The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway selectively eliminates aberrant transcripts containing premature translation termination codons and regulates the levels of a number of physiological mRNAs. NMD modulates the clinical outcome of a variety of human diseases, including cancer and many genetic disorders, and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we have developed a new multicolored bioluminescence-based reporter system that can specifically and effectively assay NMD in live human cells. Using this reporter system, we conducted a robust high-throughput small-molecule screen in human cells and, unpredictably, identified a group of cardiac glycosides, including ouabain and digoxin, as potent inhibitors of NMD. Cardiac glycoside-mediated effects on NMD are dependent on binding and inhibiting the sodium-potassium ATPase on the plasma membrane and subsequent elevation of intracellular calcium levels. Induction of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum also leads to inhibition of NMD. Thus, this study reveals intracellular calcium as a key regulator of NMD and has implications for exploiting NMD in the treatment of disease.
Cell-cell interactions between tumor cells and constituents of their microenvironment are critical determinants of tumor tissue biology and therapeutic responses. Interactions between glioblastoma (GBM) cells and endothelial cells (ECs) establish a purported cancer stem cell niche. We hypothesized that genes regulated by these interactions would be important, particularly as therapeutic targets. Using a computational approach, we deconvoluted expression data from a mixed physical co-culture of GBM cells and ECs and identified a previously undescribed upregulation of the cAMP specific phosphodiesterase PDE7B in GBM cells in response to direct contact with ECs. We further found that elevated PDE7B expression occurs in most GBM cases and has a negative effect on survival. PDE7B overexpression resulted in the expansion of a stem-like cell subpopulation in vitro and increased tumor growth and aggressiveness in an in vivo intracranial GBM model. Collectively these studies illustrate a novel approach for studying cell-cell interactions and identifying new therapeutic targets like PDE7B in GBM.
G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK) regulate the function of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Previously, we found that GPCR (CXCR4)-mediated astrocytoma growth was dependent upon abnormally sustained CXCR4 signaling and was correlated with decreased GRK-mediated receptor phosphorylation. As CXCR4 has also been implicated in the stimulation of high-grade glioma growth, we sought to determine whether dysregulation of GRK expression and/or function might also be present in high-grade gliomas. In an analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we found that GRK3 expression is frequently decreased in glioblastoma (GBM) of the classical subtype, which possesses signature amplification or mutational activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. We tested the correlation between GRK3 expression and GBM subtypes, as well as the relationship between the activation of the EGF and other growth factor receptor pathways and GRK expression. In analyses of primary GBM tissue and RNA specimens, we found that GRK3 expression is correlated with established criteria for GBM subtyping including expression of EGF receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)?, NF1, PTEN, CDKN2A, and neurofilament. We also found that established drivers of gliomagenesis, the EGF, PDGF, and TGF-? pathways, all regulate GRK expression. Coculture experiments, designed to mimic critical interactions between tumor and brain microvascular endothelial cells, showed that specifically increasing GRK3 expression reduced the trophic effect of endothelial cells on tumor cells. Together, these experiments show that GRK3 is a negative regulator of cell growth whose expression is preferentially reduced in GBM of the classical subtype as a consequence of activity in primary gliomagenic pathways.
ABSTRACT We examined the effect of a semantic orienting task during encoding on free recall and recognition of simple line drawings and matching words in middle-aged (44-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90+ years) adults. Participants studied line drawings and matching words presented in blocked order. Half of the participants were given a semantic orienting task and the other half received standard intentional learning instructions. Results confirmed that the pictorial superiority effect was greater in magnitude following semantic encoding compared to the control condition. Analyses of clustering in free recall revealed that oldest-old adults encoding and retrieval strategies were generally similar to the two younger groups. Self-reported strategy use was less frequent among the oldest-old adults. These data strongly suggest that semantic elaboration is an effective compensatory mechanism underlying preserved episodic memory performance that persists well into the ninth decade of life.
We performed 2 studies to assess the function and longevity of a novel intraosseous catheter device. For study 1, 9 goats were assigned to 3 groups (intraosseous catheter in the proximal humerus, intraosseous catheter in the proximal tibia, or standard jugular catheter). Devices in the tibia remained in place for less time than did those in the humerus, and no goats exhibited radiographic evidence of resulting damage or structural change in surrounding bone. Positive bacterial cultures were found in all 9 goats at various time points. In study 2, 18 goats were assigned to 2 groups (intraosseous catheter in the wing of the ilium or proximal humerus). Samples for serial aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures and CBC were collected while devices remained in use. Clinical monitoring and removal criteria were identical those for study 1. Catheters in the ilium remained in place for less than 24 h on average, and those in the humerus remained in place for an average of 2.5 d. Several goats with proximal humeral catheters demonstrated moderate lameness after removal, and radiographic evidence of periosteal bone growth was noted in another goat. Bloodwork indicated mild elevations of WBC counts from baseline in some cases. Bacterial growth was found in samples from 4 of 18 goats at various time points. Our study indicated that intraosseous catheters may remain safely in place for more than 24 h, but animals should be monitored closely for negative side effects for several days after removal.
Social support has been shown to influence health outcomes in later life. In this study, we focus on social engagement as an umbrella construct that covers select social behaviors in a lifespan sample that included oldest-old adults, a segment of the adult population for whom very little data currently exist. We examined relationships among social engagement, positive health behaviors, and physical health to provide new evidence that addresses gaps in the extant literature concerning social engagement and healthy aging in very old adults. Participants were younger (21-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90-97 years) adults (N = 364) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Linear regression analyses indicated that age, gender, and hours spent outside of the house were significantly associated with self-reported health. The number of clubs and hours outside of home were more important factors in the analyses of objective health status than positive health behaviors, after considering age group and education level. These data strongly suggest that social engagement remains an important determinant of physical health into very late adulthood. The discussion focuses on practical applications of these results including social support interventions to maintain or improve late life health.
We investigated the mechanism underlying the natural variation in longevity within natural populations using the model budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We analyzed whole-genome gene expression in four progeny of a natural S. cerevisiae strain that display differential replicative aging. Genes with different expression levels in short- and long-lived strains were classified disproportionately into metabolism, transport, development, transcription or cell cycle, and organelle organization (mitochondrial, chromosomal, and cytoskeletal). With several independent validating experiments, we detected 15 genes with consistent differential expression levels between the long- and the short-lived progeny. Among those 15, SIR2, HSP30, and TIM17 were upregulated in long-lived strains, which is consistent with the known effects of gene silencing, stress response, and mitochondrial function on aging. The link between SIR2 and yeast natural life span variation offers some intriguing ties to the allelic association of the human homolog SIRT1 to visceral obesity and metabolic response to lifestyle intervention.
The role of the Notch signaling pathway in tumor development is complex, with Notch1 functioning either as an oncogene or as a tumor suppressor in a context-dependent manner. To further define the role of Notch1 in tumor development, we systematically surveyed for tumor suppressor activity of Notch1 in vivo. We combined the previously described Notch1 intramembrane proteolysis-Cre (Nip1::Cre) allele with a floxed Notch1 allele to create a mouse model for sporadic, low-frequency loss of Notch1 heterozygosity. Through this approach, we determined the cell types most affected by Notch1 loss. We report that the loss of Notch1 caused widespread vascular tumors and organism lethality secondary to massive hemorrhage. These findings reflected a cell-autonomous role for Notch1 in suppressing neoplasia in the vascular system and provide a model by which to explore the mechanism of neoplastic transformation of endothelial cells. Importantly, these results raise concerns regarding the safety of chronic application of drugs targeting the Notch pathway, specifically those targeting Notch1, because of mechanism-based toxicity in the endothelium. Our strategy also can be broadly applied to induce sporadic in vivo loss of heterozygosity of any conditional alleles in progenitors that experience Notch1 activation.
Nobiletin (NOB) and tangeretin (TAN), two of the main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) in citrus, influence a number of key biological pathways in mammalian cells. Although the impacts of NOB and TAN on glucose homeostasis and cholesterol regulation have been investigated in human clinical trials, much information is still lacking about the metabolism and oral bioavailability of these compounds in animals. In this study, NOB and TAN were administered to rats by gavage and intraperitoneal (ip) injection, and the blood serum concentrations of these compounds and their main metabolites were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). In addition to the administered compounds, two metabolites of TAN and eight metabolites of NOB were detected and measured over 24 h. With identical oral doses, nearly 10-fold higher absorption of NOB occurred compared to TAN. For both compounds, maximum levels of glucuronidated metabolites occurred in the blood serum at later time points (?5-8 h) compared to the earlier T(max) values for NOB and TAN. In most cases the glucuronides occurred at substantially higher concentrations than the aglycone metabolites. Low levels of NOB and TAN and their metabolites were detectable in rat blood serum even at 24 h after treatment.
Female cancer patients who seek fertility preservation but cannot undergo ovarian stimulation and embryo preservation may consider 1) retrieval of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation (IVM) or 2) ovarian tissue cryopreservation followed by transplantation or in vitro follicle culture. Conventional IVM is carried out during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle. There is limited evidence demonstrating that immature oocyte retrieved during the luteal phase can mature in vitro and be fertilized to produce viable embryos. While in vitro follicle culture is successful in rodents, its application in nonhuman primates has made limited progress. The objective of this study was to investigate the competence of immature luteal-phase oocytes from baboon and to determine the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on baboon preantral follicle culture and oocyte maturation in vitro. Oocytes from small antral follicle cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with multiple cumulus layers (42%) were more likely to resume meiosis and progress to metaphase II (MII) than oocytes with a single layer of cumulus cells or less (23% vs. 3%, respectively). Twenty-four percent of mature oocytes were successfully fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and 25% of these developed to morula-stage embryos. Preantral follicles were encapsulated in fibrin-alginate-matrigel matrices and cultured to small antral stage in an FSH-independent manner. FSH negatively impacted follicle health by disrupting the integrity of oocyte and cumulus cells contact. Follicles grown in the absence of FSH produced MII oocytes with normal spindle structure. In conclusion, baboon luteal-phase COCs and oocytes from cultured preantral follicles can be matured in vitro. Oocyte meiotic competence correlated positively with the number of cumulus cell layers. This study clarifies the parameters of the follicle culture system in nonhuman primates and provides foundational data for future clinical development as a fertility preservation option for women with cancer.
We examined health-related quality of life in adults in the Louisiana Health Aging Study (LHAS) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HK/R) that made landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast region in 2005. Analyses of pre- and post-disaster SF-36 scores yielded changes in physical function and bodily pain. Mental health scores were lower for women than men. Gender differences were observed in religious beliefs and religious coping, favoring women. Religious beliefs and religious coping were negatively correlated with physical function, implying that stronger reliance on religiosity as a coping mechanism may be more likely among those who are less physically capable.
HIV-serodiscordant couples wishing to conceive often seek assisted reproduction, during which spermatozoa from infected men are washed to minimize the risk of HIV transmission to partner and fetus. We sought to improve this method by adding a microbicide, PPCM, as an HIV prophylactic. HIV-1 (BaL) inhibition by PPCM appears irreversible and independent of added Ca(2+). Without added Ca(2+), PPCM (?10?mg/mL, ?90?min), a stimulus of Ca(2+)-dependent acrosomal loss, has no effect on sperm motility, forward progression, or acrosomal status. PPCM-treated (10?mg/mL) sperm retain their ability to acrosome react when Ca(2+) is added. Sperm DNA integrity/function is unaffected by PPCM (?10?mg/mL). Adding PPCM (5?mg/mL, 30?min) to washing media reduces infectivity (viral antigen p24 and RNA) of ex-vivo HIV-infected semen by 3-4 Logs compared with washing alone. Sperm washing with appropriate extracellular Ca(2+) levels and PPCM is significantly more effective than washing alone at reducing HIV infectivity.
Positron emission tomography (PET) allows sensitive, non-invasive analysis of the distribution of radiopharmaceutical tracers labeled with positron (?(+))-emitting radionuclides in small animals and humans. Upon ?(+) decay, the initial velocity of high-energy ?(+) particles can momentarily exceed the speed of light in tissue, producing Cerenkov radiation that is detectable by optical imaging, but is highly absorbed in living organisms.
Current models of oncogenesis incorporate the contributions of chronic inflammation and aging to the patterns of tumor formation. These oncogenic pathways, involving leukocytes and fibroblasts, are not readily applicable to brain tumors (glioma), and other mechanisms must account for microenvironmental influences on central nervous system tumorigenesis. Previous studies from our laboratories have used neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models to understand the spatial restriction of glioma formation to the optic pathway of young children. Based on our initial findings, we hypothesize that brain region-specific differences in cAMP levels account for the pattern of NF1 gliomagenesis. To provide evidence that low levels of cAMP promote glioma formation in NF1, we generated foci of decreased cAMP in brain regions where gliomas rarely form in children with NF1. Focal cAMP reduction was achieved by forced expression of phosphodiesterase 4A1 (PDE4A1) in the cortex of Nf1 GEM strains. Ectopic PDE4A1 expression produced hypercellular lesions with features of human NF1-associated glioma. Conversely, pharmacologic elevation of cAMP with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram dramatically inhibited optic glioma growth and tumor size in Nf1 GEM in vivo. Together, these results indicate that low levels of cAMP in a susceptible Nf1 mouse strain are sufficient to promote gliomagenesis, and justify the implementation of cAMP-based stroma-targeted therapies for glioma.
Most cancer deaths are a result of metastasis. To extend our understanding of the factors that influence the process, we aimed to develop a mouse model of pulmonary metastasis that can be assayed in multiple inbred mouse strains for further use in identification of host genetic variants that influence metastasis. We used i.v. injection of Sarcoma 180 (S180) cells, which can be tracked and quantified by bioluminescence imaging. We observed growth of S180 cells solely in the lung and observed a wide range of pulmonary metastasis among inbred mouse strains. Interestingly, we noted that the BTBRT+tf/J strain exhibited complete clearance and provide evidence that the mechanism of resistance may involve immune factors, as strains subjected to whole-body irradiation are significantly more susceptible to tumor growth. One possible mechanism of resistance to pulmonary metastasis in BTBRT+tf/J mice may require T-cell function. Our experiments present a new mouse model for further characterization of the genetics and mechanisms of pulmonary metastasis.
Tumorigenesis requires interactions between tumor progenitors and their microenvironment. We found that low cAMP levels were sufficient for tumorigenesis in a mouse model of Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1)-associated optic pathway glioma (OPG). We hypothesized that the distinct pattern of glioma in NF1 reflected spatiotemporal differences in CXCL12 effects on cAMP levels. Thus, we sought to alter the pattern of gliomagenesis through manipulation of CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway activation in Nf1 OPG mice. Forced CXCL12 expression induced glioma at a low frequency. Further, treatment of Nf1 OPG mice with AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, did not attenuate glioma growth. Thus, it appears, CXCL12 alone cannot promote gliomagenesis in NF1 mice.
Neoplastic epithelia may remain dormant and clinically unapparent in human patients for decades. Multiple risk factors including mutations in tumor cells or the stromal cells may affect the switch from dormancy to malignancy. Gene mutations, including p53 mutations, within the stroma of tumors are associated with a worse clinical prognosis; however, it is not known if these stromal mutations can promote tumors in genetically at-risk tissue. To address this question, Apc(Min/+) and Apc(Min/+) Rag2(-/-) mice, which have a predilection to mammary carcinoma (as well as wild-type (wt) mice), received mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with mutant p53 (p53MSC) transferred via tail vein injection. In the wt mouse, p53MSC circulated in the periphery and homed to the marrow cavity where they could be recovered up to a year later without apparent effect on the health of the mouse. No mammary tumors were found. However, in mice carrying the Apc(Min/+) mutation, p53MSC homed to mammary tissue and significantly increased the incidence of mammary carcinoma. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-dependent factors elaborated from mesenchymal cells converted quiescent epithelia into clinically apparent disease. The increased cancer phenotype was completely preventable with neutralization of TNF-alpha or by transfer of CD4(+) regulatory T cells from immune competent donors, demonstrating that immune competency to regulate inflammation was sufficient to maintain neoplastic dormancy even in the presence of oncogenic epithelial and stromal mutations. The significant synergy between host immunity and mesenchymal cells identified here may restructure treatments to restore an anticancer microenvironment.
Mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause inclusion body myopathy (IBM), Pagets disease of the bone, and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). Patient muscle has degenerating fibers, rimmed vacuoles (RVs), and sarcoplasmic inclusions containing ubiquitin and TDP-43 (TARDNA-binding protein 43). In this study, we find that IBMPFD muscle also accumulates autophagosome-associated proteins, Map1-LC3 (LC3), and p62/sequestosome, which localize to RVs. To test whether VCP participates in autophagy, we silenced VCP or expressed adenosine triphosphatase-inactive VCP. Under basal conditions, loss of VCP activity results in autophagosome accumulation. After autophagic induction, these autophagosomes fail to mature into autolysosomes and degrade LC3. Similarly, IBMPFD mutant VCP expression in cells and animals leads to the accumulation of nondegradative autophagosomes that coalesce at RVs and fail to degrade aggregated proteins. Interestingly, TDP-43 accumulates in the cytosol upon autophagic inhibition, similar to that seen after IBMPFD mutant expression. These data implicate VCP in autophagy and suggest that impaired autophagy explains the pathology seen in IBMPFD muscle, including TDP-43 accumulation.
Immunodeficient mice serve as critical hosts for transplantation of xenogeneic cells for in vivo analysis of various biological processes. Because investigators typically select one or two immunodeficient mouse strains as recipients, no comprehensive study has been published documenting differences in human tumor engraftment. Taking advantage of the increased metastatic potential of RhoC-expressing human (A375) melanoma cells, we evaluate four immunodeficient mouse strains: severe combined immunodeficiency (scid), nonobese diabetic (NOD)-scid, NOD-scid beta2m(null), and NOD-scid IL2Rgamma(null) as xenograft tumor recipients.
The analysis of autophagy in cells and tissue has principally been performed via qualitative measures. These assays identify autophagosomes or measure the conversion of LC3I to LC3II. However, qualitative assays fail to quantitate the degradation of an autophagic substrate and therefore only indirectly measure an intact autophagic system. "Autophagic flux" can be measured using long-lived proteins that are degraded via autophagy. We developed a quantifiable luciferase reporter assay that measures the degradation of a long-lived polyglutamine protein aggregate, polyQ80-luciferase. Using this reporter, the induction of autophagy via starvation or rapamycin in cells preferentially decreases polyQ80-luciferase when compared with a nonaggregating polyQ19-luciferase after four hours of treatment. This response was both time- and concentration-dependent, prevented by autophagy inhibitors and absent in ATG5 knockout cells. We adapted this assay to living animals by electroporating polyQ19-luciferase and polyQ80-luciferase expression constructs into the right and left tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of mice, respectively. The change in the ratio of polyQ80-luciferase to polyQ19-luciferase signal before and after autophagic stimulation or inhibition was quantified via in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Following two days of starvation or treatment with intraperitoneal rapamycin, there was a approximately 35% reduction in the ratio of polyQ80:polyQ19-luciferase activity, consistent with the selective autophagic degradation of polyQ80 protein. This autophagic response in skeletal muscle in vivo was abrogated by co-treatment with chloroquine and in ATG16L1 hypomorphic mice. Our study demonstrates a method to quantify the autophagic flux of an expanded polyglutamine via luciferase reporters in vitro and in vivo.
Chronic inflammation contributes to the development of prostate cancer in humans. Here, we show that male Apc(Min/+) mice also develop prostate carcinoma with increasing age, mimicking that seen in humans in their 5th or 6th decade of life. Proinflammatory cytokines were significantly linked with cancer and increasing age in our mouse model; however, prostate and bowel tissues lacked evidence of inflammatory cell infiltrates other than mast cells. Lymphocytes protected against cancer, and protection from prostate cancer resided in antiinflammatory CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory (T(REG)) cells that downregulated inflammatory cytokines. Supplementation with syngeneic T(REG) cells collected from wild-type mice reduced the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05) and IL-9 (p < 0.001) and lowered prostate cancer risk (p < 0.05). Depletion of CD25(+) cells in 2-month-old animals increased the expression of IL-6 (p < 0.005) within prostate and increased the frequency of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (p < 0.05) and microinvasive prostatic carcinoma (p < 0.05) in dorsolateral prostate. Depletion of CD25(+) cells in young animals also increased the frequency of intestinal cancer in Min mice. Taken together, chronically elevated proinflammatory cytokines promoted carcinoma in Apc(Min/+) mice. T(REG) lymphocytes downregulated inflammation-associated carcinogenic processes and contributed to immune and epithelial homeostasis.
Little research has been conducted to observe the impact that rural settings have on the structure and function of hospital ethics committees. Additionally, studies need to focus on ethics committees, as it is often the body which protects the values of the community as globalization increases. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of ethics committees in rural hospitals in East Tennessee.
Six older adults with probable Alzheimers disease (AD) were trained to recall a name-face association using the spaced retrieval technique. In this study, we retested these persons in a 6-month follow-up program. For half of the participants, three booster sessions were administered at 6, 12, and 18 weeks after original training to promote long-term retention of the name- face association. Results yielded a mnemonic benefit of the booster sessions at retest. Participants were successful in transferring this association to the actual person in the target photograph. These data confirmed the positive effect of spaced retrieval on recall of a name-face association over a 6-month interval. Implications for memory remediation in cognitively impaired older adults are considered.
Murabutide (MB) is a synthetic immunomodulator recognized by the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) receptor on mammalian cells. MB has previously been approved for testing in multiple human clinical trials to determine its value as an antiviral therapeutic, and as an adjuvant for injected vaccines. We have found a new use for this immunomodulator; it functions as a mucosal adjuvant that enhances immunogenicity of virus-like particles (VLP) administered intranasally. MB enhanced Norwalk virus (NV) VLP-specific IgG systemically and IgA production at distal mucosal sites following intranasal (IN) vaccination. A dose escalation study identified 100 µg as the optimal MB dosage in mice, based on the magnitude of VLP-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgA production in serum and VLP-specific IgA production at distal mucosal sites. IN vaccination using VLP with MB was compared to IN delivery VLP with cholera toxin (CT) or gardiquimod (GARD) and to parenteral VLP delivery with alum; the MB groups were equivalent to CT and GARD and superior to alum in inducing mucosal immune responses and stimulated equivalent systemic VLP-specific antibodies. These data support the further testing of MB as a potent mucosal adjuvant for inducing robust and durable antibody responses to non-replicating subunit vaccines.
Emerging evidence suggests endothelial cells (EC) play a critical role in promoting Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell proliferation and resistance to therapy. The molecular basis for GBM-EC interactions is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 could mediate direct interactions between GBM cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells and that disruption of this interaction might be the molecular basis for the anti-tumor effects of CXCR4 antagonists. We investigated this possibility in vivo and in an in vitro co-culture model that incorporated extracellular matrix, primary human brain microvascular ECs (HBMECs) and either an established GBM cell line or primary GBM specimens. Depletion of CXCR4 in U87 GBM cells blocked their growth as intracranial xenografts indicating that tumor cell CXCR4 is required for tumor growth in vivo. In vitro, co-culture of either U87 cells or primary GBM cells with HBMECs resulted in their co-localization and enhanced GBM cell growth. Genetic manipulation of CXCL12 expression and pharmacological inhibition of its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 revealed that the localizing and trophic effects of endothelial cells on GBM cells were dependent upon CXCL12 and CXCR4. These findings indicate that the CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway directly mediates endothelial cell trophic function in GBMs and that inhibition of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling may uniquely target this activity. Therapeutic disruption of endothelial cell trophic functions could complement the structural disruption of anti-angiogenic regimens and, in combination, might also improve the efficacy of radiation and chemotherapy in treating GBMs.
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