Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-containing ferroxidase with potent antioxidant activity. Cp is expressed by hepatocytes and activated macrophages and has been known as physiologic inhibitor of myeloperoxidase (MPO). Enzymatic activity of MPO produces anti-microbial agents and strong prooxidants such as hypochlorous acid and has a potential to damage host tissue at the sites of inflammation and infection. Thus Cp-MPO interaction and inhibition of MPO has previously been suggested as an important control mechanism of excessive MPO activity. Our aim in this study was to identify minimal Cp domain or peptide that interacts with MPO. We first confirmed Cp-MPO interaction by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR analysis of the interaction yielded 30nM affinity between Cp and MPO. We then designed and synthesized 87 overlapping peptides spanning the entire amino acid sequence of Cp. Each of the peptides was tested whether it binds to MPO by direct binding ELISA. Two of the 87 peptides, P18 and P76 strongly interacted with MPO. Amino acid sequence analysis of identified peptides revealed high sequence and structural homology between them. Further structural analysis of Cp's crystal structure by PyMOL software unfolded that both peptides represent surface-exposed sites of Cp and face nearly the same direction. To confirm our finding we raised anti-P18 antisera in rabbit and demonstrated that this antisera disrupts Cp-MPO binding and rescues MPO activity. Collectively, our results confirm Cp-MPO interaction and identify two nearly identical sites on Cp that specifically bind MPO. We propose that inhibition of MPO by Cp requires two nearly identical sites on Cp to bind homodimeric MPO simultaneously and at an angle of at least 120degrees, which, in turn, exerts tension on MPO and results in conformational change.
The activation of heterodimeric (?/?) integrin transmembrane receptors by cytosolic protein talin is crucial for regulating diverse cell-adhesion-dependent processes, including blood coagulation, tissue remodeling, and cancer metastasis. This process is triggered by the coincident binding of N-terminal FERM (four-point-one-protein/ezrin/radixin/moesin) domain of talin (talin-FERM) to the inner membrane surface and integrin ? cytoplasmic tail, but how these binding events are spatiotemporally regulated remains obscure. Here we report the crystal structure of a dormant talin, revealing how a C-terminal talin rod segment (talin-RS) self-masks a key integrin-binding site on talin-FERM via a large interface. Unexpectedly, the structure also reveals a distinct negatively charged surface on talin-RS that electrostatically hinders the talin-FERM binding to the membrane. Such a dual inhibitory topology for talin is consistent with the biochemical and functional data, but differs significantly from a previous model. We show that upon enrichment with phosphotidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) - a known talin activator, membrane strongly attracts a positively charged surface on talin-FERM and simultaneously repels the negatively charged surface on talin-RS. Such an electrostatic "pull-push" process promotes the relief of the dual inhibition of talin-FERM, which differs from the classic "steric clash" model for conventional PIP2-induced FERM domain activation. These data therefore unravel a new type of membrane-dependent FERM domain regulation and illustrate how it mediates the talin on/off switches to regulate integrin transmembrane signaling and cell adhesion.
Intestinal microflora and inflammatory cell infiltrates play critical roles in the pathogenesis of acute colitis. Ceruloplasmin is an acute-phase plasma protein produced by hepatocytes and activated macrophages, and has ferroxidase with bactericidal activities. The goal is to understand the role of ceruloplasmin in colitis progression in a genetically modified murine model.
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