Our purpose was to characterize changes in paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and concentration after single aerobic exercise sessions conducted before and after 6 weeks of niacin therapy in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Twelve men with MetS expended 500 kcal by walking at 65% of VO2max before and after a 6-week regimen of niacin. Niacin doses were titrated by 500 mg/week from 500 to 1500 mg/day and maintained at 1500 mg/day for the last 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected before and 24 hours after each exercise session and analyzed for PON1 activity, PON1 concentration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), apolipoprotein A1, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oLDL), lipoprotein particle sizes and concentrations. PON1 activity, PON1 concentration, MPO, and oLDL were unaltered following the independent effects of exercise and niacin (P > 0.05 for all). High-density lipoprotein particle size decreased by 3% (P = 0.040) and concentrations of small very low-density lipoprotein increased (P = 0.016) following exercise. PON1 activity increased 6.1% (P = 0.037) and PON1 concentrations increased 11.3% (P = 0.015) with the combination of exercise and niacin. Exercise and niacin works synergistically to increase PON1 activity and concentration with little or no changes in lipoproteins or markers of lipid oxidation.
Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health.
Postprandial hyperlipemia produces long-term derangements in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity which are strongly linked to atherogenesis. The purpose of this review is to (1) provide a qualitative analysis of the available literature examining the dysregulation of postprandial lipid metabolism in the presence of obesity, (2) inspect the role of adiposity distribution and sex on postprandial lipid metabolism, and (3) examine the role of energy deficit (exercise- and/or energy restriction-mediated), isoenergetic low-carbohydrate diets, and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipid metabolism. We conclude from the literature that central adiposity primarily accounts for sex-related differences in postprandial lipemia and that aerobic exercise attenuates this response in obese or lean men and women to a similar extent through potentially unique mechanisms. In contrast, energy restriction produces only mild reductions in postprandial lipemia suggesting that exercise may be superior to energy restriction alone as a strategy for lowering postprandial lipemia. However, isoenergetic very low-carbohydrate diets and n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduce postprandial lipemia indicating that macronutrient manipulations reduce postprandial lipemia in the absence of energy restriction. Therefore, interactions between exercise/energy restriction and alterations in macronutrient content remain top priorities for the field to identify optimal behavioral treatments to reduce postprandial lipemia.
As part of a coordinated effort to expand our research activity at the interface of Aging and Energetics a team of investigators at The University of Alabama at Birmingham systematically assayed and catalogued the top research priorities identified in leading publications in that domain, believing the result would be useful to the scientific community at large.
Testicular Leydig cells are the predominant source of the male sex steroid hormone testosterone (T), which is required to maintain male fertility. There is now growing evidence that environmental stressors, including chemicals present in food, air and water, may affect energy balance. A relationship between energy balance and reproductive capacity has been proposed for a long time. In the present study, developmental exposures of male rats to soy isoflavones in the maternal diet from gestational day 12 to day 21 post-partum enhanced adiponectin expression in adipose tissue and increased serum adiponectin concentrations in adulthood. However, exposure to soy isoflavones caused a decrease in T production and expression of adiponectin and its receptor (adipoR2) in Leydig cells. In separate experiments, incubation of Leydig cells with recombinant adiponectin in the absence of isoflavones caused a decrease in T biosynthesis associated with diminished expression of the cholesterol transporter steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Thus, chemical-induced alterations in serum adiponectin concentrations have implication for steroid hormone secretion. The results also imply that changes in adipose tissue metabolism occasioned by exposure to dietary estrogens, and perhaps other estrogenic agents, possibly contribute to deficiencies in reproductive capacity attributed to these compounds.
In preclinical reports, restriction of dietary methionine intake was shown to enhance metabolic flexibility, improve lipid profiles, and reduce fat deposition. The present report is the outcome of a "proof of concept" study to evaluate the efficacy of dietary methionine restriction (MR) in humans with metabolic syndrome.
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) limits fat deposition and decreases plasma leptin, while increasing food consumption, total energy expenditure (EE), plasma adiponectin, and expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT). beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR) serve as conduits for sympathetic input to adipose tissue, but their role in mediating the effects of MR on energy homeostasis is unclear. Energy intake, weight, and adiposity were modestly higher in beta(3)-AR(-/-) mice on the Control diet compared with wild-type (WT) mice, but the hyperphagic response to the MR diet and the reduction in fat deposition did not differ between the genotypes. The absence of beta(3)-ARs also did not diminish the ability of MR to increase total EE and plasma adiponectin or decrease leptin mRNA, but it did block the MR-dependent increase in UCP1 mRNA in BAT but not WAT. In a further study, propranolol was used to antagonize remaining beta-adrenergic input (beta(1)- and beta(2)-ARs) in beta(3)-AR(-/-) mice, and this treatment blocked >50% of the MR-induced increase in total EE and UCP1 induction in both BAT and WAT. We conclude that signaling through beta-adrenergic receptors is a component of the mechanism used by dietary MR to increase EE, and that beta(1)- and beta(2)-ARs are able to substitute for beta(3)-ARs in mediating the effect of dietary MR on EE. These findings are consistent with the involvement of both UCP1-dependent and -independent mechanisms in the physiological responses affecting energy balance that are produced by dietary MR.
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) is a mimetic of chronic dietary restriction (DR) in the sense that MR increases rodent longevity, but without food restriction. We report here that MR also persistently increases total energy expenditure (EE) and limits fat deposition despite increasing weight-specific food consumption. In Fischer 344 (F344) rats consuming control or MR diets for 3, 9, and 20 mo, mean EE was 1.5-fold higher in MR vs. control rats, primarily due to higher EE during the night at all ages. The day-to-night transition produced a twofold higher heat increment of feeding (3.0 degrees C vs. 1.5 degrees C) in MR vs. controls and an exaggerated increase in respiratory quotient (RQ) to values greater than 1, indicative of the interconversion of glucose to lipid by de novo lipogenesis. The simultaneous inhibition of glucose utilization and shift to fat oxidation during the day was also more complete in MR (RQ approximately 0.75) vs. controls (RQ approximately 0.85). Dietary MR produced a rapid and persistent increase in uncoupling protein 1 expression in brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) in conjunction with decreased leptin and increased adiponectin levels in serum, suggesting that remodeling of the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue may have an important role in the overall increase in EE. We conclude that the hyperphagic response to dietary MR is matched to a coordinated increase in uncoupled respiration, suggesting the engagement of a nutrient-sensing mechanism, which compensates for limited methionine through integrated effects on energy homeostasis.
The cardioprotective effects of lipid-lowering drugs have been primarily attributed to their effects on blood lipid metabolism. However, emerging evidence indicates that lipid-lowering drugs also modulate the synthesis and secretion of adipose tissue-secreted proteins referred to as adipokines. Adipokines influence energy homeostasis and metabolism and have also been shown to modulate the vascular inflammatory cascade. The purpose of this review will be to examine the reported effects of commonly used lipid-lowering drugs (statins, fibrates, niacin and omega-3-fatty acids) on the circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis-factor-? (TNF-?), Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and resistin. Overall, the lipid-lowering drugs reviewed have minimal effects on leptin and resistin concentrations.Conversely, circulating adiponectin concentrations are consistently increased by each lipid-lowering drug reviewed with the greatest effects produced by niacin. Studies that have examined the effects of statins, niacin and omega-3-fatty acids on TNF-? demonstrate that these agents have little effect on circulating TNF-? concentrations. Niacin and fibrates appear to lower RBP4 but not resistin concentrations. The results of the available studies suggest that a strong relationship exists between pharmacological reductions in blood lipids and adiponectin that is not obvious for other adipokines reviewed.
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the initial metabolic state and exercise-induced endotoxaemia on the appearance of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) during exercise. Eleven males (36.6 ± 4.9 yrs, 1.7 ± 0.1 m, 74.5 ± 7.7 kg, DEXA body fat % 17.2 ± 6.6, VO2max 57.4 ± 7.4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) underwent two isoenergetic diets designed to change their initial metabolic status by either depleting or maintaining their hepatic and muscular glycogen content. These diets and accompanying exercise sessions were performed by each participant in the days before completing a laboratory-based duathlon (5-km run, 30-km cycling, 10-km run). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately and 1- and 2-h following the duathlon for determination of insulin (IN), glucagon (GL), endotoxin, aspartic aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) markers. GIS were assessed by survey before and after exercise. Diet content produced a different energy status as determined by macronutrient content and the IN/GL ratio (p < 0.05), and mild exercise-induced endotoxaemia was observed in both experimental duathlons. Regardless of the diet, the AST/ALT ratio following exercise and in the recovery phase indicated hepatocyte and liver parenchyma structural damage. In spite of GIS, no significant correlations between endotoxin levels and GIS were found. In conclusion, increased markers of endotoxaemia observed with the high-intensity exercise were unrelated to hepatic function and/or GIS before and after exercise. Key pointsGastrointestinal symptoms before, during, and after a competition are reported by approximately 20%-50% of the athletes participating in endurance events such as marathon, cycling and triathlon.Energy status, exercise-induced endotoxaemia and liver structural damage might be related to gastrointestinal symptoms.In this study, gastrointestinal symptoms observed before and after endurance exercise were unrelated to endotoxin levels or hepatic structural damage.
Fetuin-A, a liver-secreted phosphoprotein and physiological inhibitor of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, is associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. However, studies on the modulation of circulating levels of fetuin-A are limited. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of niacin administration on serum total- and phosphorylated fetuin-A (phosphofetuin-A) concentrations in individuals with MetS and correlate with changes in serum lipids, insulin sensitivity, and markers of inflammation.
Western blot detection methods have traditionally used X-ray films to capture chemiluminescence. The increasing costs for film, reagents, and maintenance have driven researchers away from darkrooms to more sensitive and technologically advanced digital imaging systems. Cooled charge coupled devices (CCD) cameras capture both chemiluminescence and fluorescence images, with limitations for each detection method. Chemiluminescence detection is highly sensitive and relies on an enzymatic reaction that produces light, which can be detected by a CCD camera that records photons and displays an image based on the amount of light generated. However, the enzymatic reaction is dynamic and changes over time making it necessary to optimize reaction times and imaging. Fluorescent detection with a CCD camera offers a solution to this problem since the signal generated by the proteins on the membrane is measured in a static state. Despite this advantage, many researchers continue to use chemiluminescent detection methods due to the generally poor performance of fluorophores in the visible spectrum. Infrared imaging systems offer a solution to the dynamic reactions of chemiluminescence and the poor performance of fluorophores detected in the visible spectrum by imaging fluorphores in the infrared spectrum. Infrared imaging is equally sensitive to chemiluminescence and more sensitive to visible fluorescence due in part to reduced autofluorescence in the longer infrared wavelength. Furthermore, infrared detection is static, which allows a wider linear detection range than chemiluminescence without a loss of signal. A distinct advantage of infrared imaging is the ability to simultaneously detect proteins on the same blot, which minimizes the need for stripping and reprobing leading to an increase in detection efficiency. Here, we describe the methodology for chemiluminescent (UVP BioChemi) and infrared (LI-COR Odyssey) imaging, and briefly discuss their advantages and disadvantages.
Serum adiponectin concentrations are higher in women than men. The sexual dimorphism for adiponectin has been attributed to the direct effects of testosterone on adipose tissue adiponectin secretion. However, serum testosterone and adiponectin concentrations are generally lower in obese men than lean men, suggesting that sex steroids may not be the only factor that contributes to sex differences in serum adiponectin. The primary objective of this study was to examine the influence of sex, body composition, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) on serum adiponectin concentrations. Women and men between the ages of 18 and 35 years were consecutively accrued into the study. Sixty-one participants were partitioned into normal-weight (15 female and 16 male) or obese (14 female and 16 male) groups. Blood samples were obtained after a 12-hour fast. Differences between groups were determined by analysis of variance with Tukey-Kramer post hoc testing. Serum adiponectin was 26% higher in women compared with men. Body mass index was associated with total serum adiponectin in men (r = -0.63, P < .05) but not women. Adiponectin was correlated with the homeostasis model assessment index in women (r = -0.56, P < .05) and men (r = -0.58, P < .05) and with NEFAs (r = -0.68, P < .05) in men only. After partitioning men and women into normal-weight and obese groups, serum adiponectin was lower and NEFAs were higher in obese men only. Homeostasis model assessment was similar between obese women and men despite higher NEFAs in the obese men. Leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were higher in obese participants but were not associated with serum NEFAs. These results suggest that serum NEFAs may reduce adiponectin concentrations independent of their effects on insulin sensitivity in obese young men.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) activation decreased serum testosterone (T) in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2) in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR?. It is not clear if PPAR? modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR? activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR? activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR? activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats treated with the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione). Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR? mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR? activation. PPAR? activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR? activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR? by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.
Elevated fasting and postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Aerobic exercise reduces serum triglyceride concentrations in the presence or absence of weight loss. Although pharmacological interventions are often used in combination with aerobic exercise to achieve target triglyceride concentrations, information on the combined effects of aerobic exercise and lipid-modifying agents on serum triglycerides is limited. This review examines the independent and combined effects of both interventions on serum fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations from the available literature. Reductions in serum triglycerides after aerobic exercise are associated with an increase in skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and a decrease in hepatic triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) synthesis and secretion. Lipid-modifying agents such as niacin, omega-3 fatty acids, and statins also decrease fasting and postprandial triglycerides by increasing lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and/or decreasing VLDL synthesis. When combined, lipid-modifying agents may reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride secretion to an extent in which aerobic exercise cannot provide any additional benefit. These observations indicate that aerobic exercise and pharmacological strategies reduce serum triglycerides by similar mechanisms, which may attenuate the triglyceride-lowering capacity of the concordant treatment.
Niacin (nicotinic acid) has recently been shown to increase serum adiponectin concentrations in men with the metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which niacin regulates the intracellular trafficking and secretion of adiponectin. Since niacin appears to exert its effects on lipolysis through receptor (GPR109A)-dependent and -independent pathways, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the role of the recently identified GPR109A receptor in adiponectin secretion. Initial in vivo studies in rats demonstrated that niacin (30 mg/kg po) acutely increases serum adiponectin concentrations, whereas it decreases NEFAs. Further in vitro studies demonstrated an increase in adiponectin secretion and a decrease in lipolysis in primary adipocytes following treatment with niacin or beta-hydroxybutyrate (an endogenous ligand of the GPR109A receptor), but these effects were blocked when adipocytes were pretreated with pertussis toxin. Niacin had no effect on adiponectin secretion or lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which have limited cell surface expression of the GPR109A receptor. To further substantiate these in vitro findings, wild-type and GPR109A receptor knockout mice were administered a single dose of niacin or placebo, and serum was obtained for the determination of adiponectin and NEFA concentrations. Serum adiponectin concentrations increased and serum NEFAs decreased in the wild-type mice within 10 min following niacin administration. However, niacin administration had no effect on adiponectin and NEFA concentrations in the GPR109A receptor knockout mice. These results demonstrate that the GPR109A receptor plays an important role in the dual regulation of adiponectin secretion and lipolysis.
Pharmacological agents used to treat primary and combined hyperlipidemia reduce cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Risk reduction has been attributed to improvements in blood lipid and lipoprotein characteristics. However, each class of available lipid-lowering drugs has been shown to exhibit pleiotropic effects that broaden their anticipated actions. Indeed, the results of a growing number of available studies suggest that a strong relationship exists between pharmacological reductions in blood lipids and circulating concentrations of the adipose tissue derived protein, adiponectin. Adiponectin is the most abundantly secreted protein from adipose tissue and has been shown to decrease hepatic glucose production, increase fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle, and decrease vascular inflammation. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the available classes of lipid-lowering drugs (statins, fibrates, niacin, and omega-3-fatty acids) on circulating adiponectin and the known mechanisms which produce these important events.
To characterize adiponectin protein complexes in lean and obese horses.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.