We report a case of HIV-1 superinfection (HSI) with a clade B, triple-class resistant virus in a patient successfully controlling viremia with continuous combination antiretroviral therapy started 8 years earlier during primary HIV infection. The course of HIV infection prior to HSI was monitored in both the source partner and recipient (8 and 11 years, respectively) and 4 years following HSI. This case report demonstrates re-infection with HIV-1 despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy.
This paper reports a study on the adsorption of the dye sunset yellow, present in an aqueous synthetic solution and a real effluent from a soft drink plant, onto granular-activated carbon derived from coconut husks, using a batch system. The kinetic equilibrium was investigated using two different dye concentrations (10(2) and 10(3) mg L(-1)) at 25 degrees C and 150 rpm. The adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics parameters were evaluated at 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 45 degrees C and 55 degrees C, using the synthetic and real effluents (5-10(3) mg L(-1)). Experimental data showed that the adsorbent was effective in the removal of sunset yellow dye and the contact time required to attain the adsorption equilibrium did not exceed 10 h. The adsorption capacity was not influenced within a wide range of pH values (1-12), although at high dye concentrations it increased with increasing temperature for both the synthetic and real effluents. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm best represented the equilibrium data of the system. The negative values obtained for DeltaG0 and DeltaH0 suggest that this adsorption process is spontaneous, favourable, and exothermic. The positive values for DeltaS0 indicate an increase in the entropy at the solid/liquid interface. Based on the results of this study, adsorption appears to be a promising method for the removal of sunset yellow azo dye from effluent generated at soft drink plants.
Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort.
The most common methods currently used for the removal of waste glycerol, monoglycerides and diglycerides remaining after phase separation during biodiesel production involve wet processes. These procedures are not environmentally viable because they require large volumes of water and thus generate significant quantities of effluent. In this study, adsorption was employed to replace this purification step. Some commercial activated carbons were tested along with adsorbents chemically modified with HNO3. A kinetics study was conducted at 30 degrees C and adsorption isotherms were obtained at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. The results indicated that the adsorption of glycerol increased with the use of chemically-modified activated carbon, showing that pH has a strong influence on glycerol adsorption. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit with the experimental data for the monoglycerides while the pseudo-second-order model showed a better fit for the glycerol and diglycerides. The Freundlich model had the best fit with experimental data on the adsorption equilibrium for all temperatures. The thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption process is endothermic and thus adsorption is favoured by increasing the temperature. The adsorption process using chemically-modified activated carbon was therefore very effective for the removal of waste glycerol resulting from biodiesel production, which is of considerable significance given the legal limits imposed.
To determine viral subtypes and resistance mutations to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in untreated HIV-1 acutely infected subjects from Southwest Switzerland. Clinical samples were obtained from the HIV primary infection cohort from Lausanne. Briefly, pol gene was amplified by nested PCR and sequenced to generate a 1?kb sequence spanning protease and reverse transcriptase key protein regions. Nucleotide sequences were used to assess viral genotype and ART resistance mutations. Blood specimens and medical information were obtained from 30 patients. Main viral subtypes corresponded to clade B, CRF02_AG, and F1. Resistant mutations to PIs consisted of L10V and accessory mutations 16E and 60E present in all F1 clades. The NNRTI major resistant mutation 103N was detected in all F1 viruses and in other 2 clades. Additionally, we identified F1 sequences from other 6 HIV infected and untreated individuals from Southwest Switzerland, harboring nucleotide motifs and resistance mutations to ART as observed in the F1 strains from the cohort. These data reveal a high transmission rate (16.6%) for NNRTI resistant mutation 103N in a cohort of HIV acute infection. Three of the 5 resistant strains were F1 clades closely related to other F1 isolates from HIV-1 infection untreated patients also coming from Southwest Switzerland. Overall, we provide strong evidence towards an HIV-1 resistant transmission network in Southwest Switzerland. These findings have relevant implications for the local molecular mapping of HIV-1 and future ART surveillance studies in the region.
We have studied 65 HIV-1-infected untreated patients recruited in Caracas, Venezuela with TCD4 counts > or =350/microl. The reverse transcriptase and protease sequences of the virus were sequenced, aligned with reference HIV-1 group M strains, and analyzed for drug resistance mutations. Most of the viruses were subtype B genotype in both the protease and RT genomic regions. Five of the 62 virus isolates successfully amplified showed evidence of recombination between protease and RT, with their protease region being non-B while their RT region was derived from subtype B. Four strains were found bearing resistance mutations either to NRTIs, NNRTIs, or PIs. The prevalence of HIV-1 isolates bearing resistance mutations was therefore above the 5% threshold of WHO.
We report the results of the Theravac-01 phase I trial, which was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a poxvirus-based vector, NYVAC, expressing Gag, Pol, Nef, and Env from an HIV clade B isolate. NYVAC-B vaccine was injected intra-muscularly into ten HIV-infected patients successfully treated with antiretroviral therapy, twice on day 0 and again at week 4. Safety and immunogenicity were monitored for 48 weeks. HIV-specific T-cell responses following immunization were quantitatively analyzed using an IFN-? ELISPOT assay and qualitatively characterized for their functional profile (including multiple cytokines secretion plus cytotoxic and proliferation capacity) by polychromatic flow cytometry. Our results indicate that the NYVAC-B vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic, as indicated by increased HIV-specific T-cell responses in virtually all vaccinees. Interestingly, both an expansion of preexisting T-cell responses, and the appearance of newly detected HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses were observed. Furthermore, immunization mostly induced an increase in Gag-specific T-cell responses. In conclusion, NYVAC-B immunization induces broad, vigorous, and polyfunctional HIV-specific T-cell responses, suggesting that poxvirus-based vaccine regimens may be instrumental in the therapeutic HIV vaccine field.
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