There is mounting experimental evidence that hypercapnic acidosis protects against lung injury. However, it is unclear if acidosis per se rather than hypercapnia is responsible for this beneficial effect. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effects of hypercapnic (respiratory) versus normocapnic (metabolic) acidosis in an ex vivo model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI).
Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by fever, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Cough may be a presenting symptom as well. However, pulmonary involvement is considered rare and mainly described in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of an immunocompetent adult whose clinical presentation was dominated by cough and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a discreet polypoid mucosal endobronchial lesion whose biopsy yielded Leishmania amastigotes within histiocytes. Transbronchial needle biopsy of a right paratracheal lymph node was also positive. Leishmania amastigotes were also found on bone marrow and liver biopsies. Treatment with IV Amphotericin B was successful. In conclusion, cough should not be overlooked as a presenting symptom of visceral leishmaniasis and may be a sign of pulmonary involvement.
Critically ill patients, who develop ventilator-associated pneumonia during prolonged mechanical ventilation, often require antimicrobial agents administered through the endotracheal or the tracheotomy tube. The delivery of antibiotics via the respiratory tract has been established over the past years as an alternative route in order to deliver high concentrations of antimicrobial agents directly to the lungs and avoid systemic toxicity. Since the only formal indications for inhaled/aerosolized antimicrobial agents is for patients suffering from cystic fibrosis, consequently the majority of research and published studies concerns this group of patients. Newer devices and new antibiotic formulations are currently off-label used in ambulatory cystic fibrosis patients whereas similar data for the mechanically ventilated patients do not yet exist.
Pneumonia, along with influenza, is the leading cause of mortality associated with infectious diseases in the USA. Tigecycline is a novel antimicrobial agent that is active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Our objective is to review the literature about the efficacy of tigecycline in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data from various sources, including Pubmed, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and the US FDA were appraised. Tigecycline was found to be noninferior compared with levofloxacin for the treatment of patients with bacterial CAP requiring hospitalization. Recently, the drug was approved for the treatment of these patients by the FDA, but owing to some concerns, its application in the EMEA has been withdrawn. In addition, in a recent study concerns were expressed about the efficacy of tigecycline in the lungs using the current dosage. More data are needed about the pharmacokinetics of tigecycline in the lungs and its efficacy in severe CAP.
Inhaled antimicrobial agents are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections due to Gram-negative bacteria, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effectiveness of the inhaled antimicrobial therapy is believed to correlate with the delivery system used. The objective of this review was to search for data supporting differentiation in clinical effectiveness between systems used for pulmonary delivery of antibiotics, including delivery using disposable nebulisers and oxygen flow. Published studies in peer-reviewed journals comparing the effectiveness of pulmonary drug delivery systems for antimicrobial agents were retrieved. The studies found were either in vitro or Phase I and Phase II clinical studies. Differences in in vitro parameters may affect the in vivo efficacy of the devices, and in vivo differences may imply differences in clinical effectiveness. The main difference between newer and older devices is the time needed for antibiotic delivery. Interpretation and association with clinical effectiveness is difficult. In conclusion, Phase III clinical trials comparing the clinical effectiveness of delivery systems, including delivery using a hospitals oxygen flow and disposable nebulisers, do not exist. Cost is an important parameter, which may be counterbalanced in cystic fibrosis patients by a better quality of life and a greater adherence to treatment.
Linezolid is still the only representative of the oxazolidinones antibiotic class. Because of its novel mechanism of action and excellent tissue penetration, it is used in a variety of approved and off-label clinical conditions.
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