JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cross-sectional study of the burden of vector-borne and soil-transmitted polyparasitism in rural communities of Coast Province, Kenya.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In coastal Kenya, infection of human populations by a variety of parasites often results in co-infection or poly-parasitism. These parasitic infections, separately and in conjunction, are a major cause of chronic clinical and sub-clinical human disease and exert a long-term toll on economic welfare of affected populations. Risk factors for these infections are often shared and overlap in space, resulting in interrelated patterns of transmission that need to be considered at different spatial scales. Integration of novel quantitative tools and qualitative approaches is needed to analyze transmission dynamics and design effective interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a specimen-sparing multichannel bead assay to detect antiparasite IgG4 for the diagnosis of Schistosoma and Wuchereria infections on the coast of Kenya.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To better delineate the impact of parasitic coinfection in coastal Kenya, we developed a novel specimen-sparing bead assay using multiplex flow immunoassay (MFI) technology to simultaneously measure serum or plasma immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) against Brugia malayi antigen (BMA) and Schistosoma haematobium soluble worm antigen (SWAP). Properties of the bead assay were estimated by latent class analysis using data from S. haematobium egg counts/filarial rapid diagnostic cards (RDTs), parasite-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and the multichannel IgG4 assay. For schistosomiasis, the bead assay had an estimated sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 45%, and it was more sensitive than ELISA or urine egg counts for diagnosing infection. For filariasis, it had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 39%, and it was more sensitive than ELISA or RDT. Measuring antibody by MFI is feasible and may provide more accurate epidemiological information than current parasitological tests, especially in the setting of low-intensity infections.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps--in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed.
Related JoVE Video
Potential for autoimmune pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever virus retinitis.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a significant threat to human health because it can progress to retinitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever. The timing of onset of Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) retinitis suggests an autoimmune origin. To determine whether RVFV retinitis is associated with increased levels of IgG against retinal tissue, we measured and compared levels of IgG against healthy human eye tissue by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that serum samples from RVFV-exposed Kenyans with retinitis (n = 8) were slightly more likely to have antibodies against retinal tissue than control populations, but the correlation was not statistically significant. Further investigation into the possible immune pathogenesis of RVFV retinitis could lead to improved therapies to prevent or treat this severe complication.
Related JoVE Video
Long term study on the effect of mollusciciding with niclosamide in stream habitats on the transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni after community-based chemotherapy in Makueni District, Kenya.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni infection is a persistent public health problem in many Kenyan communities. Although praziquantel is available, re-infection after chemotherapy treatment is inevitable, especially among children. Chemotherapy followed by intermittent mollusciciding of habitats of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host snail, may have longer term benefits, especially if timed to coincide with natural fluctuations in snail populations. METHODS: In this cohort study, the Kambu River (Intervention area) was molluscicided intermittently for 4 years, after mass chemotherapy with praziquantel in the adjacent community of Darajani in January 1997. The nearby Thange River was selected as a control (Non-intervention area), and its adjacent community of Ulilinzi was treated with praziquantel in December 1996. Snail numbers were recorded monthly at 9--10 sites along each river, while rainfall data were collected monthly, and annual parasitological surveys were undertaken in each village. The mollusciciding protocol was adapted to local conditions, and simplified to improve prospects for widespread application. RESULTS: After the initial reduction in prevalence attributable to chemotherapy, there was a gradual increase in the prevalence and intensity of infection in the non-intervention area, and significantly lower levels of re-infection amongst inhabitants of the intervention area. Incidence ratio between areas adjusted for age and gender at the first follow-up survey, 5 weeks after treatment in the non-intervention area and 4 months after treatment in the intervention area was not significant (few people turned positive), while during the following 4 annual surveys these ratios were 0.58 (0.39-0.85), 0.33 (0.18-0.60), 0.14 (0.09-0.21) and 0.45 (0.26-0.75), respectively. Snail numbers were consistently low in the intervention area as a result of the mollusciciding. Following termination of the mollusciciding at the end of 2000, snail populations and infections in snails increased again in the intervention area. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that in the Kenyan setting a combination of chemotherapy followed by intermittent mollusciciding can have longer term benefits than chemotherapy alone.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the health-related quality of life of children in Schistosoma haematobium-endemic communities in Kenya: a cross-sectional study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schistosomiasis remains a global public health challenge, with 93% of the ~237 million infections occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Though rarely fatal, its recurring nature makes it a lifetime disorder with significant chronic health burdens. Much of its negative health impact is due to non-specific conditions such as anemia, undernutrition, pain, exercise intolerance, poor school performance, and decreased work capacity. This makes it difficult to estimate the disease burden specific to schistosomiasis using the standard DALY metric.
Related JoVE Video
Physical condition and maintenance of mosquito bed nets in Kwale County, coastal Kenya.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the extensive ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) over the last decade, the effective lifespan of these nets, especially their physical integrity, under true operational conditions is not well-understood. Usefulness of nets declines primarily due to physical damage or loss of insecticidal activity.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of polyparasitic infections on anemia and undernutrition among Kenyan children living in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We measured prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Plasmodium falciparum, hookworm, and other geohelminths among school-aged children in four endemic villages in Kwale County, Kenya and explored the relationship between multiparasite burden, undernutrition, and anemia. In 2009-2010 surveys, cross-sectional data were obtained for 2,030 children 5-18 years old. Infections were most prevalent for S. haematobium (25-62%), hookworm (11-28%), and falciparum malaria (8-24%). Over one-half of children were anemic, with high rates of acute and chronic malnutrition. Associations with infection status showed significant age and sex differences. For boys, young age, low socioeconomic standing (SES), S. haematobium, and/or malaria infections were associated with greater odds of anemia, wasting, and/or stunting; for girls, heavy S. haematobium infection and age were the significant cofactors for anemia, whereas low SES and older age were linked to stunting. The broad overlap of infection-related causes for anemia and malnutrition and the high frequency of polyparasitic infections suggest that there will be significant advantages to integrated parasite control in this area.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of drought on the spatial pattern of transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in coastal Kenya.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We analyzed temporal changes in spatial patterns of active Schistosoma haematobium infection in different age groups and associated them with ponds infested with Bulinus snails. A major drought between 2001 and 2009 resulted in drying of ponds that were known sources of infection, and we detected very few or no snails in ponds that were infested in the past. The household-level spatial pattern of infection for children of various age groups in 2009 was contrasted with historical data from 2000. The significant local clustering of high- and low-infection levels among school-aged children that occurred in 2000 was absent in 2009. We attribute the disappearance of significant clustering around historical transmission hot spots to a decade-long drought in our study area. The implications of extreme weather and climate conditions on risk and transmission of S. haematobium and their relevance to control strategies are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission indices on the south coast of Kenya.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Besides significantly reducing malaria vector densities, prolonged usage of bed nets has been linked to decline of Anopheles gambiae s.s. relative to Anopheles arabiensis, changes in host feeding preference of malaria vectors, and behavioural shifts to exophagy (outdoor biting) for the two important malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus. In southern coastal Kenya, bed net use was negligible in 1997-1998 when Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae s.s. were the primary malaria vectors, with An. arabiensis and Anopheles merus playing a secondary role. Since 2001, bed net use has increased progressively and reached high levels by 2009-2010 with corresponding decline in malaria transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Measuring fitness of Kenyan children with polyparasitic infections using the 20-meter shuttle run test as a morbidity metric.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To date, there has been no standardized approach to the assessment of aerobic fitness among children who harbor parasites. In quantifying the disability associated with individual or multiple chronic infections, accurate measures of physical fitness are important metrics. This is because exercise intolerance, as seen with anemia and many other chronic disorders, reflects the bodys inability to maintain adequate oxygen supply (VO(2) max) to the motor tissues, which is frequently linked to reduced quality-of-life in terms of physical and job performance. The objective of our study was to examine the associations between polyparasitism, anemia, and reduced fitness in a high risk Kenyan population using novel implementation of the 20-meter shuttle run test (20mSRT), a well-standardized, low-technology physical fitness test.
Related JoVE Video
Postepidemic analysis of Rift Valley fever virus transmission in northeastern kenya: a village cohort study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In endemic areas, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a significant threat to both human and animal health. Goals of this study were to measure human anti-RVFV seroprevalence in a high-risk area following the 2006-2007 Kenyan Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemic, to identify risk factors for interval seroconversion, and to monitor individuals previously exposed to RVFV in order to document the persistence of their anti-RVFV antibodies.
Related JoVE Video
Arbovirus prevalence in mosquitoes, Kenya.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have investigated the many mosquito species that harbor arboviruses in Kenya. During the 2006-2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in North Eastern Province, Kenya, exophilic mosquitoes were collected from homesteads within 2 affected areas: Gumarey (rural) and Sogan-Godud (urban). Mosquitoes (n = 920) were pooled by trap location and tested for Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. The most common mosquitoes trapped belonged to the genus Culex (75%). Of 105 mosquito pools tested, 22% were positive for Rift Valley fever virus, 18% were positive for West Nile virus, and 3% were positive for both. Estimated mosquito minimum infection rates did not differ between locations. Our data demonstrate the local abundance of mosquitoes that could propagate arboviral infections in Kenya and the high prevalence of vector arbovirus positivity during a Rift Valley fever outbreak.
Related JoVE Video
Human cord blood CD4+CD25hi regulatory T cells suppress prenatally acquired T cell responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In malaria endemic regions, a fetus is often exposed in utero to Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage Ags. In some newborns, this can result in the induction of immune suppression. We have previously shown these modulated immune responses to persist postnatally, with a subsequent increase in a childs susceptibility to infection. To test the hypothesis that this immune suppression is partially mediated by malaria-specific regulatory T cells (T(regs)) in utero, cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) were obtained from 44 Kenyan newborns of women with and without malaria at delivery. CD4(+)CD25(lo) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(hi) FOXP3(+) cells (T(regs)) were enriched from CBMC. T(reg) frequency and HLA-DR expression on T(regs) were significantly greater for Kenyan as compared with North American CBMC (p < 0.01). CBMC/CD4(+) T cells cultured with P. falciparum blood-stage Ags induced production of IFN-?, IL-13, IL-10, and/or IL-5 in 50% of samples. Partial depletion of CD25(hi) cells augmented the Ag-driven IFN-? production in 69% of subjects with malaria-specific responses and revealed additional Ag-reactive lymphocytes in previously unresponsive individuals (n = 3). Addition of T(regs) to CD4(+)CD25(lo) cells suppressed spontaneous and malaria Ag-driven production of IFN-? in a dose-dependent fashion, until production was completely inhibited in most subjects. In contrast, T(regs) only partially suppressed malaria-induced Th2 cytokines. IL-10 or TGF-? did not mediate this suppression. Thus, prenatal exposure to malaria blood-stage Ags induces T(regs) that primarily suppress Th1-type recall responses to P. falciparum blood-stage Ags. Persistence of these T(regs) postnatally could modify a childs susceptibility to malaria infection and disease.
Related JoVE Video
Fetal immune activation to malaria antigens enhances susceptibility to in vitro HIV infection in cord blood mononuclear cells.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant cause of new HIV infections in many countries. To examine whether fetal immune activation as a consequence of prenatal exposure to parasitic antigens increases the risk of MTCT, cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) from Kenyan and North American newborns were examined for relative susceptibility to HIV infection in vitro. Kenyan CBMCs were 3-fold more likely to be infected with HIV than were North American CBMCs (P=.03). Kenyan CBMCs with recall responses to malaria antigens demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to HIV when compared with Kenyan CBMCs lacking recall responses to malaria (P=.03). CD4(+) T cells from malaria-sensitized newborns expressed higher levels of CD25 and human leukocyte antigen DR ex vivo, which is consistent with increased immune activation. CD4(+) T cells were the primary reservoir of infection at day 4 after virus exposure. Thus, prenatal exposure and in utero priming to malaria may increase the risk of MTCT.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium DNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification: identification of infected snails from early prepatency.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monitoring post-control transmission of schistosomes by examining humans becomes less effective as infection rates among humans decrease. Molecular monitoring of prepatent schistosome infection in snails by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used for studying human-to-snail transmission, and snail prepatent infection rates were found to correspond to infection prevalence and average intensity in human populations contacting the sites studied. We have now developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for identifying Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium to facilitate large-scale evaluation of post-intervention transmission potential. LAMP primers were designed based on the Sm1-7 and DraI repeated sequences of the corresponding schistosomes, and amplification by LAMP of these 121-basepair highly abundant sequences provided a detection sensitivity of 0.1 fg of genomic DNA. When these LAMP assays were applied for examining infected laboratory snails, it was possible to identify infection from the first day after exposure to miracidia. The potential advantages of these assays are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity.
Geospat Health
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the "greedy growth scan", is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the "greedy growth scan" is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.
Related JoVE Video
Severe Rift Valley fever may present with a characteristic clinical syndrome.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an emerging pathogen that is transmitted in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Egypt, and the Arabian peninsula. Outbreaks of RVF, like other diseases caused by hemorrhagic fever viruses, typically present in locations with very limited health resources, where initial diagnosis must be based only on history and physical examination. Although general signs and symptoms of human RVF have been documented, a specific clinical syndrome has not been described. In 2007, a Kenyan outbreak of RVF provided opportunity to assess acutely ill RVF patients and better delineate its presentation and clinical course. Our data reveal an identifiable clinical syndrome suggestive of severe RVF, characterized by fever, large-joint arthralgia, and gastrointestinal complaints and later followed by jaundice, right upper-quadrant pain, and delirium, often coinciding with hemorrhagic manifestations. Further characterization of a distinct RVF clinical syndrome will aid earlier detection of RVF outbreaks and should allow more rapid implementation of control.
Related JoVE Video
The risks of malaria infection in Kenya in 2009.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To design an effective strategy for the control of malaria requires a map of infection and disease risks to select appropriate suites of interventions. Advances in model based geo-statistics and malaria parasite prevalence data assemblies provide unique opportunities to redefine national Plasmodium falciparum risk distributions. Here we present a new map of malaria risk for Kenya in 2009.
Related JoVE Video
Can prenatal malaria exposure produce an immune tolerant phenotype? A prospective birth cohort study in Kenya.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malaria in pregnancy can expose the fetus to malaria-infected erythrocytes or their soluble products, thereby stimulating T and B cell immune responses to malaria blood stage antigens. We hypothesized that fetal immune priming, or malaria exposure in the absence of priming (putative tolerance), affects the childs susceptibility to subsequent malaria infections.
Related JoVE Video
An updated atlas of human helminth infections: the example of East Africa.
Int J Health Geogr
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm) infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where empirical data are seldom in the public domain. In an attempt to address the paucity of geographical information on helminth risk, this article describes the development of an updated global atlas of human helminth infection, showing the example of East Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where co-endemic, the two parasites are thought to synergistically exacerbate hepatosplenomegaly. Here, two potential health consequences, i.e. dilation of the portal vein (indicative of increased portal pressure) and stunting of growth, were investigated in a study area where children were chronically exposed to malaria throughout while S. mansoni transmission was geographically restricted. Hepatosplenomegaly was associated with increased portal vein diameters, with enlargement of the spleen rather than the liver being more closely associated with dilation. Dilation of the portal vein was exacerbated by S. mansoni infection in an intensity-dependent manner. The prevalence of growth stunting was not associated with either relative exposure rates to malarial infection or with S. mansoni infection status but was significantly associated with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification suitable for molecular monitoring of schistosome-infected snails in field laboratories.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously described loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni DNA in infected snails. In the present study, we adapted the LAMP assay for application in field laboratories in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. Isolation of DNA was simplified by blotting snail tissue (extracted in NaOH/sodium dodecyl sulfate) onto treated membranes, which enabled preservation at ambient temperatures. A ready-mix of LAMP reagents, suitable for shipment at ambient temperature and storage in minimal refrigeration, was used. Local survey teams without experience in molecular biology acquired operational expertise with this test within a few hours. Fifty-four field-caught snails were tested locally by LAMP and 59 were tested at similar conditions in Jerusalem. The LAMP results were consistent with those of a polymerase chain reaction; only four samples showed false-negative results. Results indicate that LAMP assays are suitable for detection of S. haematobium and S. mansoni in low-technology parasitology laboratories in which schistosomiasis elimination activities are undertaken.
Related JoVE Video
Projecting the long-term impact of school- or community-based mass-treatment interventions for control of Schistosoma infection.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schistosomiasis remains a significant health burden in many areas of the world. Morbidity control, focused on limiting infection intensity through periodic delivery of anti-schistosomal medicines, is the thrust of current World Health Organization guidelines (2006) for reduction of Schistosoma-related disease. A new appreciation of the lifetime impact of repeated Schistosoma infection has directed attention toward strategies for greater suppression of parasite infection per se, with the goal of transmission interruption. Variations in drug schedules involving increased population coverage and/or treatment frequency are now undergoing field trials. However, their relative effectiveness in long-term infection suppression is presently unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Birthweight in offspring of mothers with high prevalence of helminth and malaria infection in coastal Kenya.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Results of studies on the associations of maternal helminth infection and malaria-helminth co-infection on birth outcomes have been mixed. A group of 696 pregnant women from the Kwale district in Kenya were recruited and tested for malaria and helminth infection at delivery. Birthweight was documented for 664 infants. A total of 42.7% of the mothers were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, 30.6% with Schistosoma haematobium, 36.2% with filariasis, 31.5% with hookworm, and 5.9% with Trichuris trichiura; co-infection was present in 46.7%. Low birthweight (LBW) (weight < 2,500 grams) was present in 15.4% of the offspring, and 8.3% had a weight z-score ? 2 SD below the World Health Organization mean. Only gravida, age, and locale had a significant association with LBW. The high prevalence of maternal infection coupled with a higher than expected percentage of LBW highlight a need for further investigation of the association of maternal co-infection with LBW.
Related JoVE Video
Differentiating Schistosoma haematobium from related animal schistosomes by PCR amplifying inter-repeat sequences flanking newly selected repeated sequences.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In schistosomiasis elimination programs, successful discrimination of Schistosoma haematobium from the related animal Schistosoma parasites will be essential for accurate detection of human parasite transmission. Polymerase chain reaction assays employing primers from two newly selected repeated sequences, named Sh73 and Sh77, did not discriminate S. haematobium when amplifying Sh73-77 intra- or inter-repeats. However, amplification between Sh73 and the previously described DraI repeat exhibited discriminative banding patterns for S. haematobium and Schistosoma bovis (sensitivity 1 pg and 10 pg, respectively). It also enabled banding pattern discrimination of Schistosoma curassoni and Schistosoma intercalatum, but Schistosoma mattheei and Schistosoma margrebowiei did not yield amplicons. Similar inter-repeat amplification between Sh77 and DraI yielded amplicons with discriminative banding for S. haematobium, and S. bovis; however, S. mattheei was detected only at low sensitivity (1 ng). The Sh73/DraI assay detected snails infected with S. haematobium, S. bovis, or both, and should prove useful for screening snails where discrimination of S. haematobium from related schistosomes is required.
Related JoVE Video
Partnering parasites: evidence of synergism between heavy Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium species infections in Kenyan children.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Residents of resource-poor tropical countries carry heavy burdens of concurrent parasitic infections, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to help identify the social and environmental determinants of multiple parasite infection in one such community.
Related JoVE Video
In utero activation of fetal memory T cells alters host regulatory gene expression and affects HIV susceptibility.
Virology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In utero priming to malaria antigens renders cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) more susceptible to productive HIV infection in vitro in the absence of exogenous stimulation. This provides a unique model to better understand mechanisms affecting lymphocyte susceptibility to HIV infection in vivo. Effector memory CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells (T(EM)) were the exclusive initial targets of HIV with rapid spread to central memory cells. HIV susceptibility correlated with increased expression of CD25 and HLA-DR on T(EM). Virus entered all samples equally, however gag/pol RNA was only detected in HIV susceptible samples, suggesting regulation of proviral gene transcription. Targeted analysis of human genes in memory T cells showed greater expression of IFNG, NFATc1, IRF1, FOS, and PPIA and decreased expression YY1 and TFCP2 in HIV susceptible samples. Thus fetal priming to exogenous antigens enhances specific proviral gene transcription pathways in effector memory cells that may increase risk of vertical transmission of HIV.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.