Predictive usefulness of urinary biomarkers for the identification of cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity in a rat model.
The main side effect of cyclosporine A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressive drug, is nephrotoxicity. Early detection of CsA-induced acute nephrotoxicity is essential for stop or minimize kidney injury, and timely detection of chronic nephrotoxicity is critical for halting the drug and preventing irreversible kidney injury. This study aimed to identify urinary biomarkers for the detection of CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. We allocated salt-depleted rats to receive CsA or vehicle for 7, 14 or 21 days and evaluated renal function and hemodynamics, microalbuminuria, renal macrophage infiltration, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and renal tissue and urinary biomarkers for kidney injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibronectin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), TGF-?, osteopontin, and podocin were assessed in urine. TNF-?, IL-6, fibronectin, osteopontin, TGF-?, collagen IV, alpha smooth muscle actin (? -SMA) and vimentin were assessed in renal tissue. CsA caused early functional renal dysfunction and microalbuminuria, followed by macrophage infiltration and late tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Urinary TNF-?, KIM-1 and fibronectin increased in the early phase, and urinary TGF-? and osteopontin increased in the late phase of CsA nephrotoxicity. Urinary biomarkers correlated consistently with renal tissue cytokine expression. In conclusion, early increases in urinary KIM-1, TNF-?, and fibronectin and elevated microalbuminuria indicate acute CsA nephrotoxicity. Late increases in urinary osteopontin and TGF-? indicate chronic CsA nephrotoxicity. These urinary kidney injury biomarkers correlated well with the renal tissue expression of injury markers and with the temporal development of CsA nephrotoxicity.