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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Relation between national-level tobacco control policies and individual-level voluntary home smoking bans in Europe.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Little is known about the relationship between national tobacco control policies and implementation of private home smoking bans.
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Secondhand smoke in psychiatric units: patient and staff misperceptions.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Mental health units have usually been exempted from complete smoke-free policies. The aim of this study was to compare the self-reported level of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) of patients and staff in psychiatric units to objective measures, and examine preference for different types of smoking bans.
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Electronic cigarette use among adult population: a cross-sectional study in Barcelona, Spain (2013-2014).
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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This study seeks to analyse the prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, purchase location and satisfaction with its use in a sample of the general population of the city of Barcelona, Spain.
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Support for a tobacco endgame strategy in 18 European countries.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The feasibility of a tobacco endgame strategy, aiming to bring smoking prevalence to near-zero levels, is currently under debate. We provide information on public support for such a strategy in Europe.
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Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkers.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes? vapour and conventional cigarettes? smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions.
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Secondhand smoke exposure at home: assessment by biomarkers and airborne markers.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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We assessed and characterized the relationship among biomarkers of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in non-smokers according to their exposure at home as measured by airborne markers.
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Assessment of the smoke-free outdoor regulation in the WHO European Region.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The aim of this study is to assess the level of protection of secondhand smoke in outdoor locations among countries belonging to the WHO European Region.
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Validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality venues.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman?s correlation=0.387, p<0.001) suggests that intensity of exposure to SHS in hospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution.
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Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic.
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Safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in Barcelona (Spain).
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To describe the prevalence and correlates of safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in the city of Barcelona (Spain).
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Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004) and after (2012) legislation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues). In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds). The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05) and after the second law (2011-12).
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Validation of a method for reconstructing historical rates of smoking prevalence.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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The validity of methods for reconstructing historical rates of smoking prevalence has not been assessed before. Our objective was to assess their validity. We reconstructed smoking prevalence rates for each calendar year from 1940 to 2007 for men and women in Spain, using data on ages of smoking initiation and cessation available in the Spanish National Health Surveys of 2003-2004 and 2006-2007. To assess the validity of the reconstruction, we computed the differences between the reconstructed smoking prevalence and the contemporary observed smoking prevalence measured in the Spanish National Health Surveys of 1987, 1993, 1995, 1997, and 2001. We also compared reconstructed smoking prevalence trends with 35-year lagged lung cancer mortality rates in Spain as a proxy for the real prevalence trends. Reconstructed smoking prevalence rates compared with contemporary measured rates showed small differences in men (between -2.1% and 2.1%) and an overestimation in women (between 2.0% and 5.7%). Reconstructed smoking prevalence trends were significantly correlated with lagged lung cancer mortality trends (P = 0.004 for men, P < 0.0001 for women). The reconstruction of smoking prevalence rates through this methodology offers a feasible tool with which countries lacking previous smoking surveys can understand historical trends in their tobacco epidemic, which aids in designing and implementing adequate tobacco control interventions.
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Impact of a multi-level intervention to prevent secondhand smoke exposure in schoolchildren: a randomized cluster community trial.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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To assess the effectiveness of a multi-level (individual, family, and school) school-based intervention to prevent the exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a population of schoolchildren (12-14 years old).
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Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in open and semi-open settings: a systematic review.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Some countries have recently extended smoke-free policies to particular outdoor settings; however, there is controversy regarding whether this is scientifically and ethically justifiable.
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Do smoke-free policies in work and public places increase smoking in private venues?
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between the implementation of tobacco control policies, particularly smoke-free bans at work and in public places, and smoking prevalence in private venues in the 27 countries of the European Union. DESIGN: Ecological study with the country as the unit of analysis. DATA SOURCES: Data analysis of tobacco control activities in European countries in 2007 as compiled in the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) and information on the level of smoking permissiveness in houses and cars from the Special Eurobarometer on Tobacco conducted in 2009. ANALYSIS: Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (rsp) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: The correlation between the TCS score and the prevalence of smoking in private venues (houses and cars) where smoking inside was always allowed was close to zero. A similar lack of association was observed between the TCS score of specific bans at work and in public places and smoking rules inside houses and cars. There was a non-significant direct correlation between the TCS score and the prevalence of smoke-free houses (rsp=0.21, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.55) and a non-significant inverse correlation with smoking allowed in certain rooms inside the house (rsp=-0.34; 95% CI -0.64 to 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Smoke-free legislation in workplaces and public places is not correlated with increased smoking prevalence in private venues (houses and cars) at an ecological level.
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Protection from secondhand smoke in countries belonging to the WHO European Region: an assessment of legislation.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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OBJECTIVES: Comprehensive smokefree laws, as recommended by the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), are the most effective tool to protect the population from secondhand smoke (SHS) and to ensure healthy environments. Studies evaluating how laws govern SHS protection are scarce. This study assessed the level of protection from SHS of laws from countries belonging to the WHO European Region. METHODS: A new methodology system was developed to evaluate the smokefree legislation according to the principles provided by the WHO guidelines for the correct implementation of Article 8 of the FCTC. For each law, six main sectors and 28 facilities were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall 68 laws from 48 countries from the WHO European Region were reviewed. Education and Public transport were the most protected sectors from SHS. Many WHO European laws do not provide protection from SHS across all public sectors. For example, 48.5% of general health facilities and 71.2% of restaurants are unprotected from SHS. The level of protection provided in the 28 facilities studied was low; many WHO European laws still allow smoking under certain conditions, permitting smoking in designated and/or ventilated areas. CONCLUSIONS: Nine years after the adoption of the WHO FCTC there are still legal formulas in which smoking is allowed in several facilities, through the inclusion of separated areas, ventilated areas and other conditions. Tobacco control efforts still face the challenge of eradicating the legal clauses that prevent 100% smokefree environments.
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Second-hand smoke in mental healthcare settings: time to implement total smoke-free bans?
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Second-hand smoke is associated with adverse health effects. Many countries have extended smoke-free policies to public buildings and workplaces such as hospitals, but mental health units have usually been exempted from complete smoke-free bans. The objective of this study was to evaluate second-hand smoke levels in mental health units with different types of smoking bans. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate second-hand smoke in 64 mental health inpatient units (95.5% of the all such units) in Catalonia, Spain. We measured air concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5) as a marker of second-hand smoke in different locations at each unit.
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Tobacco smoking, exposure to second-hand smoke, and asthma and wheezing in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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To analyse the association between tobacco smoking, exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and reports of wheezing and asthma in a sample of schoolchildren.
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Variability in the correlation between nicotine and PM2.5 as airborne markers of second-hand smoke exposure.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between particulate matter of diameter?2.5µm (PM2.5) and airborne nicotine concentration as markers of second-hand smoke exposure with respect to the setting studied, the intensity of exposure, and the type of environment studied (indoors or outdoors). Data are derived from two independent studies that simultaneously measured PM2.5 and nicotine concentrations in the air as airborne markers of second-hand smoke exposure in public places and workplaces, including health care centres, bars, public administration offices, educational centres, and transportation. We obtained 213 simultaneous measures of airborne nicotine and PM2.5. Nicotine in the air was measured with active samplers containing a sodium bisulphate-treated filter that was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PM2.5 was measured with a SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. We calculated Spearmans rank correlation coefficient and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) between both measures for overall data and stratified by setting, type of environment (indoors/outdoors), and intensity of second-hand smoke exposure (low/high, according to the global median nicotine concentration). We also fitted generalized regression models to further explore these relationships. The median airborne nicotine concentration was 1.36µg/m(3), and the median PM2.5 concentration was 32.13µg/m(3). The overall correlation between both markers was high (Spearmans rank correlation coefficient=0.709; 95% CI: 0.635-0.770). Correlations were higher indoors (Spearmans rank correlation coefficient=0.739; 95% CI: 0.666-0.798) and in environments with high second-hand smoke exposure (Spearmans rank correlation coefficient=0.733; 95% CI: 0.631-0.810). The multivariate analysis adjusted for type of environment and intensity of second-hand smoke exposure confirmed a strong relationship (7.1% increase in geometric mean PM2.5 concentration per µg/m(3) nicotine concentration), but only in indoor environments in a stratified analysis (6.7% increase; 95% CI: 4.3-9.1%). Although the overall correlation between airborne nicotine and PM2.5 is high, there is some variability regarding the type of environment and the intensity of second-hand smoke exposure. In the absence of other sources of combustion, air nicotine and PM2.5 measures can be used indoors, while PM2.5 should be used outdoors with caution.
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Trends in citations to books on epidemiological and statistical methods in the biomedical literature.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There are no analyses of citations to books on epidemiological and statistical methods in the biomedical literature. Such analyses may shed light on how concepts and methods changed while biomedical research evolved. Our aim was to analyze the number and time trends of citations received from biomedical articles by books on epidemiological and statistical methods, and related disciplines.
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Exposure to secondhand smoke in Italian non-smokers 5 years after the Italian smoking ban.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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No data on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are available on a national level in Italy. To assess the prevalence of exposure to SHS in indoor public places, home and cars in non-smoking Italian population, we conducted a survey 5 years after the national smoking ban.
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Secondhand smoke levels in public building main entrances: outdoor and indoor PM2.5 assessment.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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To describe secondhand smoke (SHS) levels in halls and main entrances (outdoors) in different buildings by measurement of PM(2.5) and airborne nicotine.
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Smoke-free policies in psychiatric services: identification of unmet needs.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Smoke-free policies have been extended to enclosed workplaces in many countries; however, smoking continues to be commonly allowed on psychiatric premises. The aim of this study was to describe tobacco control strategies undertaken in psychiatric inpatient services and day centres in Spain.
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[Individual and population-based strategies for tobacco control].
Adicciones
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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The population strategy for intervention on risk factors became known through the work of Geoffrey Rose in the field of public health and preventive medicine in relation to cardiovascular diseases in the late twentieth century. Currently, one of the risk factors with the most impact on health is the smoking epidemic. The aim of this study is to describe and put into practice the preventive medicine strategies proposed by Geoffrey Rose in the control of this smoking epidemic. To illustrate the situation, we have used the data on salivary cotinine concentration from a representative sample of the adult population in the city of Barcelona. In conclusion, public tobacco control policies worldwide should take into account the utility of the population strategy for addressing this important health issue, without ignoring "high risk" interventions of proven effectiveness.
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[Tobacco industry strategies to attract young smokers in Spain: a review of companies internal documents].
Adicciones
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Tobacco companies strategies to promote tobacco use and undermine tobacco control policy are key in tobacco use among young people. The analysis of tobacco companies internal documents can be instrumental in identifying those strategies, improving social support for tobacco control policy, and planning public health interventions. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze internal documents related to the activities of tobacco companies during the 1980s and 90s aimed at promoting smoking in young Spaniards.
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Narrowing the equity gap: the impact of organized versus opportunistic cancer screening in Catalonia (Spain).
J Med Screen
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2011
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To assess the impact on equity of access of an organized breast cancer screening programme, compared with opportunistic breast and cervical cancer screening activities.
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The so-called "Spanish model" - tobacco industry strategies and its impact in Europe and Latin America.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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To demonstrate the tobacco industry rationale behind the "Spanish model" on non-smokers protection in hospitality venues and the impact it had on some European and Latin American countries between 2006 and 2011.
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Two-year impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to secondhand smoke: evidence of the failure of the Spanish model.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Studies evaluating the long-term impact of smoking laws on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure using airborne markers are scarce. This study aimed to assess the long-term impact of the Spanish smoking law on SHS levels, using a specific and objective marker.
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[Nicotine dependence and readiness to quit smoking in the Spanish population].
Adicciones
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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To describe the nicotine dependence and readiness to quit smoking in the smoker population.
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[Agreement between two observers in the measurement of smoking and use of safety belt and cell phones in vehicles].
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of direct observations of smoking and use of seat belts and cell phones in drivers in the city of Barcelona, and to analyze the agreement between two observers. We performed 315 pairs of observations. The simple percentage inter-observer agreement between driver and passenger smoking was 100% with a Kappa coefficient=1.0. There was high inter-observer agreement in measurement of cell phone use and the number of passengers aged less than 14 years old. The variable with the lowest agreement was the drivers age. In conclusion, direct observation studies are a good resource for monitoring smoking and use of seat belts and cell phones in the drivers of motor vehicles.
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[Impact of the 28/2005 Spanish smoking law on second-hand smoke exposure in Barcelona].
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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To assess the impact of the 28/2005 Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in Barcelona.
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[Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles].
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5?m (PM(2.5)) as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a sample of hospitality venues in Barcelona 2 years after the Spanish smoking law came into effect.
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[Estimation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure: review of questionnaires used in Spain].
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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In the last few years, health surveys and epidemiological studies on smoking have introduced questions on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. However, a standardized questionnaire is lacking.
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Clinical validity of detecting K-ras mutations for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic cancer: a prospective study in a clinically-relevant spectrum of patients.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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The diagnostic utility of detecting K-ras mutations for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC) has not been properly studied, and few reports have analysed a clinically relevant spectrum of patients. The objective was to evaluate the clinical validity of detecting K-ras mutations in the diagnosis of EPC in a large sample of clinically relevant patients. We prospectively identified 374 patients in whom one of the following diagnoses was suspected at hospital admission: EPC, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cysts, and cancer of the extrahepatic biliary system. Mutations in the K-ras oncogene were analysed by PCR and artificial RFLP in 212 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the K-ras mutational status for the diagnosis of EPC were 77.7% (95% CI: 69.2-84.8) and 78.0% (68.1-86.0), respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was hardly modified by sex and age. In patients with either mutated K-ras or CEA > 5 ng/ml, the sensitivity and specificity were 81.0% (72.9-87.6) and 62.6% (72.9-87.6), respectively. In patients with mutated K-ras and CEA > 5 ng/ml the sensitivity was markedly reduced. In comparisons with a variety of non-EPC patient groups sensitivity and specificity were both always greater than 75%. In this clinically relevant sample of patients the sensitivity and specificity of K-ras mutations were not sufficiently high for independent diagnostic use. However, it seems premature to rule out the utility of K-ras analysis in conjunction with other genetic and omics technologies.
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Association between time to first cigarette after waking up and salivary cotinine concentration.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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The time to first cigarette smoked after waking up appears to be a good predictor of plasma and urine cotinine levels; however, collection of blood and urine is difficult in population-based studies and may influence participation. We aimed to test whether time to first cigarette is associated with salivary cotinine.
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Tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles: a cross-sectional study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Objectives To estimate the prevalence of tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis in the city of Barcelona in Spain. Design setting and participants We carried out an observational cross-sectional study in 2011. We selected a systematic sample of 2442 private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis on 40 public roads regulated by traffic lights in all 10 districts of Barcelona. We calculated the prevalence rates and 95% CIs of smoking and SHS exposure in cars, and the corresponding ORs adjusting for the potential confounding variables. Results The prevalence of tobacco consumption was 5.5% (95% CI 4.6% to 6.4%) and was greater for commercial vehicles (9.8%; 95% CI 7.1% to 12.5%). The prevalence of SHS exposure was 5.2% (95% CI 3.8% to 6.6%) and 2.2% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.9%) of passengers under 14 years of age were exposed to SHS in vehicles. Conclusions This study highlights the need to promote public health measures aimed at reducing tobacco consumption in vehicles, especially in the presence of children, as well as enforcement of the current Spanish law against smoking in commercial vehicles and taxis.
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Stages of change, smoking characteristics, and cotinine concentrations in smokers: setting priorities for smoking cessation.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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We assessed whether the salivary cotinine content of daily smokers varied with the readiness to quit and smoking characteristics.
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Temporal changes of under-reporting of cigarette consumption in population-based studies.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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To monitor trends in under-reporting of smoking in Italy over the last two decades.
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Smoking behaviour, involuntary smoking, attitudes towards smoke-free legislations, and tobacco control activities in the European Union.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2010
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The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27).
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[Gender inequalities in the Spanish Public Health and Health Administration Society (2000-2009)].
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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To describe gender inequalities in positions of leadership and scientific recognition in activities carried out by the Spanish Public Health and Health Administration Society (SESPAS), the Spanish Epidemiology Society (SEE) and the Health Economics Association (AES) for 2000-2009.
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Second-hand smoke in hospitals in Catalonia (2009): a cross-sectional study measuring PM2.5 and vapor-phase nicotine.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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To describe second-hand smoke in the hospitals of the Catalan Network for Smoke-free Hospitals using Particulate Matter (PM(2.5)) and to assess the association between second-hand smoke exposure in main entrances (outdoors) and halls and between PM(2.5) and airborne nicotine concentrations.
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Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2009
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The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers.
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Colorectal cancer mortality in Spain: trends and projections for 1985-2019.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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To describe colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality trends during 1985-2004 and to estimate CRC mortality projections for the period 2005-2019 in Spain.
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Impact of the Spanish smoking law in smoker hospitality workers.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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A smoke-free law went into effect in Spain on 1 January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, where only partial bans were implemented. The objective was to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers who smoke.
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Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban.
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Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women.
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Exposure to second-hand smoke in primary health care centres in Catalonia, Spain (2006).
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 90 primary health care centres in Catalonia, Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study between March and October 2006. We measured vapour-phase nicotine as a marker of SHS in main halls, staff rooms, direction areas, and continued care. Sampler devices were exposed for 7 days, and samples were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We compared the median airborne nicotine concentrations with the non-parametric test for medians by sanitary region, sampled location, affiliation to the Smoke-free Primary Health Care Programme, and urban-rural area. From 300 sampler devices installed, 4 were lost, and detectable levels of nicotine were found in 89 samples (30.0%) in 48 different centres (53.3%). The overall median was 0.01 microg/m(3), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 0.01-0.07 microg/m(3). Median nicotine levels by locations were: reception hall 0.01 microg/m(3) (IQR: 0.01-0.06); staff room 0.01 microg/m(3) (IQR: 0.01-0.08); direction area 0.01 microg/m(3) (IQR: 0.01-0.01); continued care 0.01 microg/m(3) (IQR: 0.01-0.07). Results showed that airborne nicotine levels were very low, with 46.7% of primary health centres being free of SHS.
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[Colorectal cancer in a population with a guaiac-based screening programme].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening effectiveness depends on the degree of implementation and population adherence. The goals of this study were to determine the number of CRC cases diagnosed in LHospitalet of Llobregat (Spain) and to identify the features of those cases detected by the population-based screening programme initiated in 2000 in this city.
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Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to secondhand smoke in offices and hospitality venues: before-and-after study.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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A smoking law was passed by the Spanish Parliament in December 2005 and was enforced by 1 January 2006. The law bans smoking in all indoor workplaces but only in some hospitality venues, because owners are allowed to establish a smoking zone (venues>100 m2) or to allow smoking without restrictions (venues<100 m2). The objective of the study is to assess the impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in enclosed workplaces, including hospitality venues.
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Incidence of overweight and obesity in a Mediterranean population-based cohort: the Cornellà Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study (CHIS.FU).
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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To study the changes in body mass index (BMI) in a population-based cohort and their relationship with sociodemographic variables in a Mediterranean-country.
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[Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of students from Barcelona, Spain].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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The objective of this study was to assess the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by means of the concentration of salivary cotinine in a sample of adolescent students, and its relationship with active and passive tobacco consumption.
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[Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona].
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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To assess the optimal cut-point for salivary cotinine concentration to identify smoking status in the adult population of Barcelona.
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Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992-2003.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003.
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Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban.
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Assessment of exposure to secondhand smoke by questionnaire and salivary cotinine in the general population of Barcelona, Spain (2004-2005).
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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To estimate the prevalence of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in different settings and to describe salivary cotinine concentration and its determinants among non-smokers.
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Smoking while driving and public support for car smoking bans in Italy.
Tob Control
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OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence and correlates of smoking in cars as well as attitudes towards the extension of smoking bans in private vehicles among Italian adults. METHODS: We used data from two surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012 on an overall sample of 6167 individuals representative of the Italian population aged ?15 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking while driving was 65.5% among adult smokers. There was a negative trend with age and a positive one with education level. Smoking while driving was more prevalent among men, heavy smokers and smokers who believe there is little or no increased risk of accidents from smoking while driving. Among smokers who smoke while driving, 20.9% smoke in cars carrying children. Overall, 79.6% of Italians (88.2% non-smokers and 48.8% current smokers) support a ban on smoking in cars, and 92.5% (95.0% non-smokers and 83.5% current smokers) support such a ban in cars carrying children. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high percentage of smokers who smoke in private vehicles, the majority of the Italian population (including smokers) support the introduction of a smoking ban in cars, particularly in cars carrying children. Smoke-free laws should therefore be extended to private vehicles, particularly if they are carrying children. Moreover, warning labels on cigarette packages should include information on the increased risk of accidents when smoking while driving. Mass media campaigns should also consider targeting this topic.
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[Feasibility of following up a representative sample of the adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].
Gac Sanit
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The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of following up a representative sample of the adult population of Barcelona 8 years after the baseline study. We selected a random sample (n=100) of the 1161 participants who consented to be re-contacted. We contacted 66 participants: 52 (78.8%) agreed to participate in the follow-up, three (4.5%) had died, four (6.1%) had moved, and seven (10.6%) declined to participate in the follow-up. The participation rate in the feasibility study was 52%. In conclusion, the results of our study show a good feasibility of conducting a follow-up study 8 years after the baseline study.
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Impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban in hospitality venues: indoor secondhand smoke exposure and influence of outdoor smoking.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
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The Spanish tobacco control law of 2006 was modified in January 2011, banning smoking in all hospitality venues. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues, and to analyze the potential impact of outdoor smokers close to entrances on indoor SHS levels after the law came into force.
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Exposure to secondhand smoke in terraces and other outdoor areas of hospitality venues in eight European countries.
PLoS ONE
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Outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) concentrations are usually lower than indoor concentrations, yet some studies have shown that outdoor SHS levels could be comparable to indoor levels under specific conditions. The main objectives of this study were to assess levels of SHS exposure in terraces and other outdoor areas of hospitality venues and to evaluate their potential displacement to adjacent indoor areas.
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[Variability in cigarette consumption according to the data source in Spain (1993-2009)].
Gac Sanit
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To assess the variability in the number of cigarettes smoked per person per day in Spain according to the information source (health surveys versus legal sales).
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Questionnaire-based second-hand smoke assessment in adults.
Eur J Public Health
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Numerous studies have assessed second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure but a gold standard remains to be established. This study aimed to review how SHS exposure has been assessed in adults in questionnaire-based epidemiological studies.
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[Secondhand smoke exposure at home and leisure time according to the day of the week (working and non-working day) in Barcelona].
Adicciones
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The objective of this study is to describe the differences in the exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home and at leisure time according to the day of the week (working and non-working day) which exposure occurs in Barcelona. We carried out a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of adult (>16 years) non-smokers in Barcelona before the Spanish smoking law came into effect (years 2004-2005). We studied the prevalence of exposure to SHS at home and leisure time by means of a questionnaire and a biomarker (salivary cotinine). The questionnaire included questions on exposure to SHS on working days and nonworking days. The prevalence of exposure to SHS at home was 27.4% (6.8% exposed only on working days, 5.7% exposed only on non-working days, and 14.9% exposed on both working and non-working days). The prevalence of exposure to SHS at leisure time was 61.3% (10.7% exposed only on working days, 13.6% exposed only on non-working days, and 37.0% exposed on both working and non-working days). The exposure to SHS only on non-working days at leisure time decreases with age (?(2) of trend = 183.7; p<0.001) and increases with the educational level (?(2) of trend = 78.8; p<0.001). Participants who had reported to be exposed to SHS at home on working and non-working days showed higher levels of salivary cotinine concentration, regardless of sex, age group, and educational level. In conclusion, the exposure to SHS occurs mainly during leisure time. Questions on SHS exposure according to working and non-working days allow to characterizing the exposure to SHS, especially when the exposure occurs at leisure time.
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The Spanish tobacco tax loopholes and their consequences.
Tob Control
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The Spanish government has strengthened tobacco control policies since 2005, including changes in tobacco taxes. Because these changes have targeted cigarettes mainly, the tobacco industry has marketed cheaper alternative tobacco products, offering smokers the possibility to downtrade. This paper traces the evolution of patterns of demand for cigarettes and other tobacco products in Spain over the period 2005-2011 in order to assess the impact of such tax loopholes.
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DYNAMO-HIA--a Dynamic Modeling tool for generic Health Impact Assessments.
PLoS ONE
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Currently, no standard tool is publicly available that allows researchers or policy-makers to quantify the impact of policies using epidemiological evidence within the causal framework of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). A standard tool should comply with three technical criteria (real-life population, dynamic projection, explicit risk-factor states) and three usability criteria (modest data requirements, rich model output, generally accessible) to be useful in the applied setting of HIA. With DYNAMO-HIA (Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment), we introduce such a generic software tool specifically designed to facilitate quantification in the assessment of the health impacts of policies.
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Comparison of tobacco control scenarios: quantifying estimates of long-term health impact using the DYNAMO-HIA modeling tool.
PLoS ONE
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There are several types of tobacco control interventions/policies which can change future smoking exposure. The most basic intervention types are 1) smoking cessation interventions 2) preventing smoking initiation and 3) implementation of a nationwide policy affecting quitters and starters simultaneously. The possibility for dynamic quantification of such different interventions is key for comparing the timing and size of their effects.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.