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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lifestyle-Based Prediction Model for the Prevention of CVD: The Healthy Heart Score.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Clinical practice focuses on the primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) through the modification and pharmacological treatment of elevated risk factors. Prediction models based on established risk factors are available for use in the primary prevention setting. However, the prevention of risk factor development through healthy lifestyle behaviors, or primordial prevention, is of paramount importance to achieve optimal population-wide CV health and minimize long-term CVD risk.
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Genetic Loci Associated with Circulating Levels of Very Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFA) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFA may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFA is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFA by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, SPTLC3 (serine palmitoyl-transferase, long-chain base subunit 3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and CERS4 (ceramide synthase 4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher 20:0 (arachidic acid, p = 5.81x10-13). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (p = 2.65x10-40) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of 22:0 (behenic acid, p = 4.22x10-26) and 24:0 (lignoceric acid, p = 3.20x10-21). These novel associations highlight the inter-relationship of circulating VLSFA and sphingolipid synthesis.
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Genome-wide association study of selenium concentrations.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in human nutrition, but its role in certain health conditions, particularly among Se sufficient populations, is controversial. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood Se concentrations previously identified a locus at 5q14 near BHMT. We performed a GW meta-analysis of toenail Se concentrations, which reflect a longer duration of exposure than blood Se concentrations, including 4162 European descendants from four US cohorts. Toenail Se was measured using neutron activation analysis. We identified a GW-significant locus at 5q14 (P < 1 × 10(-16)), the same locus identified in the published GWAS of blood Se based on independent cohorts. The lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) explained ?1% of the variance in toenail Se concentrations. Using GW-summary statistics from both toenail and blood Se, we observed statistical evidence of polygenic overlap (P < 0.001) and meta-analysis of results from studies of either trait (n = 9639) yielded a second GW-significant locus at 21q22.3, harboring CBS (P < 4 × 10(-8)). Proteins encoded by genes at 5q14 and 21q22.3 function in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism, and index SNPs for each have previously been associated with betaine and Hcy levels in GWAS. Our findings show evidence of a genetic link between Se and Hcy pathways, both involved in cardiometabolic disease.
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Low carbohydrate diet from plant or animal sources and mortality among myocardial infarction survivors.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The healthiest dietary pattern for myocardial infarction (MI) survivors is not known. Specific long-term benefits of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) are unknown, whether from animal or vegetable sources. There is a need to examine the associations between post-MI adherence to an LCD and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
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Fish and fatty acid consumption and the risk of hearing loss in women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Acquired hearing loss is common and often disabling, yet limited prospective data exist on potentially modifiable risk factors. Evidence suggests that higher intake of fish and long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be associated with a lower risk of hearing loss, but prospective information on these relations is limited.
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Novel metabolic biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.
Nat Rev Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for one in every six deaths in US individuals. Great advances have been made in identifying important risk factors for CHD, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and hypercholesterolaemia, which have led to major developments in therapy. In particular, statins represent one of the greatest successes in the prevention of CHD. While these standard risk factors are important, an obvious opportunity exists to take advantage of ongoing scientific research to better risk-stratify individuals and to identify new treatment targets. In this Review, we summarize ongoing scientific research in a number of metabolic molecules or features, including lipoproteins, homocysteine, calcium metabolism and glycaemic markers. We evaluate the current state of the research and the strength of evidence supporting each emerging biomarker. We also discuss whether the associations with CHD are strong and consistent enough to improve current risk stratification metrics, and whether these markers enhance our understanding of the underlying biology of CHD and thus point towards new treatment options.
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Plasma phospholipid trans-fatty acids levels, cardiovascular diseases, and total mortality: the cardiovascular health study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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While self-reported trans-fatty acid (TFA) consumption is linked to coronary heart disease (CHD), relationships between objective biomarkers of TFA subtypes (t-16:1n9, total t-18:1, and cis/trans-(c/t-), t/c- and t/t-18:2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or total mortality are not well established.
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Plasma phospholipid and dietary ?-linolenic acid, mortality, CHD and stroke: the Cardiovascular Health Study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Previous studies have suggested that long-chain n-3 fatty acids derived from seafood are associated with a lower risk of mortality, CHD and stroke. Whether ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3), a plant-derived long-chain essential n-3 fatty acid, is associated with a lower risk of these outcomes is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of plasma phospholipid and dietary ALA with the risk of mortality, CHD and stroke among older adults who participated in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a cohort study of adults aged ? 65 years. A total of 2709 participants were included in the plasma phospholipid ALA analysis and 2583 participants were included in the dietary ALA analysis. Cox regression was used to assess the associations of plasma phospholipid and dietary ALA with the risk of mortality, incident CHD and stroke. In minimally and multivariable-adjusted models, plasma phospholipid ALA was found to be not associated with the risk of mortality, incident CHD or stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, race, enrolment site, education, smoking status, diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption, treated hypertension and total energy intake, higher dietary ALA intake was found to be associated with a lower risk of total and non-cardiovascular mortality; on comparing the highest quintiles of dietary ALA with the lowest quintiles, the HR for total mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality were found to be 0·73 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·88) and 0·64 (95 % CI 0·52, 0·80), respectively. Dietary ALA was found to be not associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality, incident CHD or stroke. In conclusion, the results of the present suggest study that dietary ALA, but not plasma phospholipid ALA, is associated with a lower risk of total and non-cardiovascular mortality in older adults.
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Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities and risk of coronary heart disease in generally healthy women: a prospective study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes are major circulating antioxidant enzymes in the oxidative stress defense system. Few prospective studies have assessed the association between these enzymes and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in generally healthy adults. We conducted a prospective nested case-control study of CHD among 32,826 women at baseline with 15 years of follow-up from 1989 to 2004 in the Nurses' Health Study. We investigated the association of baseline erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities with the risk of CHD. A total of 365 cases and 728 controls were included in the analysis. Overall, the relative risks of CHD associated with 1-standard deviation higher SOD, GPx, and CAT activities were 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 1.22), 1.04 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.18), and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.17), respectively. Multivariable adjustments did not change the associations appreciably. Fasting status did not modify the associations, with the exception that SOD activity was positively associated with the risk of CHD among participants who provided blood samples within 12 hours of fasting. Overall, activities of SOD, GPx, and CAT were not associated with CHD among women who were generally healthy at the time of blood collection.
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Intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The impact of different dietary flavonoid subclasses on risk of epithelial ovarian cancer is unclear, with limited previous studies that have focused on only a few compounds.
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Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data.
Michael V Holmes, Caroline E Dale, Luisa Zuccolo, Richard J Silverwood, Yiran Guo, Zheng Ye, David Prieto-Merino, Abbas Dehghan, Stella Trompet, Andrew Wong, Alana Cavadino, Dagmar Drogan, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Shanshan Li, Ajay Yesupriya, Maarten Leusink, Johan Sundström, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Hynek Pikhart, Daniel I Swerdlow, Andrie G Panayiotou, Svetlana A Borinskaya, Chris Finan, Sonia Shah, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Tina Shah, Jorgen Engmann, Lasse Folkersen, Per Eriksson, Fulvio Ricceri, Olle Melander, Carlotta Sacerdote, Dale M Gamble, Sruti Rayaprolu, Owen A Ross, Stela McLachlan, Olga Vikhireva, Ivonne Sluijs, Robert A Scott, Vera Adamkova, Leon Flicker, Frank M van Bockxmeer, Christine Power, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Tom Meade, Michael G Marmot, José M Ferro, Sofia Paulos-Pinheiro, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Irene Mateo Leach, Niek Verweij, Allan Linneberg, Tea Skaaby, Pieter A Doevendans, Maarten J Cramer, Pim van der Harst, Olaf H Klungel, Nicole F Dowling, Anna F Dominiczak, Meena Kumari, Andrew N Nicolaides, Cornelia Weikert, Heiner Boeing, Shah Ebrahim, Tom R Gaunt, Jackie F Price, Lars Lannfelt, Anne Peasey, Růžena Kubinova, Andrzej Pająk, Sofia Malyutina, Mikhail I Voevoda, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Paul E Norman, Graeme J Hankey, Manuela M Bergmann, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Jackie Cooper, Jutta Palmen, Wilko Spiering, Pim A de Jong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, André G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Ian Ford, Elina Hyppönen, Osvaldo P Almeida, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Anders Hamsten, Lise Lotte N Husemoen, Anne Tjønneland, Janne S Tolstrup, Eric Rimm, Joline W J Beulens, W M Monique Verschuren, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Marten H Hofker, S Goya Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Richard Morris, Astrid M Vicente, Hugh Watkins, Martin Farrall, J Wouter Jukema, James Meschia, L Adrienne Cupples, Stephen J Sharp, Myriam Fornage, Charles Kooperberg, Andrea Z LaCroix, James Y Dai, Matthew B Lanktree, David S Siscovick, Eric Jorgenson, Bonnie Spring, Josef Coresh, Yun R Li, Sarah G Buxbaum, Pamela J Schreiner, R Curtis Ellison, Michael Y Tsai, Sanjay R Patel, Susan Redline, Andrew D Johnson, Ron C Hoogeveen, Hakon Hakonarson, Jerome I Rotter, Eric Boerwinkle, Paul I W de Bakker, Mika Kivimäki, Folkert W Asselbergs, Naveed Sattar, Debbie A Lawlor, John Whittaker, George Davey Smith, Kenneth Mukamal, Bruce M Psaty, James G Wilson, Leslie A Lange, Ajna Hamidovic, Aroon D Hingorani, Børge G Nordestgaard, Martin Bobak, David A Leon, Claudia Langenberg, Tom M Palmer, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Frank Dudbridge, Juan P Casas, .
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease.
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?2-microglobulin, cystatin C, and creatinine and risk of symptomatic peripheral artery disease.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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?2-Microglobulin and cystatin C may have advantages over creatinine in assessing risk associated with kidney function. We therefore investigated whether emerging filtration markers, ?2-microglobulin and cystatin C, are prospectively associated with risk of the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD).
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Plasma levels of fetuin-A and risk of coronary heart disease in US women: the Nurses' Health Study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Fetuin-A may be involved in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) through opposing pathways (ie, promoting insulin resistance and inhibiting ectopic calcification). We aimed to explicitly examine whether systemic inflammation, a factor leading to elevated vascular calcification, may modify the association between fetuin-A and CHD risk.
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Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns. We therefore investigated the association using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2007-2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the Korean population with a clustered, multistage, stratified, and rolling sampling design. A total of 10,711 adults (54.5% women) 19-64 y of age were analyzed, with adjustment for sampling design complexity. Diet was assessed by using a 63-item food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 2 major dietary patterns with the use of principal components analysis: the "traditional dietary pattern" (TP), rich in rice, fish, vegetables, fruit, and potatoes, and the "meat and fast-food pattern" (MP), with less rice intake but rich in meat, soda, fried food, and fast food including instant noodles. The highest MP quintile was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90), LDL cholesterol ?130 mg/dL (1.3 g/L) (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.95), decreased prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), and high triglycerides [?150 mg/dL (1.5 g/L); OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93]. The highest quintile for the TP was associated with decreased prevalence of elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90) and marginally lower trends for abdominal obesity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.06), but neither of the dietary patterns was associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The consumption of instant noodles ?2 times/wk was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.55) in women but not in men (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.49; P-interaction = 0.04). The 2 major dietary patterns were associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors. The consumption of instant noodles was associated with increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women, independent of major dietary patterns.
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Association between the intake of ?-linolenic acid and the risk of CHD.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The intake of the mainly plant-derived n-3 PUFA ?-linolenic acid (ALA) has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of CHD. However, the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the association between the intake of ALA and the risk of CHD. Potential effect modification by the intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) was also investigated. Data from eight American and European prospective cohort studies including 148 675 women and 80 368 men were used. The outcome measure was incident CHD (CHD event and death). During 4-10 years of follow-up, 4493 CHD events and 1751 CHD deaths occurred. Among men, an inverse association (not significant) between the intake of ALA and the risk of CHD events and deaths was observed. For each additional gram of ALA consumed, a 15 % lower risk of CHD events (hazard ratios (HR) 0·85, 95 % CI 0·72, 1·01) and a 23 % lower risk of CHD deaths (HR 0·77, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·01) were observed. No consistent association was observed among women. No effect modification by the intake of n-3 LCPUFA was observed.
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Fibrosis-related biomarkers and incident cardiovascular disease in older adults: the cardiovascular health study.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Fibrotic changes in the heart and arteries have been implicated in a diverse range of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but whether circulating biomarkers that reflect fibrosis are associated with CVD is unknown.
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Fried-food consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: a prospective study in 2 cohorts of US women and men.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Through the processes of oxidation, polymerization, and hydrogenation, the cooking method of frying modifies both foods and their frying medium. However, it remains unknown whether the frequent consumption of fried foods is related to long-term cardiometabolic health.OBJECTIVE: We examined fried-food consumption and risk of developing incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) or coronary artery disease (CAD).DESIGN: Fried-food consumption was assessed by using a questionnaire in 70,842 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) and 40,789 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate RRs and 95% CIs for T2D and CAD adjusted for demographic, diet, lifestyle, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results were pooled by using an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: We documented 10,323 incident T2D cases and 5778 incident CAD cases. Multivariate-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) for individuals who consumed fried foods <1, 1-3, 4-6, or ?7 times/wk were 1.00 (reference), 1.15 (0.97, 1.35), 1.39 (1.30, 1.49), and 1.55 (1.32, 1.83), respectively, for T2D and 1.00 (reference), 1.06 (0.98, 1.15), 1.23 (1.14, 1.33), and 1.21 (1.06, 1.39), respectively, for CAD. Associations were largely attenuated when we further controlled for biennially updated hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and body mass index.CONCLUSIONS: Frequent fried-food consumption was significantly associated with risk of incident T2D and moderately with incident CAD, and these associations were largely mediated by body weight and comorbid hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.
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Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality.
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Fibrosis-related biomarkers and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: the cardiovascular health study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Fibrosis has been implicated in diverse diseases of the liver, kidney, lungs, and heart, but its importance as a risk factor for mortality remains unconfirmed. We determined the prospective associations of 2 complementary biomarkers of fibrosis, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), with total and cause-specific mortality risks among community-living older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study (1996-2010). We measured circulating TGF-? and PIIINP levels in plasma samples collected in 1996 and ascertained the number of deaths through 2010. Both TGF-? and PIIINP were associated with elevated risks of total and pulmonary mortality after adjustment for sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical risk factors. For total mortality, the hazard ratios per doubling of TGF-? and PIIINP were 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.17; P = 0.02) and 1.14 (CI: 1.03, 1.27; P = 0.01), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for pulmonary mortality were 1.27 (CI: 1.01, 1.60; P = 0.04) for TGF-? and 1.52 (CI: 1.11, 2.10; P = 0.01) for PIIINP. Associations of TGF-? and PIIINP with total and pulmonary mortality were strongest among individuals with higher C-reactive protein concentrations (P for interaction < 0.05). Our findings provide some of the first large-scale prospective evidence that circulating biomarkers of fibrosis measured late in life are associated with death.
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Plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, and choline and risk of peripheral artery disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Few studies have examined the roles of homocysteine and related nutrients in the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD). We examined the associations between plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, choline, and supplemental folic acid use and incidence of PAD.
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Impact of the new U.S. Department of Agriculture school meal standards on food selection, consumption, and waste.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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The U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently made substantial changes to the school meal standards. The media and public outcry have suggested that this has led to substantially more food waste.
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C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor ? receptor 2 and incident clinical depression.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Despite an extensive literature on the role of inflammation and depression, few studies have evaluated the association between inflammatory biomarkers and depression in a prospective manner, and results are inconclusive.
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Gut microbiota metabolites of dietary lignans and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective investigation in two cohorts of U.S. women.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To examine urinary levels of enterolactone and enterodiol, intestinal microbial metabolites of dietary lignans, in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.
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Genome-wide polygenic scoring for a 14-year long-term average depression phenotype.
Brain Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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BackgroundDespite moderate heritability estimates for depression-related phenotypes, few robust genetic predictors have been identified. Potential explanations for this discrepancy include the use of phenotypic measures taken from a single time point, rather than integrating information over longer time periods via multiple assessments, and the possibility that genetic risk is shaped by multiple loci with small effects. MethodsWe developed a 14-year long-term average depression measure based on 14 years of follow-up in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; N = 6989 women). We estimated polygenic scores (PS) with internal whole-genome scoring (NHS-GWAS-PS). We also constructed PS by applying two external PS weighting algorithms from independent samples, one previously shown to predict depression (GAIN-MDD-PS) and another from the largest genome-wide analysis currently available (PGC-MDD-PS). We assessed the association of all three PS with our long-term average depression phenotype using linear, logistic, and quantile regressions. ResultsIn this study, the three PS approaches explained at most 0.2% of variance in the long-term average phenotype. Quantile regressions indicated PS had larger impacts at higher quantiles of depressive symptoms. Quantile regression coefficients at the 75th percentile were at least 40% larger than at the 25th percentile in all three polygenic scoring algorithms. The interquartile range comparison suggested the effects of PS significantly differed at the 25th and 75th percentiles of the long-term depressive phenotype for the PGC-MDD-PS (P = 0.03), and this difference also reached borderline statistical significance for the GAIN-MDD-PS (P = 0.05). ConclusionsIntegrating multiple phenotype assessments spanning 14 years and applying different polygenic scoring approaches did not substantially improve genetic prediction of depression. Quantile regressions suggested the effects of PS may be largest at high quantiles of depressive symptom scores, presumably among people with additional, unobserved sources of vulnerability to depression.
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Polyphenol intake and mortality risk: a re-analysis of the PREDIMED trial.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Polyphenols may lower the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other chronic diseases due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as their beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance. However, no previous epidemiological studies have evaluated the relationship between the intake of total polyphenols intake and polyphenol subclasses with overall mortality. Our aim was to evaluate whether polyphenol intake is associated with all-cause mortality in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.
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Food-addiction scale measurement in 2 cohorts of middle-aged and older women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Excess weight is a major threat to public health. An addiction-like tendency toward certain foods may contribute to overeating.
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A food service intervention improves whole grain access at lunch in rural elementary schools.
J Sch Health
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Whole grain (WG) options are often limited in schools, which may impact rural, low-income students who rely on school meals for a substantial portion of their food intake. This study examined the changes in the availability and quantity of WG and refined grain foods offered in schools participating in the Creating Healthy, Active and Nurturing Growing-up Environments (CHANGE) study, a randomized, controlled intervention among rural communities (4 intervention and 4 control).
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Dietary macronutrients, genetic variation, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis among women.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Previous studies observed the surprising finding that saturated fat was inversely associated with atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women, whereas polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) and carbohydrates were positively associated. Whether certain genes modify the association of diet with atherosclerotic progression is unknown.
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Bachelors, divorcees, and widowers: does marriage protect men from type 2 diabetes?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While research has suggested that being married may confer a health advantage, few studies to date have investigated the role of marital status in the development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether men who are not married have increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men (n?=?41,378) who were free of T2D in 1986, were followed for ?22 years with biennial reports of T2D, marital status and covariates. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare risk of incident T2D by marital status (married vs unmarried and married vs never married, divorced/separated, or widowed). There were 2,952 cases of incident T2D. Compared to married men, unmarried men had a 16% higher risk of developing T2D (95%CI:1.04,1.30), adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, lifestyle and body mass index (BMI). Relative risks (RR) for developing T2D differed for divorced/separated (1.09 [95%CI: 0.94,1.27]), widowed (1.29 [95%CI:1.06,1.57]), and never married (1.17 [95%CI:0.91,1.52]) after adjusting for age, family history of diabetes and ethnicity. Adjusting for lifestyle and BMI, the RR for T2D associated with widowhood was no longer significant (RR:1.16 [95%CI:0.95,1.41]). When allowing for a 2-year lag period between marital status and disease, RRs of T2D for widowers were augmented and borderline significant (RR:1.24 [95%CI:1.00,1.54]) after full adjustment. In conclusion, not being married, and more specifically, widowhood was more consistently associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men and this may be mediated, in part, through unfavorable changes in lifestyle, diet and adiposity.
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The effects of stress at work and at home on inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study examined whether stress at work and at home may be related to dysregulation of inflammation and endothelial function, two important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease. In order to explore potential biological mechanisms linking stress with cardiovascular health, we investigated cross-sectional associations between stress at work and at home with an inflammation score (n's range from 406-433) and with two endothelial biomarkers (intercellular and vascular adhesion molecules, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1; n's range from 205-235) in a cohort of healthy US male health professionals. No associations were found between stress at work or at home and inflammation. Men with high or medium levels of stress at work had significantly higher levels of sVCAM-1 (13% increase) and marginally higher levels of sICAM-1 (9% increase), relative to those reporting low stress at work, independent of health behaviors. Men with high levels of stress at home had marginally higher levels of both sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 than those with low stress at home. While lack of findings related to inflammation are somewhat surprising, if replicated in future studies, these findings may suggest that endothelial dysfunction is an important biological mechanism linking stress at work with cardiovascular health outcomes in men.
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Metabolic mediators of the effects of body-mass index, overweight, and obesity on coronary heart disease and stroke: a pooled analysis of 97 prospective cohorts with 1·8 million participants.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Body-mass index (BMI) and diabetes have increased worldwide, whereas global average blood pressure and cholesterol have decreased or remained unchanged in the past three decades. We quantified how much of the effects of BMI on coronary heart disease and stroke are mediated through blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose, and how much is independent of these factors.
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Physical activity, genes for physical fitness, and risk of coronary heart disease.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Both physical activity and physical fitness are associated with decreased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Our objective was to determine whether genes associated with physical fitness modify the association between physical activity and CHD.
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The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and mortality among men and women with cardiovascular disease.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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The role of the Mediterranean diet among individuals with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain.
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Circulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI in older adults: the cardiovascular health study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Consumption of tuna or other broiled or baked fish, but not fried fish, is associated with fewer subclinical brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated the association between plasma phospholipid omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), objective biomarkers of exposure, and subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI.
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Fluorescent oxidation products and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective study in women.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD). New measures to capture oxidative stress are warranted. Fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs) can be measured in plasma and have been shown to reflect levels of oxidative stress and to predict risk of CHD in men over 6 years of follow-up. The objective of this study is to determine whether measures of FlOPs are associated with risk of CHD in women over an extended follow-up period.
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Quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake and risk of coronary heart disease.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Dietary guidelines recommend increasing fruit and vegetable intake and, most recently, have also suggested increasing variety.
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Few Changes in Food Security and Dietary Intake From Short-term Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Among Low-income Massachusetts Adults.
J Nutr Educ Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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To examine whether short-term participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) affects food security and dietary quality among low-income adults recruited from a Massachusetts-wide emergency food hotline.
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Better diet quality and decreased mortality among myocardial infarction survivors.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Information about diet after myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality is limited, despite the growing number of MI survivors in the United States.
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Association between a genetic variant related to glutamic acid metabolism and coronary heart disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Diabetes is associated with an elevated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Previous studies have suggested that the genetic factors predisposing to excess cardiovascular risk may be different in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals.
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History of kidney stones and the risk of coronary heart disease.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Kidney stone disease is common and may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Previous studies of the association between kidney stones and CHD have often not controlled for important risk factors, and the results have been inconsistent.
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Prospective study of breakfast eating and incident coronary heart disease in a cohort of male US health professionals.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Among adults, skipping meals is associated with excess body weight, hypertension, insulin resistance, and elevated fasting lipid concentrations. However, it remains unknown whether specific eating habits regardless of dietary composition influence coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine eating habits and risk of CHD.
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Changes in traffic exposure and the risk of incident myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Traffic-related exposures, such as air pollution and noise, have been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Few studies, however, have been able to examine the effects of changes in exposure on changes in risk. Our objective was to explore the associations of changes in traffic exposure with changes in risk between 1990 and 2008 in the Nurses Health Study.
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Association between alcohol consumption and plasma fetuin-A and its contribution to incident type 2 diabetes in women.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The benefits of moderate alcohol consumption for type 2 diabetes have been postulated to involve a mechanism of improved insulin sensitivity. Fetuin-A, which is known to inhibit insulin signalling, has emerged as a biomarker for diabetes risk. Alcohol consumption may influence circulating fetuin-A concentrations and subsequently diabetes risk by altering the insulin signal. We therefore hypothesised that moderate alcohol consumption would be associated with lower fetuin-A concentration and that fetuin-A would partly explain the association between alcohol consumption and incident type 2 diabetes.
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Changes in fish consumption in midlife and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Without data from randomized trials, the long-term effects of fish consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD) need to be inferred from observational studies. We estimated CHD risk under different hypothetical interventions on fish consumption during mid- and later life in 2 prospective US cohorts of 25,797 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and 53,772 women in the Nurses Health Study. Participants provided information on risk factors and disease every 2 years and on diet every 4 years. We adjusted for baseline and time-varying risk factors for CHD by using the parametric g-formula (where g stands for "generalized"). We observed 1,865 incident CHD cases among men (in 1990-2008) and 1,891 CHD cases among women (in 1986-2008). The risk ratios for CHD when comparing the risk if everyone had consumed at least 2 servings of fish per week with the risk if no one consumed fish during the follow-up periods were 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.15) for men and 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 0.98) for women. Our results suggest that increasing fish consumption to at least 2 servings per week in mid- or later life may lower CHD risk in women but not in men. Our analytical approach allowed us to explicitly specify hypothetical interventions and to assess the effectiveness of dietary changes in midlife.
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Genetically elevated fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose levels, and risk of type 2 diabetes: the cardiovascular health study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Fetuin-A levels are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unknown if the association is causal. We investigated common (>5%) genetic variants in the fetuin-A gene (AHSG) fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose, and risk of type 2 diabetes.
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Apolipoprotein E in VLDL and LDL with apolipoprotein C-III is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is the lipoprotein species that most strongly predicts initial and recurring coronary heart disease (CHD) events in several cohorts. Thus, a large portion of the CHD risk conferred by LDL may be attributable to LDL that contains apoC-III. Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL with apoC-III have varying amounts of apoE. We hypothesized that a high content of apoE lessens the adverse influence of apoC-III on the risk of CHD because it promotes the clearance of VLDL and LDL from plasma.
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Prospective study of restless legs syndrome and risk of erectile dysfunction.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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In our previous cross-sectional study, we found that restless legs syndrome (RLS) was associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Thus, we conducted a prospective study to examine whether RLS was associated with a higher risk of developing ED based on 6 years of follow-up among 10,394 men (mean age = 63.4 years) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. RLS was assessed in 2002 using a set of standardized questions recommended by the International RLS Study Group. Erectile function was assessed by means of questionnaires in 2000, 2004, and 2008. We identified 1,633 incident ED cases. Men with RLS were more likely to develop ED (relative risk = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 1.68; P = 0.001) than were those without the syndrome, after adjustment for potential confounders, such as age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, other sleep disorders, and snoring status. A higher frequency of RLS symptoms was also associated with an increased risk of ED (P(trend) = 0.001). In conclusion, men with RLS had a higher risk of ED, and the magnitude of the risk increased with a higher frequency of RLS symptoms. Combinations of other sleep disorders with RLS further increased the risk of ED.
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Melatonin secretion and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Loss-of-function mutations in the melatonin receptor are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, in a cross-sectional analysis of persons without diabetes, lower nocturnal melatonin secretion was associated with increased insulin resistance.
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Plasma phospholipid long-chain ?-3 fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: a cohort study.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Long-chain ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5?-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (22:5?-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6?-3), have been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk, but effects on cause-specific and total mortality and potential dose-responses remain controversial. Most observational studies have assessed self-reported dietary intake and most randomized trials have tested effects of adding supplements to dietary intake and evaluated secondary prevention, thus limiting inference for dietary ?3-PUFAs or primary prevention.
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Hemoglobin a1c is associated with increased risk of incident coronary heart disease among apparently healthy, nondiabetic men and women.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a time-integrated marker of glycemic control, predicts risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among diabetics. Few studies have examined HbA1c and risk of CHD among women and men without clinically elevated levels or previously diagnosed diabetes.
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Prospective study of alcohol consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer before and after folic acid fortification in the United States.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the risk of colorectal cancer according to folic acid fortification period in the United States.
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Associations of plasma phospholipid and dietary alpha linolenic acid with incident atrial fibrillation in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Few studies have examined the relationship of ?-linolenic acid (ALA 18:3n-3), an intermediate-chain essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from plants and vegetable oils, with incident atrial fibrillation (AF).
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Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders.
Marcel den Hoed, Mark Eijgelsheim, Tonu Esko, Bianca J J M Brundel, David S Peal, David M Evans, Ilja M Nolte, Ayellet V Segrè, Hilma Holm, Robert E Handsaker, Harm-Jan Westra, Toby Johnson, Aaron Isaacs, Jian Yang, Alicia Lundby, Jing Hua Zhao, Young Jin Kim, Min Jin Go, Peter Almgren, Murielle Bochud, Gabrielle Boucher, Marilyn C Cornelis, Daniel Gudbjartsson, David Hadley, Pim van der Harst, Caroline Hayward, Martin den Heijer, Wilmar Igl, Anne U Jackson, Zoltan Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, John P Kemp, Kati Kristiansson, Claes Ladenvall, Mattias Lorentzon, May E Montasser, Omer T Njajou, Paul F O'Reilly, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Beate St Pourcain, Tuomo Rankinen, Perttu Salo, Toshiko Tanaka, Nicholas J Timpson, Veronique Vitart, Lindsay Waite, William Wheeler, Weihua Zhang, Harmen H M Draisma, Mary F Feitosa, Kathleen F Kerr, Penelope A Lind, Evelin Mihailov, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Ci Song, Michael N Weedon, Weijia Xie, Loïc Yengo, Devin Absher, Christine M Albert, Alvaro Alonso, Dan E Arking, Paul I W de Bakker, Beverley Balkau, Cristina Barlassina, Paola Benaglio, Joshua C Bis, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Søren Brage, Stephen J Chanock, Peter S Chines, Mina Chung, Dawood Darbar, Christian Dina, Marcus Dörr, Paul Elliott, Stephan B Felix, Krista Fischer, Christian Fuchsberger, Eco J C de Geus, Philippe Goyette, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Aki S Havulinna, Susan R Heckbert, Andrew A Hicks, Albert Hofman, Suzanne Holewijn, Femke Hoogstra-Berends, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Majken K Jensen, Asa Johansson, Juhani Junttila, Stefan Kääb, Bart Kanon, Shamika Ketkar, Kay-Tee Khaw, Joshua W Knowles, Angrad S Kooner, Jan A Kors, Meena Kumari, Lili Milani, Päivi Laiho, Edward G Lakatta, Claudia Langenberg, Maarten Leusink, Yongmei Liu, Robert N Luben, Kathryn L Lunetta, Stacey N Lynch, Marcello R P Markus, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Irene Mateo Leach, Wendy L McArdle, Steven A McCarroll, Sarah E Medland, Kathryn A Miller, Grant W Montgomery, Alanna C Morrison, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Pau Navarro, Mari Nelis, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ken K Ong, Anne B Newman, Annette Peters, Ozren Polašek, Anneli Pouta, Peter P Pramstaller, Bruce M Psaty, Dabeeru C Rao, Susan M Ring, Elizabeth J Rossin, Diana Rudan, Serena Sanna, Robert A Scott, Jaban S Sehmi, Stephen Sharp, Jordan T Shin, Andrew B Singleton, Albert V Smith, Nicole Soranzo, Tim D Spector, Chip Stewart, Heather M Stringham, Kirill V Tarasov, André G Uitterlinden, Liesbeth Vandenput, Shih-Jen Hwang, John B Whitfield, Cisca Wijmenga, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Andrew Wong, Quenna Wong, Yalda Jamshidi, Paavo Zitting, Jolanda M A Boer, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ulf Ekelund, Nita G Forouhi, Philippe Froguel, Aroon Hingorani, Erik Ingelsson, Mika Kivimäki, Richard A Kronmal, Diana Kuh, Lars Lind, Nicholas G Martin, Ben A Oostra, Nancy L Pedersen, Thomas Quertermous, Jerome I Rotter, Yvonne T van der Schouw, W M Monique Verschuren, Mark Walker, Demetrius Albanes, David O Arnar, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Michael Boehnke, Rudolf A de Boer, Claude Bouchard, W L Mark Caulfield, John C Chambers, Gary Curhan, Daniele Cusi, Johan Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Wiek H van Gilst, Nicola Glorioso, Jacqueline de Graaf, Leif Groop, Ulf Gyllensten, Wen-Chi Hsueh, Frank B Hu, Heikki V Huikuri, David J Hunter, Carlos Iribarren, Bo Isomaa, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Antti Jula, Mika Kähönen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Melanie M van der Klauw, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter Kraft, Licia Iacoviello, Terho Lehtimäki, Marja-Liisa L Lokki, Braxton D Mitchell, Gerjan Navis, Markku S Nieminen, Claes Ohlsson, Neil R Poulter, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Eric B Rimm, John D Rioux, Federica Rizzi, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Peter S Sever, Denis C Shields, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Alice V Stanton, Ronald P Stolk, David P Strachan, Jean-Claude Tardif, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Jaako Tuomilehto, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Jarmo Virtamo, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Elisabeth Widén, Yoon Shin Cho, Jesper V Olsen, Peter M Visscher, Cristen Willer, Lude Franke, , Jeanette Erdmann, John R Thompson, Arne Pfeufer, Nona Sotoodehnia, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Patrick T Ellinor, Bruno H Ch Stricker, Andres Metspalu, Markus Perola, Jacques S Beckmann, George Davey Smith, Kari Stefansson, Nicholas J Wareham, Patricia B Munroe, Ody C M Sibon, David J Milan, Harold Snieder, Nilesh J Samani, Ruth J F Loos.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate-increasing and heart rate-decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
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Total adiponectin and risk of symptomatic lower extremity peripheral artery disease in men.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Lower concentrations of adiponectin have been linked to subsequent risk of coronary heart disease in healthy individuals. Whether similar relationships exist for the development of systemic atherosclerosis, such as peripheral artery disease (PAD), is uncertain. We investigated the association between total adiponectin and risk of lower extremity PAD.
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Alcoholic beverage consumption by adults compared to dietary guidelines: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010.
J Acad Nutr Diet
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) state that if alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation, which is defined as up to two drinks in a single day for men and one drink for women. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the percentages of adults who, on a given day, drank more than these limits and the percentages who drank too heavily; that is, more than four drinks for men and more than three for women. Dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010, were analyzed. Using a computer-assisted protocol, 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2,740 men and 2,941 women, age 21 years and older. Results were weighted to be nationally representative. Estimated mean daily intake was 1.2 drinks for men and 0.4 for women (1 drink=14 g of ethanol). On a given day, 36% of men and 21% of women consumed alcohol. Whereas 82% of men and 89% of women did not exceed the DGAs limits, 8% of men had more than four drinks, and 3% of women had more than three, amounts defined as heavy. The percentages who drank more than the DGAs limits varied by age group and were highest among men age 31 to 50 years and women age 51 to 70 years. Excessive drinking is an important health problem and is not limited to college-age individuals. Registered dietitians and other health professionals should be aware of excessive drinking by the adult US population. Consumer education resources are available.
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C-reactive protein and the incidence of macular degeneration: pooled analysis of 5 cohorts.
JAMA Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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This study adds to the evidence that elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) predict future risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This information might shed light on underlying pathological mechanisms involving inflammation and could be of clinical utility in the identification of persons at high risk of AMD who may benefit from increased adherence to lifestyle recommendations, eye examination schedules, and therapeutic protocols.
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Novel locus including FGF21 is associated with dietary macronutrient intake.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Dietary intake of macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) has been associated with risk of chronic conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Family studies have reported a moderate contribution of genetics to variation in macronutrient intake. In a genome-wide meta-analysis of a population-based discovery cohort (n = 33 533), rs838133 in FGF21 (19q13.33), rs197273 near TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa-B activator (TANK) (2p24.2), and rs10163409 in FTO (16q12.2) were among the top associations (P < 10(-5)) for percentage of total caloric intake from protein and carbohydrate. rs838133 was replicated in silico in an independent sample from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (CHARGE) Nutrition Working Group (n = 38 360) and attained genome-wide significance in combined analysis (Pjoint = 7.9 × 10(-9)). A cytokine involved in cellular metabolism, FGF21 is a potential susceptibility gene for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our results highlight the potential of genetic variation for determining dietary macronutrient intake.
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Oxidation-specific biomarkers and risk of peripheral artery disease.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The goal of this study was to examine the prospective association between oxidation-specific biomarkers, primarily oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) on apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins (OxPL/apoB) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], and risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD). We examined, as secondary analyses, indirect measures of oxidized lipoproteins, including autoantibodies to malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and apolipoprotein B-100 immune complexes (ApoB-IC).
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Obesity susceptibility loci and uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and cognitive restraint behaviors in men and women.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Many confirmed genetic loci for obesity are expressed in regions of the brain that regulate energy intake and reward-seeking behavior. Whether these loci contribute to the development of specific eating behaviors has not been investigated. The relationship between a genetic susceptibility to obesity and cognitive restraint, uncontrolled and emotional eating was examined.
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A prospective study of positive early-life psychosocial factors and favorable cardiovascular risk in adulthood.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The American Heart Associations national goals for cardiovascular health promotion emphasize that cardiovascular risk originates early in life, but little is known about childhood factors that may increase the likelihood of having a favorable cardiovascular risk (FCR) in adulthood. We examined the prospective association between positive childhood factors and the likelihood of midlife FCR. We also considered pathways through which childhood factors may influence FCR.
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School lunch waste among middle school students: nutrients consumed and costs.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The National School Lunch Program has been guided by modest nutrient standards, and the palatability of meals, which drives consumption, receives inadequate attention. School food waste can have important nutritional and cost implications for policymakers, students, and their families.
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Relation between optimism and lipids in midlife.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The present research examined optimisms relation with total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The hypothesis that optimism is associated with a healthier lipid profile was tested. The participants were 990 mostly white men and women from the Midlife in the United States study, who were, on average, 55.1 years old. Optimism was assessed by self-report using the Life Orientation Test. A fasting blood sample was used to assess the serum lipid levels. Linear and logistic regression models examined the cross-sectional association between optimism and lipid levels, accounting for covariates such as demographic characteristics (e.g., education) and health status (e.g., chronic medical conditions). After adjusting for covariates, the results suggested that greater optimism was associated with greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower triglycerides. Optimism was not associated with low-density lipoprotein or total cholesterol. The findings were robust to a variety of modeling strategies that considered the effect of treatment of cholesterol problems. The results also indicated that diet and body mass index might link optimism with lipids. In conclusion, this is the first study to suggest that optimism is associated with a healthy lipid profile; moreover, these associations can be explained, in part, by the presence of healthier behaviors and a lower body mass index.
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High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors to prevent myocardial infarction (MI) in young and middle-aged women is limited, and the impact of diet is largely unknown. Dietary flavonoids exert potential beneficial effects on endothelial function in short-term trials; however, the relationship between habitual intake and risk of MI in women is unknown.
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Childhood emotional functioning and the developmental origins of cardiovascular disease risk.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Dysregulated emotional functioning has been linked with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among adults. Early life experiences may influence the development of adulthood CVD, but few studies have examined whether potential damaging effects of dysregulated emotional function begin earlier in life. Therefore, we examined associations of child emotional functioning and the 10-year risk of developing CVD in midlife.
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Haptoglobin genotype is a consistent marker of coronary heart disease risk among individuals with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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This study sought to investigate into the biologically plausible interaction between the common haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism rs#72294371 and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
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A genome-wide association study of depressive symptoms.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms.
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Use of Systems Biology Approaches to Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Myocardial Infarction and Blood Cholesterol in the Nurses Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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With the advance of genome-wide association studies and newly identified SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) associations with complex disease, important discoveries have emerged focusing not only on individual genes but on disease-associated pathways and gene sets. The authors used prospective myocardial infarction case-control studies nested in the Nurses Health and Health Professionals Follow-Up Studies to investigate genetic variants associated with myocardial infarction or LDL, HDL, triglycerides, adiponectin and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Using these case-control studies to illustrate an integrative systems biology approach, the authors applied SNP set enrichment analysis to identify gene sets where expression SNPs representing genes from these sets show enrichment in their association with endpoints of interest. The authors also explored an aggregate score approach. While power limited ones ability to detect significance for association of individual loci with myocardial infarction, the authors found significance for loci associated with LDL, HDL, apoB and triglycerides, replicating previous observations. Applying SNP set enrichment analysis and risk score methods, the authors also found significance for three gene sets and for aggregate scores associated with myocardial infarction as well as for loci-related to cardiovascular risk factors, supporting the use of these methods in practice.
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Performance of polygenic scores for predicting phobic anxiety.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Anxiety disorders are common, with a lifetime prevalence of 20% in the U.S., and are responsible for substantial burdens of disability, missed work days and health care utilization. To date, no causal genetic variants have been identified for anxiety, anxiety disorders, or related traits.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.