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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantitative trait loci from two genotypes of oat (Avena sativa L.) conditioning resistance to Puccinia coronata.
Phytopathology
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Abstract Developing oat cultivars with partial resistance to crown rust would be beneficial and cost-effective for disease management. Two recombinant inbred line populations were generated by crossing the susceptible cultivar 'Provena' with two partially resistant sources, 'CDC Boyer' and breeding line 94197A1-9-2-2-2-5. A third mapping population was generated by crossing the partially resistant sources to validate the QTL results. The three populations were evaluated for crown rust severity in the field at Louisiana State University (LSU) in 2009 and 2010 and at the Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL) in St. Paul, Minnesota in 2009, 2010, and 2011. An iSelect platform assays containing 5744 oat single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to genotype the populations. From the 2009 CDL test, linkage analyses revealed two QTL for partial resistance in the Provena/CDC Boyer population on chromosome 19A. One of the 19A QTL was also detected in the 2009 LSU test. Another QTL was detected in on chromosome 12D in the CDL 2009 test. In the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population, only one QTL was detected on chromosome 13A in the CDL 2011 test. The 13A QTL from the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population was validated in CDC Boyer /94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population in the CDL 2010 and 2011 tests. Comparative analysis of the significant markers sequences with the rice genome database revealed 15 candidate genes for disease resistance on chromosomes 4 and 6 of rice. These genes could be potential targets for cloning from the two resistant parents.
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High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array mapping in Brassica oleracea: identification of QTL associated with carotenoid variation in broccoli florets.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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A high-resolution genetic linkage map of B. oleracea was developed from a B. napus SNP array. The work will facilitate genetic and evolutionary studies in Brassicaceae. A broccoli population, VI-158 × BNC, consisting of 150 F2:3 families was used to create a saturated Brassica oleracea (diploid: CC) linkage map using a recently developed rapeseed (Brassica napus) (tetraploid: AACC) Illumina Infinium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The map consisted of 547 non-redundant SNP markers spanning 948.1 cM across nine chromosomes with an average interval size of 1.7 cM. As the SNPs are anchored to the genomic reference sequence of the rapid cycling B. oleracea TO1000, we were able to estimate that the map provides 96 % coverage of the diploid genome. Carotenoid analysis of 2 years data identified 3 QTLs on two chromosomes that are associated with up to half of the phenotypic variation associated with the accumulation of total or individual compounds. By searching the genome sequences of the two related diploid species (B. oleracea and B. rapa), we further identified putative carotenoid candidate genes in the region of these QTLs. This is the first description of the use of a B. napus SNP array to rapidly construct high-density genetic linkage maps of one of the constituent diploid species. The unambiguous nature of these markers with regard to genomic sequences provides evidence to the nature of genes underlying the QTL, and demonstrates the value and impact this resource will have on Brassica research.
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A major quantitative trait locus conferring adult plant partial resistance to crown rust in oat.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae, is the most important disease of oat worldwide. Adult plant resistance (APR), based upon partial resistance, has proven to be a durable rust management strategy in other cereal rust pathosystems. The crown rust APR in the oat line MN841801 has been effective for more than 30 years. The genetic basis of this APR was studied under field conditions in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations: 1) AC Assiniboia/MN841801, 2) AC Medallion/MN841801, and 3) Makuru/MN841801. The populations were evaluated for crown rust resistance with the crown rust isolate CR251 (race BRBB) in multiple environments. The 6 K oat and 90 K wheat Illumina Infinium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays were used for genotyping the AC Assiniboia/MN841801 population. KASP assays were designed for selected SNPs and genotyped on the other two populations.
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Failure mode and effects analysis applied to the maintenance and repair of anesthetic equipment in an austere medical environment.
Int J Qual Health Care
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Medical technology designed for Western settings frequently does not function adequately or as intended when placed in an austere clinical environment because of issues such as the instability of the electrical grid, environmental conditions, access to replacement parts, level of provider training and general absence of biomedical engineering support. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of applying failure mode and effects analysis as part of an implementation strategy for medical devices in austere medical settings.
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A need for a transdisciplinary environment: the Plant Pathways Elucidation Project.
Trends Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The Plant Pathways Elucidation Project (P2EP) is a multi-institutional project that utilizes cutting-edge genomics research and related disciplines to provide greater understanding of the relation between plant-pathway products and human health. P2EP includes an educational focus to expose student scholars to the rigors of research, while harnessing open collaborations between academia and industry.
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Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial synangiosis as a safe, effective, and durable method for treatment of moyamoya for most children in this potentially high-risk population.
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Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in patients undergoing tethered cord surgery after fetal myelomeningocele repair.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Fetal myelomeningocele closure has been shown to be advantageous in a number of areas. In this study, the authors report on neural function in patients who had previously undergone fetal myelomeningocele repair and returned to the authors' institution for further surgery that included intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.
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Restarting the cycle: incidence and predictors of first acute care use after nursing home discharge.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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To describe the time to first acute care use (e.g., emergency department (ED) use without hospitalization or rehospitalization) for older adults discharged to home after receiving postacute care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs); to identify predictors of first acute care use.
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Using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for genomic discovery in cultivated oat.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Advances in next-generation sequencing offer high-throughput and cost-effective genotyping alternatives, including genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Results have shown that this methodology is efficient for genotyping a variety of species, including those with complex genomes. To assess the utility of GBS in cultivated hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.), seven bi-parental mapping populations and diverse inbred lines from breeding programs around the world were studied. We examined technical factors that influence GBS SNP calls, established a workflow that combines two bioinformatics pipelines for GBS SNP calling, and provided a nomenclature for oat GBS loci. The high-throughput GBS system enabled us to place 45,117 loci on an oat consensus map, thus establishing a positional reference for further genomic studies. Using the diversity lines, we estimated that a minimum density of one marker per 2 to 2.8 cM would be required for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and GBS markers met this density requirement in most chromosome regions. We also demonstrated the utility of GBS in additional diagnostic applications related to oat breeding. We conclude that GBS is a powerful and useful approach, which will have many additional applications in oat breeding and genomic studies.
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Comparative systems biology reveals allelic variation modulating Tocochromanol profiles in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tocochromanols are recognized for nutritional content, plant stress response, and seed longevity. Here we present a systems biological approach to characterize and develop predictive assays for genes affecting tocochromanol variation in barley. Major QTL, detected in three regions of a SNP linkage map, affected multiple tocochromanol forms. Candidate genes were identified through barley/rice orthology and sequenced in genotypes with disparate tocochromanol profiles. Gene-specific markers, designed based on observed polymorphism, mapped to the originating QTL, increasing R2 values at the respective loci. Polymorphism within promoter regions corresponded to motifs known to influence gene expression. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed a trend of increased expression in tissues grown at cold temperatures. These results demonstrate utility of a novel method for rapid gene identification and characterization, and provide a resource for efficient development of barley lines with improved tocochromanol profiles.
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Management of subdural hygromas associated with arachnoid cysts.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Arachnoid cysts may occasionally be associated with subdural hygromas. The management of these concurrent findings is controversial.
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Institutional review board barriers and solutions encountered in the collaboration among pharmacists and physicians to improve outcomes now study: a national multicenter practice-based implementation trial.
Pharmacotherapy
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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To categorize institutional review board (IRB) challenges and solutions encountered in a multicenter practice-based research network (PBRN) study and to assess the impact of IRB requirements on the willingness of individual principal investigators (PIs) to participate in future PBRN studies.
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Linkage mapping and identification of QTL affecting deoxynivalenol (DON) content (Fusarium resistance) in oats (Avena sativa L.).
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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Mycotoxins caused by Fusarium spp. is a major concern on food and feed safety in oats, although Fusarium head blight (FHB) is often less apparent than in other small grain cereals. Breeding resistant cultivars is an economic and environment-friendly way to reduce toxin content, either by the identification of resistance QTL or phenotypic evaluation. Both are little explored in oats. A recombinant-inbred line population, Hurdal × Z595-7 (HZ595, with 184 lines), was used for QTL mapping and was phenotyped for 3 years. Spawn inoculation was applied and deoxynivalenol (DON) content, FHB severity, days to heading and maturity (DH and DM), and plant height (PH) were measured. The population was genotyped with DArTs, AFLPs, SSRs and selected SNPs, and a linkage map of 1,132 cM was constructed, covering all 21 oat chromosomes. A QTL for DON on chromosome 17A/7C, tentatively designated as Qdon.umb-17A/7C, was detected in all experiments using composite interval mapping, with phenotypic effects of 12.2–26.6 %. In addition, QTL for DON were also found on chromosomes 5C, 9D, 13A, 14D and unknown_3, while a QTL for FHB was found on 11A. Several of the DON/FHB QTL coincided with those for DH, DM and/or PH. A half-sib population of HZ595, Hurdal × Z615-4 (HZ615, with 91 lines), was phenotyped in 2011 for validation of QTL found in HZ595, and Qdon.umb-17A/7C was again localized with a phenotypic effect of 12.4 %. Three SNPs closely linked to Qdon.umb-17A/7C were identified in both populations, and one each for QTL on 5C, 11A and 13A were identified in HZ595. These SNPs, together with those yet to be identified, could be useful in marker-assisted selection to pyramiding resistance QTL.
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Cerebrovascular autoregulation and neurologic injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are at risk of cerebral blood flow dysregulation. Our objective was to describe the relationship between autoregulation and neurologic injury in HIE.
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SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n?=?6x?=?42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.
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Physician visits and colorectal cancer testing among Medicare enrollees in North Carolina and South Carolina, 2005.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Many Medicare enrollees do not receive colorectal cancer tests at recommended intervals despite having Medicare screening coverage. Little is known about the physician visits of Medicare enrollees who are untested. Our study objective was to evaluate physician visits of enrollees who lack appropriate testing to identify opportunities to increase colorectal cancer testing.
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Diffuse central neurocytoma with craniospinal dissemination.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Central neurocytomas (CN) are benign central nervous system (CNS) tumors of neuroglial origin that represent 0.25 to 0.5% of all intracranial tumors in adults and an even smaller proportion of pediatric CNS tumors. These tumors characteristically occur in the subependymal layer of the lateral ventricle near the foramen of Monro and appear as sharply demarcated, solitary lesions. Surgical resection is considered curative, as the reported recurrence rate is less than 5% for patients with localized disease. In this report, we describe the case of a three-year-old boy with a diffuse CN with craniospinal dissemination identified at the time of diagnosis. Given the extensive nature of the disease, surgical resection was not indicated and he underwent a chemotherapeutic regimen of vincristine and carboplatin. At 18 months followup, the patient has completed 6 of 8 total cycles of vincristine and carboplatin and serial imaging shows stable disease within the craniospinal axis.
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Association mapping of quantitative resistance to Phaeosphaeria nodorum in spring wheat landraces from the USDA National Small Grains Collection.
Phytopathology
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by Phaeosphaeria nodorum, is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) found throughout the United States. Host resistance is the only economically feasible option for managing the disease; however, few SNB-resistant wheat cultivars are known to exist. In this study, we report findings from an association mapping (AM) of resistance to P. nodorum in 567 spring wheat landraces of diverse geographic origin. The accessions were evaluated for seedling resistance to P. nodorum in a greenhouse. Phenotypic data and 625 polymorphic diversity array technology (DArT) markers have been used for linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association analyses. The results showed that seven DArT markers on five chromosomes (2D, 3B, 5B, 6A, and 7A) were significantly associated with resistance to P. nodorum. Genetic regions on 2D, 3B, and 5B correspond to previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance to P. nodorum whereas the remaining QTL appeared to be novel. These results demonstrate that the use of AM is an effective method for identifying new genomic regions associated with resistance to P. nodorum in spring wheat landraces. Additionally, the novel resistance found in this study could be useful in wheat breeding aimed at controlling SNB.
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Nicotine-induced impulsive action: sensitization and attenuation by mecamylamine.
Behav Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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A conjunctive variable-interval differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (VI-DRL, n=18) responding schedule and a stop-signal task (n=18) were used to evaluate the disinhibiting effects of nicotine on response withholding in rats. Sucrose solution was used to reinforce responding, and after a stable baseline was achieved under saline-administration conditions, 0.3 mg/kg nicotine was delivered before each session. Experiment 1 showed that repeated, but not the initial, administration of nicotine decreased performance on both tasks, and the effect of sensitization followed a similar timeline; 10 consecutive doses resulted in poorer proportion-correct VI-DRL trials and percent correct stop trials than the initial dose of nicotine. Furthermore, sensitization to 0.3 mg/kg nicotine decreased performance regardless of whether a spaced or consecutive-dosing regimen was followed. Experiment 2 was designed to test whether mecamylamine hydrochloride (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) could attenuate the effects of repeated 0.3 mg/kg nicotine administration, and the degree to which mecamylamine attenuation of the effect of nicotine to produce impulsive action was relative to dose. Results from experiment 2 showed that response disinhibition, as evaluated using the VI-DRL and stop-signal tasks, is related in a systematic manner to nicotinic-acetylcholine receptor activation.
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Model SNP development for complex genomes based on hexaploid oat using high-throughput 454 sequencing technology.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Genetic markers are pivotal to modern genomics research; however, discovery and genotyping of molecular markers in oat has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, and by a scarcity of sequence data. The purpose of this study was to generate oat expressed sequence tag (EST) information, develop a bioinformatics pipeline for SNP discovery, and establish a method for rapid, cost-effective, and straightforward genotyping of SNP markers in complex polyploid genomes such as oat.
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Differential conditioned fear response predicts duloxetine treatment outcome in male veterans with PTSD: a pilot study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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This pilot study tested whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients with impaired conditioned fear acquisition were refractory to open-label duloxetine treatment. Patients with a differential conditioned fear response at pre-treatment subsequently demonstrated significant reductions in PTSD symptoms. These data provide initial evidence of a putative biomarker of selective treatment response in PTSD.
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Improving pediatric asthma control among minority children participating in medicaid: providing practice redesign support to deliver a chronic care model.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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Asthma, a leading chronic disease of children, currently affects about 6.2 million (8.5%) children in the United States. Despite advances in asthma research and availability of increasingly effective therapy, many children do not receive appropriate medications to control the disease, have over-reliance on reliever medication, and lack systematic follow-up care. The situation is even worse for poor inner-city and minority children who have significantly worse asthma rates, severity, and outcomes. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Guidelines recommend a multimodal, chronic care approach.
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Lack of shunt response in suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease pathology.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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To determine the impact of cortical Alzheimer disease pathology on shunt responsiveness in individuals treated for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), 37 patients clinically diagnosed with iNPH participated in a prospective study in which performance on neurologic, psychometric, and gait measures before and 4 months after shunting was correlated with amyloid ? plaques, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles observed in cortical biopsies obtained during shunt insertion. No complications resulted from biopsy acquisition. Moderate to severe pathology was associated with worse baseline cognitive performance and diminished postoperative improvement on NPH symptom severity scales, gait measures, and cognitive instruments compared to patients lacking pathology.
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Health information technology and physicians knowledge of drug costs.
Am J Manag Care
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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To examine whether physicians use of information technology (IT) was associated with better knowledge of drug costs.
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Duplication of 7q34 in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas detected by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genotype arrays results in a novel BRAF fusion gene.
Brain Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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In the present study, DNA from 28 pediatric low-grade astrocytomas was analyzed using Illumina HumanHap550K single-nucleotide polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays. A novel duplication in chromosome band 7q34 was identified in 17 of 22 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and three of six fibrillary astrocytomas. The 7q34 duplication spans 2.6 Mb of genomic sequence and contains approximately 20 genes, including two candidate tumor genes, HIPK2 and BRAF. There were no abnormalities in HIPK2, and analysis of two mutation hot-spots in BRAF revealed a V600E mutation in only one tumor without the duplication. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the 7q34 copy number change and was suggestive of a tandem duplication. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing revealed a fusion product between KIAA1549 and BRAF. The predicted fusion product includes the BRAF kinase domain and lacks the auto-inhibitory N-terminus. Western blot analysis revealed phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein in tumors with the duplication, consistent with BRAF-induced activation of the pathway. Further studies are required to determine the role of this fusion gene in downstream MAPK signaling and its role in development of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas.
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Genetic mapping of resistance to Phomopsis seed decay in the soybean breeding line MO/PSD-0259 (PI562694) and Plant Introduction 80837.
J. Hered.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Resistance to Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) could provide dependable control of this important disease that affects seed quality. Studies have shown that single dominant genes that are allelomorphically different confer low levels of PSD in MO/PSD-0259 and PI 80837. The objectives of this research were to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers linked to genes for PSD resistance in PI 80837 and MO/PSD-0259 and to associate the resistance genes to known linkage groups. Crosses were made between the PSD-susceptible cultivar Agripro 350 and each of the resistant lines MO/PSD-0259 and PI 80837. F(2) populations from each cross were grown and inoculated in the field. Individual plant reactions were characterized by determining the levels of seed infection, and DNA of F(2) plants was extracted for SSR analysis and mapping. F(2) segregation data showed that different single dominant genes condition PSD resistance in MO/PSD-0259 and PI 80837. Resistance in PI 80837 was linked to Sat_177 (4.3 cM) and Sat_342 (15.8 cM) on molecular linkage group (MLG) B2. In MO/PSD-0259, resistance was linked to Sat_317 (5.9 cM) and Sat_120 (12.7 cM) on MLG F. These data support work by Berger and Minor (Berger RD, Minor HC. 1999. An restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker associated with resistance to Phomopsis seed decay in soybean PI 417479. Crop Sci 39:800-805.) in which PSD resistance in PI 417479, the resistant parent used to develop MO/PSD-0259, was associated with RFLP marker A708 on MLG F. These SSR markers should be useful in selection for resistant genotypes in breeding programs.
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Response disinhibition evoked by the administration of nicotine and nicotine-associated contextual cues.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Nicotine causes dose-dependent alterations in accuracy on the differential-reinforcement of low-rate responding (DRL) 29.5-s schedule in rats. The current investigation evaluated whether nicotine-associated contextual cues can produce nicotine-like perturbations in DRL-schedule performance in the absence of nicotine. Nicotine and saline administrations occurred just prior to DRL 29.5-s schedule responding for sucrose solution, and two different experimental contexts (differentiated by visual, olfactory, and tactile cues) were utilized. All subjects (N=16) experienced two consecutive sessions of DRL-schedule responding per day. The experimental group (n=8) was exposed to saline immediately prior to the first session and 0.3mg/kg nicotine before the second session, and the context was changed between sessions. This sequence of saline and then nicotine administration, paired with two reliable contexts, persisted for 12 consecutive days and successive nicotine administrations corresponded with increasingly poorer performance on the DRL 29.5-s schedule. No nicotine was administered for days 13-20 during context testing, and the nicotine-associated context produced response disinhibition on the DRL schedule. Two control groups were included in the design; subjects in one control group (n=4) received saline in each context to verify that the contexts themselves were not exerting control over operant responding. To assess how explicit and non-explicit pairings of nicotine and contextual cues influenced DRL behavior, subjects in a second control group (n=4) were given nicotine prior to the second session, but the contexts were not altered between sessions. The results from this experiment suggest that environmental stimuli associated with nicotine exposure can come to elicit nicotine-induced performance decrements on a DRL 29.5-s schedule.
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Assessing controlled substance prescribing errors in a pediatric teaching hospital: an analysis of the safety of analgesic prescription practice in the transition from the hospital to home.
J Pain
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Iatrogenic errors producing serious and often preventable injury occur frequently in hospitalized patients, particularly in children. Little is known about the epidemiology of analgesic medication errors in patients being discharged from the hospital. The goal of this study was to describe the epidemiology of controlled substance prescription errors by physicians-in-training for children being discharged from the hospital. We conducted a prospective, observational study of the analgesic prescriptions and discharge forms of 241 pediatric patients discharged from a Childrens Center of a major urban teaching hospital from November 2003 to April 2004. All patients who were actively followed by the Pediatric Pain Service at the time of their discharge and were discharged with an analgesic prescription were included in the study. Primary outcome variables were the percentage of prescriptions that contained at least 1 medication error or potential adverse drug event. Errors were defined using the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) List of Error-Prone Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations, literature review, expert panel consensus, and the Johns Hopkins Department of Pharmacy hospital formulary. Two hundred forty-one patients who received 314 prescriptions were included in this study. Prescription errors were common; 257 of 314 (82%) of the prescriptions examined contained 1 or more errors. The most common errors were missing or wrong patient weight (n = 127, 77%), incomplete dispensing information (n = 167, 53%), and no or wrong date on prescription (n = 19, 6%). Nine prescriptions (2.9%) had the potential for significant medical injury and were considered potential adverse drug events. Discharge prescription errors for children requiring potent, opioid analgesic drugs in the management of pain are common, and nearly 3% could cause significant harm. The high rate of prescribing errors highlights the importance of developing, testing and implementing effective error-prevention strategies, especially in high-risk medications such as narcotics.
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Genomic analysis using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism-based oligonucleotide arrays and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification provides a comprehensive analysis of INI1/SMARCB1 in malignant rhabdoid tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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A high-resolution genomic profiling and comprehensive targeted analysis of INI1/SMARCB1 of a large series of pediatric rhabdoid tumors was done. The aim was to identify regions of copy number change and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) that might pinpoint additional loci involved in the development or progression of rhabdoid tumors and define the spectrum of genomic alterations of INI1 in this malignancy.
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Elevated cortisol and learning and memory deficits in cocaine dependent individuals: relationship to relapse outcomes.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Cocaine dependence is characterized by stress system dysregulation, including elevated cortisol activity, emotional negativity, and behavioral disinhibition. High levels of stress and glucocorticoids are also known to affect learning, memory and executive function. Therefore, we examined the relationships between chronic cocaine use, elevated distress and learning and memory dysfunction in abstinent cocaine dependent (CD) individuals, and whether these measures were associated with cocaine relapse outcomes.
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New DArT markers for oat provide enhanced map coverage and global germplasm characterization.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Genomic discovery in oat and its application to oat improvement have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers common to different genetic maps, and by the difficulty of conducting whole-genome analysis using high-throughput markers. This study was intended to develop, characterize, and apply a large set of oat genetic markers based on Diversity Array Technology (DArT).
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Genomic copy number determination in cancer cells from single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays based on quantitative genotyping corrected for aneuploidy.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Microarrays are frequently used to profile genome-wide copy number (CN) aberrations. While generally robust for detecting CN variants in germline DNA, the methods used to derive CN from signal intensity values have been suboptimal when applied to cancer genomes. The complexity of genomic aberrations in cancer makes it more difficult to discriminate between signal and noise, and measuring CN as a discrete variable does not account for tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, standard normalization approaches detect CN changes relative to the overall DNA content, which is often not diploid in cancer. We propose an algorithm that uses the degree of allelic imbalance as well as probe intensity, with a correction for aneuploidy, for a quantitative CN assessment and scoring of allelic ratios. This algorithm results in a more precise definition of CN and allelic aberration in the cancer genome, which is essential for translational efforts focused on using these tools for molecular diagnostics and for the discovery of therapeutic targets.
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Phosphorylated tau/amyloid beta 1-42 ratio in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid reflects outcome in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Fluids Barriers CNS
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Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible cause of dementia and gait disturbance that is typically treated by operative placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The outcome from shunting is variable, and some evidence suggests that the presence of comorbid Alzheimers disease (AD) may impact shunt outcome. Evidence also suggests that AD biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may predict the presence of AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the phosphorylated tau/amyloid beta 1-42 (ptau/A?1-42) ratio in ventricular CSF and shunt outcome in patients with iNPH.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.