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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Physicochemical properties of aqueous core hydrogel capsules.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Capsules having a thin alginate hydrogel membrane and an aqueous core can be obtained by a process that involves a co-extrusion step in air followed by a sol-gel transition of the shell after immersion into a gelling bath. The possibility to encapsulate cells that further grow in these biocompatible compartments, and thus offer a versatile tool for cell culture, led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the capsules. A cut-off pore size of the semi-permeable membrane is extrapolated from the release of polymers out of the capsule. When polymers cannot diffuse through the membrane, the osmotic pressure mismatch between the core and the surrounding medium triggers an inflation of the capsule. The swelling may reach a steady state that allows the determination of the elastic features of the hydrogel shell. On the other hand, the capsule membrane may rupture and then contract. From this stress-relaxation process, a critical deformation of the hydrogel shell above which plasticity occurs can be deduced. Finally, thanks to the physical nature of the hydrogel, the core content can be released by dissolving the membrane with the help of small electrolytes. The shell life is shown to vary inversely with the ionic strength of the solution.
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How I manage sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after haematopoietic cell transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), also called veno-occlusive disease of the liver, is one of the most relevant complications of endothelial origin that appears early after haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Despite its relatively low incidence and the fact that most cases of SOS resolve spontaneously, the cases that evolve to multi-organ failure (MOF; severe SOS) have a mortality rate higher than 80% and represent one of the major clinical problems after HCT. For this reason, transplantation teams must have a pre-established policy regarding preventive measures in high-risk patients, strict daily control of weight and fluid balance during HCT, homogeneous diagnostic criteria, appropriate complementary studies for a correct differential diagnosis and measures to prevent and manage hepatorenal syndrome; in addition they must also be ready to start early treatment with defibrotide in patients with a possible severe SOS. Due to the lack of definitive evidence to enable the establishment of general recommendations in the management of SOS, this review analyses all of these aspects based on the author's personal experience.
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Impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic risk groups on the outcome of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings: a retrospective analysis of t
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Acquired chromosomal abnormalities are important prognostic factors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with supportive care and with disease-modifying therapeutic interventions, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To assess the prognostic impact of cytogenetic characteristics after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation accurately, we investigated a homogeneous group of 523 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes who have received stem cells from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings. Overall survival at five years from transplantation in good, intermediate, and poor cytogenetic risk groups according to the International Prognostic Scoring System was 48%, 45% and 30%, respectively (P<0.01). Both the disease status (complete remission vs. not in complete remission) and the morphological classification at transplant in the untreated patients were significantly associated with probability of overall survival and relapse-free survival (P<0.01). The cytogenetic risk groups have no prognostic impact in untreated patients with refractory anemia ± ringed sideroblasts (P=0.90). However, combining the good and intermediate cytogenetic risk groups and comparing them to the poor-risk group showed within the other three disease-status-at-transplant groups a hazard ratio of 1.86 (95%CI: 1.41-2.45). In conclusion, this study shows that, in a large series of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes, poor-risk cytogenetics as defined by the standard International Prognostic Scoring System is associated with a relatively poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings except in patients who are transplanted in refractory anemia/refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts stage before progression to higher myelodysplastic syndrome stages.
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Effect of meropenem administration in extended infusion on the clinical outcome of febrile neutropenia: a retrospective observational study.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Information on the efficacy of extended meropenem administration in neutropenic patients is scarce. Our objective was to determine whether the administration of meropenem in a 4 h extended infusion (EI) leads to a better clinical outcome in patients with febrile neutropenia than the conventional short infusion (SI).
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Combination of the hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index and the European group for blood and marrow transplantation score allows a better stratification of high-risk patients undergoing reduced-toxicity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transp
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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This study was conducted to determine whether the integration of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) score would improve individual capacity for stratification of high-risk HCT candidates. A total of 442 consecutive patients receiving an allogeneic HCT after reduced-toxicity conditioning was included. Final HCT-CI and EBMT scores were calculated and validated. Then, patients were grouped into a 6-category new combination model according to the HCT-CI (0, 1 to 2, ?3) and EBMT scores (0 to 3, 4 to 7), and the models predictive capacity was also evaluated. Median HCT-CI and EBMT scores were 3 and 4, respectively. Increased HCT-CI was associated with higher 4-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and lower 4-year overall survival (OS), whereas a high EBMT score was associated with higher 4-year NRM. The HCT-CI showed a trend for a better predictive capacity than the EBMT score (c-statistic .6 versus .54, P = .1). According to the new model, patients within HCT-CI of 0 and HCT-CI of 1 to 2 groups had similar risk of NRM independently of their EBMT score. Within the HCT-CI ? 3 group, patients with low EBMT score showed lower NRM (25% versus 40%, P = .04) and a trend to higher OS (52% versus 36%, P = .06) than patients with a high EBMT score. Moreover, patients with HCT-CI ? 3 and EBMT score 0 to 3 had similar outcomes than those with HCT-CI of 1 to 2. In conclusion, the combination of HCT-CI and the EBMT score is feasible and might contribute to a better identification of high-risk patients, improving selection of best allogeneic HCT candidates.
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Distinct deleterious effects of cyclosporine and tacrolimus and combined tacrolimus-sirolimus on endothelial cells: protective effect of defibrotide.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Endothelial dysfunction seems to be a key factor in the development of several complications observed early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The conditioning regimen and many other factors associated with the procedure are responsible for this endothelial damage. The effects of immunosuppressive agents on endothelial function have not been explored in detail. We evaluated the effects of 3 drugs commonly used in HSCT: 2 calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A (CSA) and tacrolimus (TAC), and an inhibitor of mTOR, sirolimus (SIR). We also evaluated the effect of the combination of TAC and SIR (TAC+SIR), which is used increasingly in clinical practice. Microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were exposed to these drugs to evaluate changes in (1) intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression on the cell surface, assessed by immunofluorescence labeling and expressed as the mean gray value (MGV); (2) reactivity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) toward platelets, upon exposure of the ECM to circulating blood; and (3) whole-blood clot formation, assessed by thromboelastometry. Studies were conducted in the absence and presence of defibrotide (DF) to assess its possible protective effect. The exposure of HMEC-1 to CSA and TAC+SIR significantly increased the expression of ICAM-1 (157.5 ± 11.6 and 153.4 ± 9.5 MGV, respectively, versus 105.7 ± 6.5 MGV in controls [both P < .05]). TAC applied alone increased ICAM-1 slightly (120.3 ± 8.2 MGV), and SIR had no effect (108.9 ± 7.4 MGV). ECM reactivity increased significantly only in response to CSA (surface covered by platelets of 41.2% ± 5.4% versus 30.1% ± 2.0%, P < .05). DF attenuated all these changes. No significant changes in the viscoelastic properties of clot formation were observed in any condition with blood samples incubated in vitro. In conclusion, CSA and TAC+SIR had a proinflammatory effect, but only CSA exhibited an additional prothrombotic effect. Interestingly, DF exerted clear protective anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects on the endothelium.
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Fatal immune hemolytic anemia following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: report of 2 cases and review of literature.
Transfus Med Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Immune hemolytic anemia is a well-recognized complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are 4 possible causes for this complication. First, antibodies present in the recipient destroy donor cells. Second, donor red cell antibodies at the time of stem cell infusion are transferred to the recipient. Third, sometimes, engrafted donor lymphocytes cause active production of red cell antibodies. Fourth, another cause of hemolysis after allogeneic HSCT is autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). It is thought to be due to antibodies produced by the donors immune system against antigens on red cells of donor origin. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia after allogeneic HSCT is rare, it is still not well characterized, and it represents a life-threatening situation. We describe 2 patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with intensive chemotherapy and umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation (UCBT). One patient developed AIHA at day +182 and the other at day +212 after receiving UCBT. Patients received 5 and 7 line treatment options, respectively, including continuous corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, splenectomy, cyclophosphamide, plasma exchange, rituximab, bortezomib, and eculizumab. However, both patients died because of massive hemolysis after 85 and 106 days of intensive treatment, respectively. These cases reflect the extreme difficulty in the therapeutic management of patients with AIHA following UCBT. After an extensive review of the literature, the exact physiopathologic mechanisms of AIHA after allogeneic HSCT in general, and after UCBT in particular, and therefore an effective treatment remain unknown.
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Impact of hyperferritinemia on the outcome of reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for lymphoid malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Hyperferritinemia has been associated with adverse outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with myeloablative conditioning. However, its characteristics and impact on the outcome in the reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and in the lymphoid malignancy settings are far from clear. The study includes 201 adult patients undergoing allo-HCT with RIC (allo-RIC) for lymphoid malignancies with a median follow-up for survivors of 52 months (range, 3 to 123). Median serum ferritin level at allo-RIC was 379 ng/mL (range, 4 to 10,790). In the multivariate analysis, patients with hyperferritinemia at transplantation (>399 ng/mL) showed lower 4-year overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2 to 2.8]; P = .008), higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3.2]; P = .03), and higher infection-related mortality (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1 to 4.8]; P = .02) than patients without hyperferritinemia. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment and 100-day NRM were similar between both groups. The adverse outcome associated with hyperferritinemia seemed higher in patients without major comorbidities and was not influenced by the elevation of acute phase reactants. Our results indicate that high ferritin levels at HCT are associated with an adverse outcome after allo-RIC in patients with lymphoid malignancies.
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Recommendations for the treatment of invasive fungal infection caused by filamentous fungi in the hematological patient.
Rev Esp Quimioter
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
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Antifungal treatment in the hematological patient has reached a high complexity with the advent of new antifungals and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies. The use of the most appropriate treatment in each case is essential in infections with such a high mortality. The availability of recommendations as those here reported based on the best evidence and developed by a large panel of 48 specialists aimed to answer when is indicated to treat and which agents should be used, considering different aspects of the patient (risk of fungal infection, clinical manifestations, galactomanann test, chest CT scan and previous prophylaxis) may help clinicians to improve the results.
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Non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of severe idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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A 40-year-old man with severe chronic idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia complicated with opportunistic infections was successfully treated with non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After conditioning with fludarabine plus low dose of total-body irradiation, CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells obtained by leukapheresis from his HLA-identical sister were infused. T cell and myeloid complete chimerism was achieved at day +28 and remained stable during the follow-up period. The patient did not develop infectious complications during the procedure. At 35?months of follow-up, his CD4+ T cell count was 1019 cells per microliter. Non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be considered a treatment option for patients with severe forms of idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia.
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Secondary autoimmune diseases occurring after HSCT for an autoimmune disease: a retrospective study of the EBMT Autoimmune Disease Working Party.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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To specify the incidence and risk factors for secondary autoimmune diseases (ADs) after HSCT for a primary AD, we retrospectively analyzed AD patients treated by HSCT reported to EBMT from 1995 to 2009 with at least 1 secondary AD (cases) and those without (controls). After autologous HSCT, 29 of 347 patients developed at least 1 secondary AD within 21.9 (0.6-49) months and after allogeneic HSCT, 3 of 16 patients. The observed secondary ADs included: autoimmune hemolytic anemia (n = 3), acquired hemophilia (n = 3), autoimmune thrombocytopenia (n = 3), antiphospholipid syndrome (n = 2), thyroiditis (n = 12), blocking thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (n = 1), Graves disease (n = 2), myasthenia gravis (n = 1), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 2), sarcoidosis (n = 2), vasculitis (n = 1), psoriasis (n = 1), and psoriatic arthritis (n = 1). After autologous HSCT for primary AD, the cumulative incidence of secondary AD was 9.8% ± 2% at 5 years. Lupus erythematosus as primary AD, and antithymocyte globulin use plus CD34(+) graft selection were important risk factors for secondary AD by multivariate analysis. With a median follow-up of 6.2 (0.54-11) years after autologous HSCT, 26 of 29 patients with secondary AD were alive, 2 died during their secondary AD (antiphospholipid syndrome, hemophilia), and 1 death was HSCT-related. This European multicenter study underlines the need for careful management and follow-up for secondary AD after HSCT.
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Update on fungemia in oncology and hematology.
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The present article is an update of the literature on fungemia in onco-hematologic patients. A multidisciplinary group of Spanish physicians with an interest in this field selected the most important papers published lately. Papers from the fields of epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, outcome, prevention and treatment are discussed. Important aspects of these studies include the assessment of different strategies in the management of fever in neutropenic patients. Moreover, early identification of patients at risk of fungal infections, as well as identification of patients at risk for fluconazole-resistant strains are topics of increasing interest.
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The incidence of veno-occlusive disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has diminished and the outcome improved over the last decade.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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The evolution of the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) was analyzed in 845 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (allo-HSCTs) performed over 24 years. A total of 117 patients and 73 patients developed VOD following the Seattle and the Baltimore diagnostic criteria, respectively (cumulative incidence 13.8% and 8.8%). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the period 1985 to 1996 than in 1997 to 2008 (11.5% vs 6.5%; P = .01). This decline was because of the low incidence of VOD among reduced-intensity conditioning-HSCT (RIC-HSCT) (2.1%) and the reduction among those receiving myeloablative-HSCT from unrelated donors (32.7% vs 10.5%, P = .001). A total of 35 patients had severe VOD (26 with multiorgan failure [MOF]), and 20 died by VOD (cumulative mortality rate 17.3%, Seattle, or 22.5%, Baltimore). The mortality declined since 1997 (from 22% to 9%; P = .06, Seattle, and from 36% to 14%; P = .04, Baltimore), with the introduction of defibrotide being the only relevant change in the management of patients. This occurred even though the severity of VOD was similar in both periods. Among those with MOF, only 2 of 8 (25%) receiving defibrotide died versus 14 of 18 (78%) receiving other treatments (P = .007). Myeloablative conditioning, previous liver disease, poor performance status, and alternative donors were the variables with higher impact on VOD development. In summary, although VOD remains a dreaded early complication of HSCT, technical and therapeutic progress in recent decades have notably reduced its incidence and improved the outcome.
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Dewetting-induced membrane formation by adhesion of amphiphile-laden interfaces.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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We introduce an approach for forming bilayer polymer membranes by adhesion of amphiphile-laden interfaces. This adhesion is induced by a reduction of solvent quality for the amphiphilic diblock copolymers through selective evaporation of good solvent in the solvent mixture. By combining this membrane formation mechanism with a double-emulsion-templated approach for vesicle formation, we fabricate monodisperse polymersomes that exhibit excellent membrane uniformity, and structural stability, using a method that has high encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, we also show that the technique is versatile and can be applied to different block copolymers. The ability to direct the assembly of amphiphiles into a membrane creates new opportunities to engineer the structures of vesicles on the level of the individual bilayer leaflets.
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[Prevention and treatment of hepatic veno-occlusive disease].
Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is currently the main cause of hepatic veno-occlusive disease, which is the early complication of this procedure with the highest short-term morbidity and mortality. Given that mortality from severe hepatic veno-occlusive disease can be nearly 100%, the search for measures to prevent of treat this complication is essential. Several risk factors for this complication have been identified and the triggering event that leads to sinusoidal obstruction has been shown to be sinusoidal endothelial cell injury. The present review analyzes measures to avoid or modify the casual risk factors for this complication, as well as the pharmacological agents that can prevent or modify the initial endothelial dysfunction or the resulting sinusoidal occlusion.
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Pretransplantation liver function impacts on the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a study of 455 patients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Liver dysfunction is frequent before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, its characteristics and impact on transplantation outcomes are uncertain, especially in the reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) setting. We analyzed 455 patients receiving an allo-SCT in 3 Spanish centers. Pretransplantation aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), total bilirubin, and international normalized ratio were analyzed. Pretransplantation liver function test abnormalities were found in 94 (22%) patients. The most frequent cause of pretransplantation liver dysfunction was isolated elevation of GGT/AP (n = 49, 53%). Patients with high bilirubin levels before allo-SCT showed higher 4-year nonrelapse mortality (4y-NRM) (hazard ratio [HR] 2 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.8] P = .02) and patients with high GGT levels showed higher 100-day NRM and lower 4-year overall survival (OS) (HR 3.4 [95% CI 1.8-6.7] P < .001, and HR 2 [95% CI 1.4-3], P = .001), respectively. High levels of transaminases did not influence on survival or mortality. In conclusion, hepatic dysfunction before allo-SCT is frequent and has an impact on transplantation outcomes. The best indicator of liver dysfunction still has to be determined.
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Translational research efforts in biomarkers and biology of early transplant-related complications.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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In the time since the first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed over 40 years ago, this life-saving procedure has been used increasingly for patients with hematologic, metabolic, and malignant diseases. Despite major advances in our understanding of the immunologic processes (both beneficial and injurious) that are associated with HSCT and improvements in supportive and critical care medicine, successful outcomes are still limited by several serious complications. As such, the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies for these complications will be crucial as increasing numbers of high-risk transplants are performed each year. The development of such approaches is fundamentally dependent upon a basic understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease and also on our ability to successfully translate these insights back to the bedside. This brief review will highlight breakthroughs in translational research endeavors that have paved the way for the development of novel strategies intended to change the standard of care and optimize outcomes for patients in whom allogeneic HSCT offers the only hope for a cure.
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Defibrotide prevents the activation of macrovascular and microvascular endothelia caused by soluble factors released to blood by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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Endothelial activation and damage occur in association with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Several of the early complications associated with HSCT seem to have a microvascular location. Through the present study, we have characterized the activation and damage of endothelial cells of both macro (HUVEC) and microvascular (HMEC) origin, occurring early after autologous HSCT, and the potential protective effect of defibrotide (DF). Sera samples from patients were collected before conditioning (Pre), at the time of transplantation (day 0), and at days 7, 14, and 21 after autologous HSCT. Changes in the expression of endothelial cell receptors at the surface, presence and reactivity of extracellular adhesive proteins, and the signaling pathways involved were analyzed. The expression of ICAM-1 at the cell surface increased progressively in both HUVEC and HMEC. However, a more prothrombotic profile was denoted for HMEC, in particular at the time of transplantation (day 0), reflecting the deleterious effect of the conditioning treatment on the endothelium, especially at a microvascular location. Interestingly, this observation correlated with a higher increase in the expression of both tissue factor and von Willebrand factor on the extracellular matrix, together with activation of intracellular p38 MAPK and Akt. Previous exposure and continuous incubation of cells with DF prevented the signs of activation and damage induced by the autologous sera. These observations corroborate that conditioning treatment in autologous HSCT induces a proinflammatory and a prothrombotic phenotype, especially at a microvascular location, and indicate that DF has protective antiinflammatory and antithrombotic effects in this setting.
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma beyond 2010.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered the gold standard in the frontline therapy of younger patients with multiple myeloma because it results in higher complete remission (CR) rates and longer event-free survival than conventional chemotherapy. The greatest benefit from ASCT is obtained in patients achieving CR after transplantation, the likelihood of CR being associated with the M-protein size at the time of transplantation. The incorporation of novel agents results in higher pre- and posttransplantation CR rates. Induction with bortezomib-containing regimens is encouraging in patients with poor-risk cytogenetics. However, longer follow-up is required to assess the impact of this increased CR on long-term survival. The results of posttransplantation consolidation/maintenance with new drugs are encouraging. All this indicates that, in the era of novel agents, high-dose therapy should be optimized rather than replaced. Because of its high transplantation-related mortality, myeloablative allografting has been generally replaced by reduced-intensity conditioning (reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation). The best results are achieved after a debulky ASCT, with a progression-free survival plateau of 25% to 30% beyond 6 years from reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation. The development of novel reduced-intensity preparative regimens and peri- and posttransplantation strategies aimed at minimizing graft-versus-host disease, and enhancing the graft-versus-myeloma effect are key issues.
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Endothelial dysfunction after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: role of the conditioning regimen and the type of transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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There is endothelial activation and damage in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The impact of the conditioning and type of HSCT on endothelial dysfunction in the early phases of HSCT has been evaluated. Plasma samples were obtained before and at different times after autologous and allogeneic HSCT with and without early complications. Changes in soluble markers of endothelial damage (VWF, ADAMTS-13, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and sTNFRI) were measured. There were changes in all markers evaluated that followed different patterns in auto and allo settings. For VWF and sTNRI, progressive increases from day Pre to day 14 and to day 21 were observed in the auto and the allo group, respectively. ADAMTS-13 activity correlated inversely with VWF levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 decreased until day 7, and raised significantly to day 14 and to day 21 in the auto and the allo HSCT, respectively. No significant changes were detected for sICAM-1. Our results confirm that there is endothelial damage at the early phases of HSCT, apparently induced by the consecutive effects of the conditioning, the proinflammatory agents used during transplantation, the translocation of endotoxins across the damaged gastrointestinal tract, and the engraftment. However, the comparative analysis between patients with and without complications suggests that none of these markers has diagnostic or prognostic value.
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Unrelated transplantation for poor-prognosis adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: long-term outcome analysis and study of the impact of hematopoietic graft source.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Adults with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (HR-ALL) have a poor outcome with standard chemotherapy and usually undergo unrelated stem cell transplantation (SCT) if a matched sibling donor is not available. We analyzed the outcome of adult patients with unrelated SCT for HR-ALL and studied the possible effect of the hematopoietic stem cell source of the transplant. A total of 149 adult patients (median age, 29 years, range, 15-59 years) with HR-ALL underwent unrelated SCT in 13 Spanish institutions between 2000 and 2007. Patients in first complete remission (CR1) at transplantation had at least one adverse prognostic factor (advanced age, adverse cytogenetics, hyperleukocytosis, or slow response to induction therapy). ALL was in CR1 in 81 patients (54%), in second CR (CR2) in 37 patients (25%), in third CR (CR3) in 11 patients (7%), and with overt disease in 20 patients (13%). The hematopoietic source was unrelated cord blood (UCB) in 62 patients and an unrelated donor (UD) in 87 patients. The patients undergoing UCB-SCT and UD-SCT were comparable in terms of the main clinical and biological features of ALL, except for a higher frequency of patients with more overt disease in the UCB-SCT group. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years between the 2 groups. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was significantly lower in the UCB-SCT group (P = .021). The probability of relapse at 1 year was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-27%) for the UD-SCT group and 27% (95% CI, 14%-40%) for the UCB-SCT group (P = .088), respectively. Only disease status at transplantation (CR1, 41% [95% CI, 18%-64%] vs CR2, 51% [95% CI, 17%-85%] vs advanced disease, 66% [95% CI, 46%-86%]; P = .001) and the absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (74% [95% CI, 46%-100%] vs 33% [95% CI, 17%-49%]; P = .034) were significant factors for relapse. All unrelated transplantation modalities were associated with high treatment-related mortality for adult HR-ALL patients without a sibling donor. UCB-SCT and UD-SCT were found to be equivalent options. Disease status at transplantation and chronic GVHD were the main factors influencing relapse in both transplantation modalities.
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Is mobilized peripheral blood comparable with bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors? A case-control study.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2009
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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood stem cells are increasingly used instead of bone marrow as a stem cell source for transplantation. Whereas this change is almost complete for autologous transplantation, there are some concerns when considering allogeneic transplants.
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease following stem cell transplantation: incidence, clinical course, and outcome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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The occurrence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) has been reported in up to 60% of patients following stem cell transplantation (SCT), with incidence varying widely between studies depending on the type of transplant, conditioning regimen, and criteria used to make the diagnosis. Severe VOD is characterized by high mortality and progression to multiorgan failure (MOF); however, there is no consensus on how to evaluate severity. This review and analysis of published reports attempts to clarify these issues by calculating the overall mean incidence of VOD and mortality from severe VOD, examining the effect of changes in SCT practice on the incidence of VOD over time, and discussing the methods used to evaluate severity. Across 135 studies performed between 1979 and October 2007, the overall mean incidence of VOD was 13.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]=13.3%-14.1%). The mean incidence of VOD was significantly lower between 1979-1994 than between 1994-2007 (11.5% [95% CI, 10.9%-12.1%] vs 14.6% [95% CI, 14.0%-15.2%]; P <.05). The mortality rate from severe VOD was 84.3% (95% CI, 79.6%-88.9%); most of these patients had MOF, which also was the most frequent cause of death. Thus, VOD is less common than early reports suggested, but the current incidence appears to be relatively stable despite recent advances in SCT, including the advent of reduced-intensity conditioning. The evolution of MOF in the setting of VOD after SCT can be considered a reliable indication of severity and a predictor of poor outcome.
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The release of soluble factors contributing to endothelial activation and damage after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is not limited to the allogeneic setting and involves several pathogenic mechanisms.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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This study evaluated the relative impact of the intensity of the conditioning regimen and the alloreactivity in the endothelial dysfunction occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). It involved a comparative analysis of the effect of incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) with serum samples from patients receiving autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) or unrelated donor allo-HSCT. In both groups, blood samples were collected through a central line before conditioning (Pre), before transplantation (day 0), and at days 7, 14, and 21 after transplantation. Changes in the expression of EC receptors and adhesion proteins, adhesion of leukocytes and platelets under flow, and signaling pathways were analyzed. Endothelial activation and damage were observed in both groups, but with differing patterns. All markers of endothelial dysfunction demonstrated a progressive increase from day Pre to day 14 in the auto-HSCT group and exhibited 2 peaks of maximal expression (at days 0 and 21) in the allo-HSCT group. Both treatments induced a proinflammatory state (ie, expression of adhesion receptors, leukocyte adhesion, and p38 MAPK activation) and cell proliferation (ie, morphology and activation of ErK42/44). Prothrombotic changes (ie, von Willebrand factor expression and platelet adhesion) predominated after allo-HSCT, and a proapoptotic tendency (ie, activation of SAPK/JNK) was seen only in this group. These findings indicate that endothelial activation and damage after HSCT also occur in the autologous setting and affect macrovascular ECs. After the initial damage induced by the conditioning regimen, other factors, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) toxicity, engraftment, and alloreactivity, may contribute to the endothelial damage seen during HSCT. Further studies are needed to explore the association between this endothelial damage and the vascular complications associated with HSCT.
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Safety and efficacy of defibrotide for the treatment of severe hepatic veno-occlusive disease.
Ther Adv Hematol
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, is a potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapeutic conditioning used in preparation for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). VOD may occur in up to 62% of patients undergoing SCT, with onset generally within the first month after SCT. In severe cases, 100-day mortality is in excess of 80%. Current management consists of best supportive care, with no agents to date approved for treatment in the USA or the EU. Defibrotide, a polydisperse oligonucleotide, has been shown in phase II and III trials to improve complete response and survival in patients undergoing SCT with severe VOD. This article reviews our current understanding of VOD, and examines recent clinical findings on defibrotide for the treatment and prophylaxis of VOD.
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Antifungal prophylaxis in the haematological patient: a practical approach.
Rev Esp Quimioter
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Antifungal prophylaxis in the haematological patient is currently regarded as the gold standard in situations with a high risk of infection, such as acute leukaemias, myelodysplastic syndromes and autologous or allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Over the years, different scientific societies have established a series of recommendations on antifungal prophylaxis based on prospective studies performed with different drugs. However, the prescription of each one of the agents must be personalised, adapted to the characteristics of each patient and to possible interactions with concomitant medication.
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Drug safety evaluation of defibrotide.
Expert Opin Drug Saf
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapeutic conditioning used in preparation for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Defibrotide (DF) has been shown in Phase II and III trials to improve complete response in patients with severe VOD (sVOD). None of the articles, to date, provide a comprehensive review of the safety of DF in VOD and/or a range of other conditions.
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Stem cell transplantation can provide durable disease control in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: a retrospective study from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Blood
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Patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) have a poor prognosis with conventional chemotherapy. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the outcome of patients with BPDCN who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) or autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). A total of 39 patients (allo-SCT, n = 34; auto-SCT, n = 5) were identified in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry. The 34 allo-SCT patients had a median age of 41 years (range, 10-70) and received transplantations from sibling (n = 11) or unrelated donors (n = 23) between 2003 and 2009. MAC was used in 74% of patients. Nineteen allo-SCT patients (56%) received transplantations in first complete remission. The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse, disease-free survival, and overall survival was 32%, 33%, and 41%, respectively. By univariate comparison, being in first remission at allo-SCT favorably influenced survival, whereas age, donor source, and chronic GVHD had no significant impact. We conclude that high-dose therapy followed by allo-SCT from related or unrelated donors can provide durable remission even in elderly patients with BPDCN. However, it remains to be shown if graft-versus-malignancy effects can contribute significantly to BPDCN control after allo-SCT.
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Design of vesicles using capillary microfluidic devices: from magnetic to multifunctional vesicles.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
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In the core, in the shell, or both: a microfluidic device is used to design magnetic vesicles (liposomes and polymersomes) through chemical modification of the nanoparticle surface. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic and fluorescent quantum dot nanoparticles are used for elaborating the vesicles. Hybrid vesicles are easily obtained with a very high yield and excellent monodispersity.
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Cost-effectiveness of posaconazole versus fluconazole or itraconazole in the prevention of invasive fungal infections among high-risk neutropenic patients in Spain.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole compared with standard azole therapy (SAT; fluconazole or itraconazole) for the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFI) and the reduction of overall mortality in high-risk neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The perspective was that of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS).
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Outcome of Antifungal Combination Therapy for Invasive Mold Infections in Hematological Patients is Independent of the Chosen Combination.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis
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Invasive mold infection (IMI) remains a major cause of mortality in high-risk hematological patients. The aim of this multicenter retrospective, observational study was to evaluate antifungal combination therapy (ACT) for proven and probable IMI in hematological patients. We analyzed 61 consecutive cases of proven (n=25) and probable (n=36) IMI treated with ACT collected from eight Spanish hospitals from January 2005 to December 2009. Causal pathogens were: Aspergillus spp (n=49), Zygomycetes (n=6), Fusarium spp (n=3), and Scedosporium spp (n=3). Patients were classified in three groups according to the antifungal combination employed: Group A, liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) plus caspofungin (n=20); Group B, LAmB plus a triazole (n=20), and Group C, voriconazole plus a candin (n=21). ACT was well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Thirty-eight patients (62%) achieved a favorable response (35 complete). End of treatment and 12-week survival rates were 62% and 57% respectively, without statistical differences among groups. Granulocyte recovery was significantly related to favorable response and survival (p<0.001) in multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that comparable outcomes can be achieved with ACT in high risk hematological patients with proven or probable IMI, whatever the combination of antifungal agents used.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.