When designing drug carriers, the drug-to-carrier ratio is an important consideration, because the use of high quantities of carriers can result in toxicity as a consequence of poor metabolism and elimination of the carriers. However, these issues would be of less concern if both the drug and carrier had therapeutic effects. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), a major ingredient of green tea, has been shown, for example, to possess anticancer effects, anti-HIV effects, neuroprotective effects and DNA-protective effects. Here, we show that sequential self-assembly of the EGCG derivative with anticancer proteins leads to the formation of stable micellar nanocomplexes, which have greater anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo than the free protein. The micellar nanocomplex is obtained by complexation of oligomerized EGCG with the anticancer protein Herceptin to form the core, followed by complexation of poly(ethylene glycol)-EGCG to form the shell. When injected into mice, the Herceptin-loaded micellar nanocomplex demonstrates better tumour selectivity and growth reduction, as well as longer blood half-life, than free Herceptin.
Radiation fibrosis of the lung is a late toxicity of thoracic irradiation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling has previously been implicated in radiation lung injury. We hypothesized that TGF-?, an EGF receptor ligand, plays a key role in radiation-induced fibrosis in lung. Mice deficient in transforming growth factor (TGF-?(-/-)) and control C57Bl/6J (C57-WT) mice were exposed to thoracic irradiation in 5 daily fractions of 6 Gy. Cohorts of mice were followed for survival (n ? 5 per group) and tissue collection (n = 3 per strain and time point). Collagen accumulation in irradiated lungs was assessed by Masson's trichrome staining and analysis of hydroxyproline content. Cytokine levels in lung tissue were assessed with ELISA. The effects of TGF-? on pneumocyte and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production were analyzed in vitro. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and activity were measured in vitro and in vivo. Irradiated C57-WT mice had a median survival of 24.4 weeks compared to 48.2 weeks for irradiated TGF-?(-/-) mice (P = 0.001). At 20 weeks after irradiation, hydroxyproline content was markedly increased in C57-WT mice exposed to radiation compared to TGF-?(-/-) mice exposed to radiation or unirradiated C57-WT mice (63.0, 30.5 and 37.6 ?g/lung, respectively, P = 0.01). C57-WT mice exposed to radiation had dense foci of subpleural fibrosis at 20 weeks after exposure, whereas the lungs of irradiated TGF-? (-/-) mice were largely devoid of fibrotic foci. Lung tissue concentrations of IL-1?, IL-4, TNF-?, TGF-? and EGF at multiple time points after irradiation were similar in C57-WT and TGF-?(-/-) mice. TGF-? in lung tissue of C57-WT mice rose rapidly after irradiation and remained elevated through 20 weeks. TGF-?(-/-) mice had lower basal LOX expression than C57-WT mice. Both LOX expression and LOX activity were increased after irradiation in all mice but to a lesser degree in TGF-?(-/-) mice. Treatment of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts with TGF-? resulted in increases in proliferation, collagen production and LOX activity. These studies identify TGF-? as a critical mediator of radiation-induced lung injury and a novel therapeutic target in this setting. Further, these data implicate TGF-? as a mediator of collagen maturation through a TGF-? independent activation of lysyl oxidase.
S100A14 is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein that has been reported to be involved in the progression of many malignancies. However, its role in ovarian cancer has not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the significance of S100A14 expression in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) as well as it's mechanism of action. On both RNA and protein levels, S100A14 was overexpressed in transformed cells. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that S100A14 expression was associated with advanced stage (P<0.001) and poor tumor grade (P<0.001). Moreover, S100A14 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 4.53, P = 0.029). We also investigated S100A14's functional role by employing lentiviral-mediated overexpression and knockdown in EOC cells. S100A14 overexpression promoted cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, migration, and invasion, whereas S100A14 knockdown inhibited these properties. TOV112D cells that overexpressed S100A14 also exhibited greater tumor growth potential in xenografted mice. S100A14 promoted such a malignant phenotype in EOC cells through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that S100A14 has a crucial role in EOC progression, and its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis. Further study of S100A14's molecular mechanisms may lead to the development of a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
The apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5), anti-apoptosis protein, is considered a key molecule in the tumor progression and malignant phenotype of tumor cells. Here, we investigated API5 expression in cervical cancer, its clinical significance, and its relationship with phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (pERK1/2) in development and progression of cervical cancer.
Stress-induced phosphoprotein1 (STIP1) is a candidate biomarker in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In this study, we investigated in detail the expression of STIP1, as well as its functions, in EOC. STIP1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the results were compared with clinicopathologic factors, including survival data. The effects of STIP1 gene silencing via small interfering RNA (siRNA) were examined in EOC cells and a xenograft model. The expression of STIP1 protein in EOC was significantly higher than in the other study groups (P?0.001), and this increase of expression was significantly associated with tumor stage (P?=?0.005), tumor grade (P?=?0.029), and lymph node metastasis (P?=?0.020). In multivariate analysis, overall survival in EOC was significantly shorter in cases with high STIP1 expression (HR?=?2.78 [1.01-7.63], P?=?0.047). STIP1 silencing in EOC cells resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, in vivo experiments using STIP1 siRNA clearly showed a strong inhibition of tumor growth and a modulation of expression of prosurvival and apoptotic genes, further suggesting that STIP1 silencing can prevent cell proliferation and invasion. In conclusion, increased STIP1 expression is associated with poor survival outcome in EOC, and STIP1 may represent a useful therapeutic target in EOC patients.
Perry syndrome (PS) caused by DCTN1 gene mutation is clinically characterized by autosomal dominant parkinsonism, depression, severe weight loss, and hypoventilation. Previous pathological studies have reported relative sparing of the cerebral cortex in this syndrome. Here, we characterize novel clinical and neuroimaging features in 3 patients with PS.
Synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3), a member of Cor1 family, is up-regulated in various cancer cells; however, its oncogenic potential and clinical significance has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the oncogenic role of SCP3 and its relationship with phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) in cervical neoplasias. The functional role of SCP3 expression was investigated by overexpression or knockdown of SCP3 in murine cell line NIH3T3 and human cervical cancer cell lines CUMC6, SiHa, CaSki, and HeLa both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined SCP3 expression in tumor specimens from 181 cervical cancer and 400 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation between SCP3 expression and clinicopathologic factors or survival. Overexpression of SCP3 promoted AKT-mediated tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Functional studies using NIH3T3 cells demonstrated that the C-terminal region of human SCP3 is important for AKT activation and its oncogenic potential. High expression of SCP3 was significantly associated with tumor stage (P?=?0.002) and tumor grade (P<0.001), while SCP3 expression was positively associated with pAKT protein level in cervical neoplasias. Survival times for patients with cervical cancer overexpressing both SCP3 and pAKT (median, 134.0 months, n?=?68) were significantly shorter than for patients with low expression of either SCP3 or pAKT (161.5 months, n?=?108) as determined by multivariate analysis (P?=?0.020). Our findings suggest that SCP3 plays an important role in the progression of cervical cancer through the AKT signaling pathway, supporting the possibility that SCP3 may be a promising novel cancer target for cervical cancer therapy.
Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-? signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-? in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-?, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis.
The inhibition of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway through the suppression of mutated Ras or MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) has been shown to sensitize tumor cells to ionizing radiation (IR). The molecular mechanisms of this sensitization however, are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) in the radiosensitizing effects of selumetinib, a selective inhibitor of MEK1/2. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands was assessed by ELISA in both Ras wild-type and Ras mutant cells that were exposed to radiation with or without selumetinib. The effects of selumetinib on the TGF-?/EGFR signaling cascade in response to radiation were examined by western blot analysis, clonogenic assay and by determing the yield of mitotic catastrophe. The treatment of cells with selumetinib reduced the basal and IR-induced secretion of TGF-? in both Ras wild-type and Ras mutant cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The reduction of TGF-? secretion was accompanied with a reduction in phosphorylated tumor necrosis factor-? converting enzyme (TACE) in the cells treated with selumetinib with or without IR. The treatment of cells with selumetinib with or without IR inhibited the phosphorylation of EGFR and checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), and reduced the expression of survivin. Supplementation with exogenous TGF-? partially rescued the selumetinib-treated cells from IR-induced cell death, restored EGFR and Chk2 phosphorylation and increased survivin expression. These data suggest that the inhibition of MEK1/2 with selumetinib may provide a mechanism to sensitize tumor cells to IR in a fashion that prevents the activation of the TGF-? autocrine loop following IR.
Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) can result in the development of cutaneous fibrosis, for which few therapeutic options exist. We tested the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) would favorably alter the progression of IR-induced fibrosis. We found that a systemic infusion of BMSC from syngeneic or allogeneic donors reduced skin contracture, thickening, and collagen deposition in a murine model. Transcriptional profiling with a fibrosis-targeted assay demonstrated increased expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and decreased expression of IL-1? in the irradiated skin of mice 14 days after receiving BMSC. Similarly, immunoassay studies demonstrated durable alteration of these and several additional inflammatory mediators. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a reduction in infiltration of proinflammatory classically activated CD80(+) macrophages and increased numbers of anti-inflammatory regulatory CD163(+) macrophages in irradiated skin of BMSC-treated mice. In vitro coculture experiments confirmed that BMSC induce expression of IL-10 by activated macrophages, suggesting polarization toward a regulatory phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-receptor 2 (TNF-R2) mediates IL-10 production and transition toward a regulatory phenotype during coculture with BMSC. Taken together, these data demonstrate that systemic infusion of BMSC can durably alter the progression of radiation-induced fibrosis by altering macrophage phenotype and suppressing local inflammation in a TNF-R2-dependent fashion.
A cDNA clone encoding 8 kDa protein was retrieved from an EST pool of Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. A deduced polypeptide of the cDNA clone was similar to 8 kDa Ca(2+)-binding proteins from other parasitic trematodes, and, thus, named as CsCa8, containing two EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding sites. Homology models predicted CsCa8 to be a single globular structure having four helices and molecular folds similar to Ca(2+)-binding state of other small Ca(2+)-binding proteins. Recombinant CsCa8 protein showed specific Ca(2+)-binding affinity and shifting in native gel mobility assay. Mouse immune sera raised against recombinant CsCa8 protein recognized native CsCa8 from adult C. sinensis worm extract. CsCa8 was localized in oral and ventral suckers, vitelline follicles and subtegumental tissues. These findings suggest that CsCa8 might be involved in cellular Ca(2+) signal transduction for muscle contraction and egg production.
We report an injectable hydrogel system that incorporates interferon-?2a (IFN-?2a) for liver cancer therapy. IFN-?2a was incorporated in hydrogels composed of hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) conjugates through the oxidative coupling of Tyr moieties with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). IFN-?2a-incorporated HA-Tyr hydrogels of varying stiffness were formed by changing the H2O2 concentration. The incorporation of IFN-?2a did not affect the rheological properties of the hydrogels. The activity of IFN-?2a was furthermore well-maintained in the hydrogels with lower stiffness. Through the caspase-3/7 pathway in vitro, IFN-?2a released from HA-Tyr hydrogels inhibited the proliferation of liver cancer cells and induced apoptosis. In the study of the pharmacokinetics, a higher concentration of IFN-?2a was shown in the plasma of mice treated with IFN-?2a-incorporated hydrogels after 4h post injection, with a much higher amount of IFN-?2a delivered at the tumor tissue comparing to that of injecting an IFN-?2a solution. The tumor regression study revealed that IFN-?2a-incorporated HA-Tyr hydrogels effectively inhibited tumor growth, while the injection of an IFN-?2a solution did not demonstrate antitumor efficacy. Histological studies confirmed that tumor tissues in mice treated with IFN-?2a-incorporated HA-Tyr hydrogels showed lower cell density, with more apoptotic and less proliferating cells compared with tissues treated with an IFN-?2a solution. In addition, the IFN-?2a-incorporated hydrogel treatment greatly inhibited the angiogenesis of tumor tissues.
This article aimed to develop the "forest therapy" program, which is a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)-based intervention program using forest environment, and investigate its effects on blood pressure (BP), salivary cortisol, and quality of life (QoL) measures in patients with hypertension.
We report an injectable hydrogel system with tunable stiffness for controlling the proliferation rate of human fibroblasts (HFF-1) in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture environments for potential use as a wound dressing material. The hydrogel composed of gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugate was formed by the oxidative coupling of HPA moieties catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The stiffness of the hydrogels was controlled well by varying the H(2)O(2) concentration. The effects of hydrogel stiffness on the proliferation rate of HFF-1 in both 2D and 3D were investigated. We found that the proliferation rate of HFF-1 using Gtn-HPA hydrogels was strongly dependent on the hydrogel stiffness, with a dimensionality-specific response. In the 2D studies, the HFF-1 exhibited a higher proliferation rate when the stiffness of the hydrogel was increased. In contrast, the HFF-1 cultured inside the hydrogel remained non-proliferative for 12 days before a stiffness-dependent proliferation profile was shown. The proliferation rate decreased with an increase in stiffness of the hydrogel in a 3D culture environment, unlike in a 2D environment.
Primary involvement of the peripheral nerves in myotonic dystrophy type I (MyD1) is controversial. We investigated whether the involvement of peripheral nerves is a primary event of MyD1 or secondary to another complication such as diabetes mellitus (DM).
Gastrointestinal cancers frequently exhibit mutational activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway, which is implicated in resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy. Concurrent radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy is commonly used for treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. We previously reported radiosensitization with selumetinib, an inhibitor of MEK1/2. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate if selumetinib could enhance radiosensitivity induced by 5-FU.
In the course of examining EST of the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, a cDNA encoding the protein similar to tetraspanin 2 (TSP-2) of blood fluke schistosome was identified as CsTSP2. TSPs are a family of eukaryotic cell membrane-spanning proteins thought to anchor multiple proteins to one area of the cell membrane. Multiple sequence alignment of CsTSP2 revealed over 40% of identities with those of schistosomes. The CCC, PXSC, and CG motives characteristic to extracellular loop 2 (EC2) region of TSP-2 were well conserved. PCR-amplified EC2 of CsTSP2 (CsTSP2EC2) was subcloned into pEXP5 NT/TOPO bacterial expression plasmid vector. Recombinant CsTSP2EC2 protein (rCsTSP2EC2) fused with 6X His tag was overexpressed bacterially and purified by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denaturing condition. The purified rCsTSP2EC2 was recognized specifically by the sera from human infected with C. sinensis. Considering biological role and specific immunity of TSPs, rCsTSP2EC2 might be a probable vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. Protective effects of immunizing rCsTSP2EC2 should be further studied.
Parkinsons disease (PD) can be divided into the akinetic-rigid (ART), mixed (MT), and tremor-dominant (TDT) subtypes according to the clinically dominant symptoms. We analyzed the correlations between (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake and the clinical features of patients with various PD subtypes. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between MIBG uptake and the severity of the cardinal motor symptoms among patients with PD subtypes. The mean Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale motor scores differed significantly among patients with different PD subtypes (± standard deviation [SD]) (ART, 34.6 ± 18.28; MT, 24.63 ± 7.78; TDT, 16.22 ± 4.15, p=0.002), especially between the ART and TDT subtypes (p=0.022). The mean MIBG uptake (± SD) was decreased in the TDT (1.69 ± 0.39), MT (1.35 ± 0.32), and ART (1.35 ± 0.22) subtypes (p=0.049). The MIBG uptake values differed significantly between the ART and TDT subtypes (p=0.02). The MIBG uptake was inversely correlated with the severity of hypokinesia in the ART subtype (r=-0.75; p=0.01) and the MT subtype (r=-0.8; p=0.02), but it was not correlated with the severity of any of the parkinsonian motor symptoms in the TDT subtype. These results imply that hypokinesia is strongly associated with sympathetic myocardial degeneration and that sympathetic myocardial degeneration can reflect the progression of the disease in patients with the ART and mixed MT subtypes of PD.
We report the stimulation of neurogenesis and myogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on the surfaces of biodegradable hydrogels with different stiffness. The hydrogels were composed of gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugate were formed using the oxidative coupling of phenol moieties catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The storage modulus of the hydrogels was readily tuned from 600 to 12800 Pa. It was found that the stiffness of the hydrogel strongly affected the cell attachment, focal adhesion, migration and proliferation rate of hMSCs. The hMSCs on stiffer surfaces have a larger spreading area, more organized cytoskeletons, more stable focal adhesion, faster migration and a higher proliferation rate. The gene expression related to the extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules also differed when the cells were cultured on hydrogels with different stiffness. The differentiation of hMSCs on the surface of the hydrogel was closely linked to the hydrogel stiffness. The cells on a softer hydrogel (600 Pa) expressed more neurogenic protein markers, while cells on a stiffer hydrogel (12000 Pa) showed a higher up-regulation of myogenic protein markers.
Fullerene compounds are known to possess antioxidant properties, a common property of chemical radioprotectors. DF-1 is a dendrofullerene nanoparticle with antioxidant properties previously found to be radioprotective in a zebrafish model. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effects of DF-1 in a murine model of lethal total body irradiation and to assess for selective radioprotection of normal cells versus tumor cells.
We report an injectable hydrogel scaffold system with tunable stiffness for controlling the proliferation rate and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in a three-dimensional (3D) context in normal growth media. The hydrogels composed of gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugate were formed using the oxidative coupling of HPA moieties catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The stiffness of the hydrogels was readily tuned by varying the H(2)O(2) concentration without changing the concentration of polymer precursor. We found that the hydrogel stiffness strongly affected the cell proliferation rates. The rate of hMSC proliferation increased with the decrease in the stiffness of the hydrogel. Also, the neurogenesis of hMSCs was controlled by the hydrogel stiffness in a 3D context without the use of any additional biochemical signal. These cells which were cultured in hydrogels with lower stiffness for 3 weeks expressed much more neuronal protein markers compared to those cultured within stiffer hydrogels for the same period of time.
Psychotherapeutic intervention combined with pharmacotherapy is helpful for achieving remission of depressive disorder. We developed and tested the effect of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)-based psychotherapy applied in a forest environment on major depressive disorder.
Parkinsons disease (PD) with autonomic dysfunction is difficult to differentiate from Parkinsonism-predominant multiple system atrophy (MSA-p). This study aimed to analyze the validity of MIBG scintigraphy for PD with autonomic dysfunction and MSA-p. Thirty-nine patients (PD: 27 patients, MSA-p type: 12) and 12 age-matched controls were prospectively enrolled and underwent MIBG scintigraphy and autonomic function test (AFT). We separately calculated early and delayed heart-to-mediastinal (H/M) ratio and washout rates (WRs). AFT was composed of sympathetic skin reflex and parasympathetic tests based on heart rate variability. Abnormal AFT was observed in 17 (63%) of PD and 10 (83%) of MSA-p. On comparing PD with abnormal AFT with MSA-p, either the early or delayed H/M ratio in PD was not different from that in MSA-p (P > 0.05). Only the WR could differentiate PD with abnormal AFT from MSA-p (47.07 +/- 57.48 vs. 31.39 +/- 31.52, respectively) (P = 0.026). According to the results, WR may be more useful than the early and delayed H/M ratio to distinguish MSA-p from PD with abnormal AFT. Furthermore, the MIBG uptake did not reflect the disease duration or severity.
Only limited information has been published to date on the similarities and differences between climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening on transcriptional level. To address this issue, we performed a direct comparative transcriptome analysis between tomato and pepper fruits using heterologous microarray hybridization. Given the significant differences in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of pepper and tomato fruits, the existence of extensive common regulons is surprising. This finding suggests the conservation of ripening mechanisms in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, disparate expression profiles were also observed in both fruits. This study revealed that a gene that encodes an enzyme that converts lycopene to downstream carotenoids is induced in pepper but not in tomato. Most of the genes that encode ribosomal proteins are only induced in early fruit-stage pepper fruit and show rapidly diminishing expression in the later developmental stages. The genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis were not induced in pepper fruit. However, the EIL-like genes, ethylene-mediated signaling components, were induced in pepper fruit. Divergent types of transcription factors were expressed in ripening tomato and pepper fruits, suggesting they may be key factors that differentiate these distinct ripening processes.
The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway is important for cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, and is frequently up-regulated in cancers. The MAP kinase pathway is also activated after exposure to ionizing radiation. We investigated the effects of AZD6244 (ARRY-142886), an inhibitor of MAP kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, on radiation response.
To identify pathways controlling prostate cancer metastasis we performed differential display analysis of the human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3 and its highly metastatic derivative PC-3M. This revealed that a 78-kDa interferon-inducible GTPase, MxA, was expressed in PC-3 but not in PC-3M cells. The gene encoding MxA, MX1, is located in the region of chromosome 21 deleted as a consequence of fusion of TMPRSS2 and ERG, which has been associated with aggressive, invasive prostate cancer. Stable exogenous MxA expression inhibited in vitro motility and invasiveness of PC-3M cells. In vivo exogenous MxA expression decreased the number of hepatic metastases following intrasplenic injection. Exogenous MxA also reduced motility and invasiveness of highly metastatic LOX melanoma cells. A mutation in MxA that inactivated its GTPase reversed inhibition of motility and invasion in both tumor cell lines. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that MxA associated with tubulin, but the GTPase-inactivating mutation blocked this association. Because MxA is a highly inducible gene, an MxA-targeted drug discovery screen was initiated by placing the MxA promoter upstream of a luciferase reporter. Examination of the NCI diversity set of small molecules revealed three hits that activated the promoter. In PC-3M cells, these drugs induced MxA protein and inhibited motility. These data demonstrate that MxA inhibits tumor cell motility and invasion, and that MxA expression can be induced by small molecules, potentially offering a new approach to the prevention and treatment of metastasis.
Previously, we reported the independent tuning of mechanical strength (crosslinking density) and gelation rate of an injectable hydrogel system composed of hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) conjugates. The hydrogels were formed through the oxidative coupling of tyramines which was catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Herein, we studied the encapsulation and release of model proteins using the HA-Tyr hydrogel. It was shown that the rapid gelation achieved by an optimal concentration of HRP could effectively encapsulate the proteins within the hydrogel network and thus prevented the undesired leakage of proteins into the surrounding tissues after injection. Hydrogels with different mechanical strengths were formed by changing the concentration of H(2)O(2) while maintaining the rapid gelation rate. The mechanical strength of the hydrogel controlled the release rate of proteins: stiff hydrogels released proteins slower compared to weak hydrogels. In phosphate buffer saline, alpha-amylase (negatively charged) was released sustainably from the hydrogel. Conversely, the release of lysozyme (positively charged) discontinued after the fourth hour due to electrostatic interactions with HA. In the presence of hyaluronidase, lysozymes were released continuously and completely from the hydrogel due to degradation of the hydrogel network. The activities of the released proteins were mostly retained which suggested that the HA-Tyr hydrogel is a suitable injectable and biodegradable system for the delivery of therapeutic proteins.
Dermal fibrosis is a disabling late toxicity of radiotherapy. Several lines of evidence suggest that overactive signaling via the Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-?) and V-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (cAbl) may be etiologic factors in the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. We tested the hypothesis that imatinib, a clinically available inhibitor of PDGFR-?, Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-kit) and cAbl, would reduce the severity of dermal fibrosis in a murine model.
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is presented as a short paroxysmal attack of focal or generalized involuntary movement. Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis (BSPDC) is referred to as Fahrs disease and is characterized by the calcification of the basal ganglia, cerebellar nuclei and thalamus. Most common presentation of BSPDC was a parkinsonism, and PKD has also been reported to few of the cases with sporadic BSPDC. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old-man with PKD for 19 years, and we describe the pathogenesis of PKD in the BSPDC.
Cytokines may be elevated in tumor and normal tissues following irradiation. Cytokine expression in these tissues may predict for toxicity or tumor control. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of measuring local salivary cytokine levels using buccal sponges in patients receiving chemo-radiation for head and neck malignancies.
An injectable hydrogel system, composed of gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugates chemically cross-linked by an enzyme-mediated oxidation reaction, has been designed as a biodegradable scaffold for tissue engineering. In light of the role of substrate stiffness on cell differentiation, we herein report a newly improved Gtn hydrogel system with a broader range of stiffness control that uses Gtn-HPA-tyramine (Gtn-HPA-Tyr) conjugates to stimulate the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The Gtn-HPA-Tyr conjugate was successfully synthesized through a further conjugation of Tyr to Gtn-HPA conjugate by means of a general carbodiimide/active ester-mediated coupling reaction. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and UV-visible measurements showed a higher total phenol content in the Gtn-HPA-Tyr conjugate than that content in the Gtn-HPA conjugate. The Gtn-HPA-Tyr hydrogels were formed by the oxidative coupling of phenol moieties catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Rheological studies revealed that a broader range of storage modulus (G) of Gtn-HPA-Tyr hydrogel (600-26,800 Pa) was achieved using different concentrations of H(2)O(2), while the G of the predecessor Gtn-HPA hydrogels was limited to the range of 1000 to 13,500 Pa. The hMSCs on Gtn-HPA-Tyr hydrogel with G greater than 20,000 showed significantly up-regulated expressions of osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) on both the gene and protein level, with the presence of alkaline phosphatase, and the evidence of calcium accumulation. These studies with the Gtn-HPA-Tyr hydrogel with G greater than 20,000 collectively suggest the stimulation of the hMSCs into osteogenic differentiation, while these same observations were not found with the Gtn-HPA hydrogel with a G of 13,500.
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