method for organic gluten-free (GF) sourdough bread production, a long-term and original wheat sourdough was refreshed with GF flours. The dynamics of the sourdough microbiota during five months of back-slopping were analyzed by classical enumeration and molecular methods, including PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE), multiplex PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed that the yeast counts remained constant, although Saccharomyces cerevisiae, present in the initial wheat sourdough, was no longer detected in the GF sourdough, while lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts increased consistently. In the first phase, which was aimed at obtaining a GF sourdough from wheat sourdough, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, L. plantarum, and L. spicheri were the main LAB species detected. During the second phase, aimed at maintaining the GF sourdough, the L. plantarum and L. spicheri populations decreased whereas L. sanfranciscensis persisted and L. sakei became the predominant species. Multiplex PCRs also revealed the presence of several L. sakei strains in the GF sourdough. In a search for the origin of the LAB species, PCR-TTGE was performed on the flour samples but only L. sanfranciscensis was detected, suggesting a flour origin for this typical sourdough species. Thus, while replacement of the wheat flour by GF flour influenced the sourdough microbiota, some of the original sourdough LAB and yeast species remained in the GF sourdough.
Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a lactic acid bacterium isolated from soft cheese. The objective of this work was to study its potential positive impact when used in cheese technology. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of six strains of C. maltaromaticum showed that they belong to different phylogenetic groups. Although these strains lacked the ability to coagulate milk quickly, they were acidotolerant. They did not affect the coagulation capacity of starter lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus, used in dairy industry. The impact of C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 on bacterial flora of cheese revealed a significant decrease of Psychrobacter sp. concentration, which might be responsible for cheese aging phenomena. An experimental plan was carried out to unravel the mechanism of inhibition of Psychrobacter sp. and Listeria monocytogenes and possible interaction between various factors (cell concentration, NaCl, pH and incubation time). Cellular concentration of C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 was found to be the main factor involved in the inhibition of Psychrobacter sp. and L. monocytogenes.
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