JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
TM4SF4 overexpression in radiation-resistant lung carcinoma cells activates IGF1R via elevation of IGF1.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transmembrane 4 L six family member 4 (TM4SF4) is a member of the tetraspanin L6 domain family. Other members of this family, TM4SF1 (also known as L6-Ag) and TM4SF5, have been shown to be upregulated in multiple tumors and involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cell migration. However, unlike its homologs, little is known about TM4SF4. Here, we show that TM4SF4 was highly expressed in radiation-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells, such as A549 and Calu-3 cells, and its expression activated cell growth, migration, and invasion. Overexpression of TM4SF4 in A549 cells increased the activation of PI3K, AKT, and NF-kappaB and the expression of PTEN. IGF1R was clearly activated by overexpression of TM4SF4, although EGFR was also slightly activated. TM4SF4 expression was correlated with the increased expression of IGF1, consequently resulting in IGF1R activation. Tumorigenic activity of TM4SF4 in lung adenocarcinoma cells was also demonstrated by xenograft assay; however, this activity was almost completely suppressed by treatment with anti-TM4SF4 antibody. Our results suggest that TM4SF4 overexpression in lung carcinoma cells results in resistance to radiotherapy via IGF1-induced IGF1R activation and blocking the activity of TM4SF4 using specific antibody can be a promising therapeutics against TM4SF4-overexpressing lung adenocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Genotypic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Amikacin and Kanamycin resistance using a rapid Sloppy Molecular Beacon based assay identifies more cases of low level drug resistance than phenotypic Lowenstein-Jensen testing.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Resistance to Amikacin (AMK) and Kanamycin (KAN) in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains is largely determined by specific mutations in the rrs gene and eis gene promoter. We developed a rapid, multiplexed Sloppy Molecular Beacon (SMB) assay to identify these mutations and then evaluated assay performance on 603 clinical M.tb DNA samples collected in South Korea. Assay performance was compared to gold-standard phenotypic drug susceptibility tests including Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) absolute concentration, Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tubes (MGIT) and TREK Sensititre® MYCOTB MIC plate (MYCOTB) methods. Target amplicons were also tested for mutations by Sanger sequencing. The SMB assay correctly detected 115/116 mutant and mixed sequences and 487/487 wild type sequences (sensitivity and specificity 99.1 and 100% respectively). Using LJ as the reference, sensitivity and specificity for AMK resistance was 92.2% and 100% respectively; and for KAN resistance was 87.7% and 95.6% respectively. Mutations in the rrs gene were unequivocally associated with high level cross-resistance to AMK and KAN in all three conventional drug susceptibility testing methods. However, eis promoter mutations were associated with KAN resistance using only the MGIT or MYCOTB methods but not the LJ method. No testing method associated eis promoter mutations with AMK resistance. Among the discordant samples with AMK and/or KAN resistance but wild type sequence at the target genes, we discovered four new mutations in the whiB7 5' untranslated (UTR) region in 6/22 samples. All the six samples were resistant to only KAN suggesting the possible role of these whiB7 5' UTR mutations in KAN resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Selective difluoroalkylation of alkenes by using visible light photoredox catalysis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A visible light-induced process for selective difluoroalkylation of unactivated alkenes has been developed. The choice of base is crucial for governing the chemoselectivity of the process to produce difluoroalkylated alkanes and alkenes.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of entecavir-tenofovir combination therapy for chronic hepatitis B patients with multidrug-resistant strains.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major concern. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) against MDR HBV. To adjust for differences in baseline characteristics, inverse probability weighting (IPW) using propensity scores for the entire cohort and weighted Cox proportional hazards models were applied. Ninety-three consecutive patients who were treated with ETV-TDF combination therapy for >6 months were included; at baseline, 45 were infected with HBV strains with genotypic resistance to lamivudine (LAM) and ETV (the LAM/ETV-R group), 28 with strains resistant to LAM and adefovir (ADV) (the LAM/ADV-R group), and 20 with strains resistant to LAM, ETV, and ADV (the LAM/ETV/ADV-R group). The median duration of rescue therapy was 13.0 (range, 6.7 to 31.7) months. Seventy-four of 93 patients (79.6%) achieved complete virologic suppression, after a median of 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.0 to 6.0) months. The cumulative probability of complete virologic suppression at month 6 was 63.6% (55.7%, 75.0%, and 65.0% in the LAM/ETV-R, LAM/ADV-R, and LAM/ETV/ADV-R groups, respectively). During the treatment period, these probabilities were not significantly different across the resistance profiles before and after IPW (P = 0.072 and P = 0.510, respectively). In multivariate analysis, a lower baseline HBV DNA level, but not resistance profiles, was an independent predictor of complete virologic suppression. Renal dysfunction was not observed during the treatment period. In conclusion, rescue therapy with ETV-TDF combination is efficient and safe in patients infected with MDR HBV strains regardless of the antiviral drug resistance profiles.
Related JoVE Video
A 3-year-old girl with Graves' disease with literature review.
Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Graves' disease, the main cause of hyperthyroidism in the pediatric age group, is very rare in children younger than 4 years old but can seriously interfere with growth and development if not recognized and treated. Here we report a case of a 3-year-old girl with Graves' disease who presented with goiter, exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and hyperactivity. At her first visit, her serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxine (free T4) were normal, whereas that of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was decreased. Antimicrosomal antibody was 7,053.94 IU/mL, and TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin was 31.62%. A thyroid scan showed diffuse enlargement with markedly increased uptake of both thyroid glands. Although T3 and free T4 levels were initially normal, she developed hyperthyroidism 3 months later. She was finally diagnosed with Graves' disease and treated with methimazole for 6 months. This is the first report of Graves' disease in children younger than 4 years old in Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Three cases of lichen nitidus associated with various cutaneous diseases.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lichen nitidus (LN) is an uncommon, usually asymptomatic cutaneous eruption characterized by the presence of multiple, small, flesh-colored papules. The epidemiologic and pathophysiologic characteristics of LN have not yet been defined. Furthermore, LN has rarely been described in association with other cutaneous diseases. We herein report 3 cases of LN associated with various cutaneous diseases, including lichen striatus, oral lichen planus, and psoriasis vulgaris.
Related JoVE Video
The role of tumor suppressor menin in IL-6 regulation in mouse islet tumor cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Menin is a gene product of multiple endocrine neoplasia type1 (Men1), an inherited familial cancer syndrome characterized by tumors of endocrine tissues. To gain insight about how menin performs an endocrine cell-specific tumor suppressor function, we investigated the possibility that menin was integrated in a cancer-associated inflammatory pathway in a cell type-specific manner. Here, we showed that the expression of IL-6, a proinflammatory cytokine, was specifically elevated in mouse islet tumor cells upon depletion of menin and Men(-/-) MEF cells, but not in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Histone H3 lysine (K) 9 methylation, but not H3 K27 or K4 methylation, was involved in menin-dependent IL-6 regulation. Menin occupied the IL-6 promoter and recruited SUV39H1 to induce H3 K9 methylation. Our findings provide a molecular insight that menin-dependent induction of H3 K9 methylation in the cancer-associated interleukin gene might be linked to preventing endocrine-specific tumorigenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Protective effects of resveratrol oligomers from Vitis amurensis against sodium nitroprusside-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) induces apoptosis in neuronal cells, and has been implicating in a variety of neuronal pathological process. Thus, there is much interest in identifying natural substances which have protective effects against damage induced by nitrosative stress. The roots of Vitis amurensis have been used as traditional medicine and contain structurally diverse resveratrol oligomers with various biological activities. However, there have been few studies on the protective effect of resveratrol oligomers against neurotoxic reactive nitrogen species. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of two resveratrol oligomers from V. amurensis, vitisin A and heyneanol A, against NO-induced toxicity. Additionally, their antioxidant activities were determined by measuring NO and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. Both vitisin A and heyneanol A reduced cell death and DNA fragmentation induced by sodium nitroprusside in SH-SY5Y cells. The present study indicates that radical scavenging activities of vitisin A and heyneanol A contribute to protecting neuronal cells against nitrosative stress.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of four serological tests for detecting antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus after vaccination in children.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several different methods are currently used to detect antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in serum samples or cerebrospinal fluid. These methods include the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of each method in detecting vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV.
Related JoVE Video
What can be the criteria of outpatient-based endoscopic resection for colon polyp?
World J Gastrointest Endosc
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate whether out-patient based endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for colon polyps ? 10 mm is safe.
Related JoVE Video
Neurological outcome after surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, surgical outcomes of patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) have been improved due to advances of medicine. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the recent neurological outcomes after surgical treatment of IMSCTs.
Related JoVE Video
Oligonol improves memory and cognition under an amyloid ?(25-35)-induced Alzheimer's mouse model.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alzheimer's disease is an age-dependent progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in impairments of memory and cognitive function. It is hypothesized that oligonol has ameliorative effects on memory impairment and reduced cognitive functions in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by amyloid ?(25-35) (A?(25-35)) injection. The protective effect of an oligonol against A?(25-35)-induced memory impairment was investigated in an in vivo Alzheimer's mouse model. The aggregation of A?25-35 was induced by incubation at 37°C for 3 days before injection into mice brains (5 nmol/mouse), and then oligonol was orally administered at 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight for 2 weeks. Memory and cognition were observed in T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. The group injected with A?(25-35) showed impairments in both recognition and memory. However, novel object recognition and new route awareness abilities were dose dependently improved by the oral administration of oligonol. In addition, the results of the Morris water maze test indicated that oligonol exerted protective activity against cognitive impairment induced by A?(25-35). Furthermore, nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated by A?(25-35), whereas oligonol treatment significantly decreased nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys. The present results suggest that oligonol improves A?(25-35)-induced memory deficit and cognition impairment.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical Treatment in Patients with Cervical Osteomyelitis: Single Institute's Experiences.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study practical guidelines and strategies in the treatment of cervical osteomyelitis.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of Laparoscopic Radiofrequency Myolysis (LRFM) and Ultrasonographic Radiofrequency Myolysis (URFM) in Treatment of Midline Dysmenorrhea.
J Menopausal Med
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To access the effectiveness of radiofrequency myolysis (RFM) in women with midline dysmenorrhea.
Related JoVE Video
Phloroglucinol Attenuates Free Radical-induced Oxidative Stress.
Prev Nutr Food Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The protective role of phloroglucinol against oxidative stress and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) was investigated in vitro and in cell culture. Phloroglucinol had strong and concentration-dependent radical scavenging effects against nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anions (O2 (-)), and hydroxyl radicals. In this study, free radical generators were used to induce oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. Treatment with phloroglucinol attenuated the oxidative stress induced by peroxyl radicals, NO, O2 (-), and peroxynitrite. Phloroglucinol also increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. WI-38 human diploid fibroblast cells were used to investigate the protective effect of phloroglucinol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced SIPS. Phloroglucinol treatment attenuated H2O2-induced SIPS by increasing cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation, suggesting that treatment with phloroglucinol should delay the aging process. The present study supports the promising role of phloroglucinol as an antioxidative agent against free radical-induced oxidative stress and SIPS.
Related JoVE Video
Anterior lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of postoperative spondylodiscitis.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the clinical courses and outcomes after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for the treatment of postoperative spondylodiscitis.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical outcomes after traumatic vertebral fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory rheumatic disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton. The rigid spine may secondarily develop osteoporosis, further increasing the risk of spinal fracture. In this study, we reviewed fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis that had been clinically diagnosed to better define the mechanism of injury, associated neurological deficit, predisposing factors, and management strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative analysis of changes in salivary mutans streptococci after orthodontic treatment.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the initial changes in salivary mutans streptococci levels after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of risk factors for lipid intolerance of intravenous fat emulsion in very low birth weight infants.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to prevent fatty acid deficiency and to supply enough energy, intravenous fat emulsion is necessary for parenteral nutrition in preterm neonates. However, parenteral administration of intravenous fat emulsion can induce lipid intolerance. The purpose of this study was to analyze risk factors for lipid intolerance in very low birth weight infants. This retrospective study included 80 preterm neonates whose birth weight was less than 1,500 g. Subjects were divided into 2 categories: those with a serum triglyceride level of ? 200 mg/dl (n = 33, 41 %) and those with a serum triglyceride level of < 200 mg/dl (n = 47, 59 %). We conducted logistic regression analysis using variables which were significant in univariate analysis. All statistical analyses were processed in SPSS version 19.0. Four risk factors for lipid intolerance were obtained through analysis of the electronic medical record. Lipid intolerance occurred more frequently in neonates with sepsis; those with a birth weight less than 1,000 g; those who was administered intravenous fat emulsion more than 2.6 g/kg/day; and those whose gestational age was less than 28 weeks. It is suggested that serum triglyceride levels should be closely monitored to prevent lipid intolerance in preterm neonates with the aforementioned characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
Hydrotrifluoromethylation and iodotrifluoromethylation of alkenes and alkynes using an inorganic electride as a radical generator.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The trifluoromethyl (CF3) group is a staple synthon that can alter the physical and chemical properties of organic molecules. Despite recent advances in trifluoromethylation methods, the development of a general synthetic methodology for efficient and selective trifluoromethylation remains an ongoing challenge motivated by a steadily increasing demand from the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and materials science industries. In this article, we describe a simple, efficient and environmentally benign strategy for the hydrotrifluoromethylation of unactivated alkenes and alkynes through a radical-mediated reaction using an inorganic electride, [Ca2N](+) · e(-), as the electron source. In the transformation, anionic electrons are transferred from [Ca2N](+) · e(-) electrides to the trifluoromethylating reagent CF3I to initiate radical-mediated trifluoromethylation. The role of ethanol is pivotal in the transformation, acting as the solvent, an electron-releasing promoter and a hydrogen atom source. In addition, iodotrifluoromethylation of alkynes proceeds selectively upon the control of electride amount.
Related JoVE Video
ATP-citrate lyase regulates cellular senescence via AMPK- and p53-dependent pathway.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) is a key enzyme involved in de novo lipogenesis by catalyzing cytosolic citrate into acetyl-coA and oxaloacetate. Upregulated ACLY in various types of tumors enhances the fatty acid synthesis and supplies an excess acetyl-CoA for histone acetylation. However, some evidence showed that its enzymatic activity alone is insufficient for explaining ACLY-silencing-mediated growth arrest in tumor cells. In this study, we found that ACLY-knockdown in primary human cells triggers cellular senescence and the activation of tumor suppressor p53. Acetyl-CoA backup in ACLY-knockdown cells could not alleviate the ACLY-silencing-induced p53 activation, suggesting an independent role of ACLY activity. Instead, ACLY physically interacted with the catalytic subunit of AMPK and inhibited AMPK activity. The activation of AMPK in ACLY-knockdown conditions may lead to p53 activation, ultimately leading to cellular senescence. In cancer cells, ACLY-silencing-induced p53 activation facilitated DNA-damage-induced cell death. Taken together, we propose a novel function of ACLY in cellular senescence and tumorigenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
ERK1 phosphorylates Nanog to regulate protein stability and stem cell self-renewal.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanog regulates human and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal activity. Activation of ERKs signaling negatively regulates ES cell self-renewal and induces differentiation, but the mechanisms are not understood. We found that ERK1 binds and phosphorylates Nanog. Activation of MEK/ERKs signaling and phosphorylation of Nanog inhibit Nanog transactivation, inducing ES cell differentiation. Conversely, suppression of MEK/ERKs signaling enhances Nanog transactivation to inhibit ES cell differentiation. We observed that phosphorylation of Nanog by ERK1 decreases Nanog stability through ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation. Further, we found that this phosphorylation induces binding of FBXW8 with Nanog to reduce Nanog protein stability. Overall, our results demonstrated that ERKs-mediated Nanog phosphorylation plays an important role in self-renewal of ES cells through FBXW8-mediated Nanog protein stability.
Related JoVE Video
Heredity of acne in Korean patients.
J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilocebaceous unit that presents with various spectrum and severity. Genetic backgrounds and environmental factors are also considered to be relevant, but few studies have focused on Korean patients. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study on family history of Korean acne patients was performed to analyze family history of acne, and to compare the severity and characteristics of acne in association with family history. A total of 221 patients were enrolled, 98 male (44.3%) and 123 female (55.7%). Patients were grouped as patients with (A+) or without (A-) family history of acne. In a second analysis, patients with any experience of acne treatment were evaluated. Severity of acne was measured with Burton's grading system and Korean Acne Grading System (KAGS). Female patients had a higher tendency to have family history than males (P = 0.002). Group A+ had statistically significant earlier onset of acne (P = 0.002). In inexperienced patients, patients with family history showed a relatively earlier onset (P = 0.084). This study confirmed the role of heredity in acne. Family history of acne is associated with earlier onset of the disease, and more non-inflammatory lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of the effects of 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg midazolam with placebo on prevention of emergence agitation in children having strabismus surgery.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Midazolam has been widely studied for preventing emergence agitation. The authors previously reported that in children with sevoflurane anesthesia, intravenous administration of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) before the end of surgery reduced the incidence of emergence agitation but prolonged the emergence time. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a lower midazolam dose could suppress emergence agitation with minimal disturbance of the emergence time in children with sevoflurane anesthesia.
Related JoVE Video
The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and chronic periodontitis.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The most common cause of chronic periodontitis is poor oral hygiene. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) enhances the proximal migration of gastric contents and may cause poor oral hygiene. We hypothesized that GERD may increase the risk of chronic periodontitis and investigated this potential relationship.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of the Effectiveness of Nonablative Fractional Laser versus Pulsed-Dye Laser in Thyroidectomy Scar Prevention.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The anterior neck is the site of open thyroidectomy and where postoperative scarring can cause distress to patients. Both fractional and pulsed-dye lasers are effective and safe methods for preventing and improving surgical scars.
Related JoVE Video
Awareness and experience of menopausal symptom and hormone therapy in korean postmenopausal women.
J Menopausal Med
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate awareness and experience of menopausal symptom and hormone therapy in Korean postmenopausal women.
Related JoVE Video
Reduction in cardiovascular risk using a proactive multifactorial intervention is consistent among patients residing in Pacific Asian and non-Pacific Asian regions: a CRUCIAL trial subanalysis.
Vasc Health Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few trials have compared different approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention among Pacific Asian (PA) populations. The Cluster Randomized Usual Care versus Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk (CRUCIAL) trial demonstrated that a proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI) approach (based on single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin) resulted in a greater reduction in calculated Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk compared with usual care (UC) among hypertensive patients with additional risk factors. One-third of CRUCIAL patients resided in the PA region. The aim of this subanalysis was to compare two approaches to cardiovascular risk factor management (PMI versus UC) among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of Non-CG Genomic Hypomethylation Associated with Gamma-Ray-Induced Suppression of CMT3 Transcription in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ionizing radiation causes various epigenetic changes, as well as a variety of DNA lesions such as strand breaks, cross-links, oxidative damages, etc., in genomes. However, radiation-induced epigenetic changes have rarely been substantiated in plant genomes. The current study investigates whether DNA methylation of Arabidopsis thaliana genome is altered by gamma rays. We found that genomic DNA methylation decreased in wild-type plants with increasing doses of gamma rays (5, 50 and 200 Gy). Irradiation with 200 Gy significantly increased the expression of transcriptionally inactive centromeric 180-bp (CEN) and transcriptionally silent information (TSI) repeats. This increase suggested that there was a substantial release of transcriptional gene silencing by gamma rays, probably by induction of DNA hypomethylation. High expression of the DNA demethylase ROS1 and low expression of the DNA methyltransferase CMT3 supported this hypothesis. Moreover, Southern blot analysis following digestion of genomic DNA with methylation-sensitive enzymes revealed that the DNA hypomethylation occured preferentially at CHG or CHH sites rather than CG sites, depending on the radiation dose. Unlike CEN and TSI repeats, the number of Ta3, AtSN1 and FWA repeats decreased in transcription but increased in non-CG methylation. In addition, the cmt3-11 mutant showed neither DNA hypomethylation nor transcriptional activation of silenced repeats upon gamma irradiation. Furthermore, profiles of genome-wide transcriptomes in response to gamma rays differed between the wild-type and cmt3-11 mutant. These results suggest that gamma irradiation induced DNA hypomethylation preferentially at non-CG sites of transcriptionally inactive repeats in a locus-specific manner, which depends on CMT3 activity.
Related JoVE Video
Anatomical parameters of fifth lumbar vertebra in L5-S1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis from a surgical point of view.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We measured the length, width, height, and angles related to both Meyerding grading system and Marchetti-Bartolozzi classification in L5-S1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis patients to investigate the anatomical characteristics of fifth lumbar pedicles.
Related JoVE Video
Controlled Trifluoromethylation Reactions of Alkynes through Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The control of a reaction that can form multiple products is a highly attractive and challenging concept in synthetic chemistry. A set of valuable CF3 -containing molecules, namely trifluoromethylated alkenyl iodides, alkenes, and alkynes, were selectively generated from alkynes and CF3 I by environmentally benign and efficient visible-light photoredox catalysis. Subtle differences in the combination of catalyst, base, and solvent enabled the control of reactivity and selectivity for the reaction between an alkyne and CF3 I.
Related JoVE Video
Systemic amyloidosis manifested by gastric outlet obstruction.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amyloidosis is characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble protein fibrils that stain with Congo red application and appear apple green under polarized light. The presenting symptoms result from the involvement of many affected, nonspecific and generalized organ systems. Our patient was an 80-year-old woman with no medical history. She presented with a 2-week history of nausea and vomiting. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed erythematous and edematous mucosa on the antrum with pyloric stenosis. Histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen showed the deposition of amorphous, homogeneous, and acidophilic material in the gastric mucosa. Amyloidal protein was proven by positive Congo red stain. A serum and urine immunfixation electrophoresis showed lambda light chain band. She developed symptoms of repeated greenish color vomiting. A follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed progressed antral obstruction. However, she refused further evaluation and treatment and was managed conservatively. She later died of disease progression after 34 hospital days.
Related JoVE Video
Modulation of lysine methylation in myocyte enhancer factor 2 during skeletal muscle cell differentiation.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) is a family of transcription factors that regulates many processes, including muscle differentiation. Due to its many target genes, MEF2D requires tight regulation of transcription activity over time and by location. Epigenetic modifiers have been suggested to regulate MEF2-dependent transcription via modifications to histones and MEF2. However, the modulation of MEF2 activity by lysine methylation, an important posttranslational modification that alters the activities of transcription factors, has not been studied. We report the reversible lysine methylation of MEF2D by G9a and LSD1 as a regulatory mechanism of MEF2D activity and skeletal muscle differentiation. G9a methylates lysine-267 of MEF2D and represses its transcriptional activity, but LSD1 counteracts it. This residue is highly conserved between MEF2 members in mammals. During myogenic differentiation of C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells, the methylation of MEF2D by G9a decreased, on which MEF2D-dependent myogenic genes were upregulated. We have also identified lysine-267 as a methylation/demethylation site and demonstrate that the lysine methylation state of MEF2D regulates its transcriptional activity and skeletal muscle cell differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
Differential in vitro and cellular effects of iron chelators for hypoxia inducible factor hydroxylases.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?), an essential transcriptional factor, is negatively regulated by two different types of oxygen and Fe(2+) -dependent HIF hydroxylases, proline hydroxylase (PHD) and factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), under normoxia. Iron chelators have therefore been used for inducing HIF-1? expression by inhibiting the hydroxylases. In this study, the iron chelators displayed differential effects for PHD and FIH in cells depending on their iron specificity and membrane permeability rather than their in vitro potencies. The membrane permeability of the strict Fe(2+) -chelator potentially inhibited both hydroxylases, whereas the membrane impermeable one showed no inhibitory effect in cells. In contrast, the depletion of the extracellular Fe(3+) ion was mainly correlated to PHD inhibition, and the membrane permeable one elicited low efficacy for both enzymes in cells. The 3-hydroxyl group of quercetin, a natural flavonoid, was critical for inhibition of intracellular hydroxylases. Since the 3-methylation of quercetin is induced by catechol-O-methyl transferase, the enzyme may regulate the intracellular activity of quercetin. These data suggest that the multiple factors of iron-chelators may be responsible for regulating the intracellular activity HIF hydroxylases.
Related JoVE Video
Doppler-Derived Left Ventricular Negative dP/dt as a Predictor of Atrial Fibrillation or Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation and Normal Ejection Fraction.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) -dP/dt in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) or ischemic stroke in patients with moderate to severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR).
Related JoVE Video
Natural history and malignant risk factors of solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas.
Postgrad Med
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) of the pancreas are unusual neoplasms of uncertain prognosis. Most patients with SPTs have a good prognosis after undergoing surgical resection, but there are rare cases in which a locally infiltrative growth pattern and metastatic variety are exhibited, or recurrence of the disease after surgery occurs; these cases have been reported with very poor clinical outcomes. Our study investigated the natural history of SPTs and delineated the clinicopathologic features that may predict the malignancy potential of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
p53 regulates glucose metabolism by miR-34a.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer cells rely mainly on glycolysis rather than mitochondrial respiration for energy production, which is called the Warburg effect. p53 mutations are observed in about half of cancer cases, and p53 controls the cell cycle and cell death in response to cellular stressors. p53 has been emphasized as a metabolic regulator involved in glucose, glutamine, and purine metabolism. Here, we demonstrated metabolic changes in cancer that occurred through p53. We found that p53-inducible microRNA-34a (miR-34a) repressed glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase 1, hexokinase 2, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1. Treatment with an anti-miR-34a inhibitor relieved the decreased expression in these enzymes following DNA damage. miR-34a-mediated inhibition of these enzymes resulted in repressed glycolysis and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. The results suggest that p53 has a miR-34a-dependent integrated mechanism to regulate glucose metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Serum insulin-like growth factor-I level is an independent predictor of recurrence and survival in early hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective cohort study.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) reflects hepatic synthetic function and plays an important role in the development and progression of various cancers. In this study, we investigated whether pretreatment serum IGF-I levels predict time-to-recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS) in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Optimized enzymatic dual functions of PaPrx protein by proton irradiation.
J. Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the effects of proton irradiation on the function and structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa peroxiredoxin (PaPrx). Polyacrylamide gel demonstrated that PaPrx proteins exposed to proton irradiation at several doses exhibited simultaneous formation of high molecular weight (HMW) complexes and fragmentation. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis revealed that the number of fragments and very low molecular weight (LMW) structures increased as the proton irradiation dose increased. The peroxidase activity of irradiated PaPrx was preserved, and its chaperone activity was significantly increased by increasing the proton irradiation dose. The chaperone activity increased about 3-4 fold after 2.5 kGy proton irradiation, compared with that of non-irradiated PaPrx, and increased to almost the maximum activity after 10 kGy proton irradiation. We previously obtained functional switching in PaPrx proteins, by using gamma rays and electron beams as radiation sources, and found that the proteins exhibited increased chaperone activity but decreased peroxidase activity. Interestingly, in this study we newly found that proton irradiation could enhance both peroxidase and chaperone activities. Therefore, we can suggest proton irradiation as a novel protocol for conserved 2-Cys protein engineering.
Related JoVE Video
Divergences in morphological changes and antioxidant responses in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice seedlings after salt stress.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Salinization plays a primary role in soil degradation and reduced agricultural productivity. We observed that salt stress reversed photosynthesis and reactive oxygen scavenging responses in leaves or roots of two rice cultivars, a salt-tolerant cultivar Pokkali and a salt-sensitive cultivar IR-29. Salt treatment (100 mM NaCl) on IR-29 decreased the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), thereby inhibiting photosynthetic activity. By contrast, the salt treatment on Pokkali had the converse effect on Fv/Fm and qP, while increasing the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), thereby favoring photosynthetic activity. Notably, chloroplast or root cells in Pokkali maintained their ultrastructures largely intact under the salt stress, but, IR-29 showed severe disintegration of existing grana stacks, increase of plastoglobuli, and swelling of thylakoidal membranes in addition to collapsed vascular region in adventitious roots. Pokkali is known to have higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-scavenging enzyme activities in non-treated seedlings, including ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase activities. However, these enzymatic activities were induced to a greater extent in IR-29 by the salt stress. While the level of endogenous H2O2 was lower in Pokkali than in IR-29, it was reversed upon the salt treatment. Nevertheless, the decreased amount of H2O2 in IR-29 upon the salt stress didnt result in a high scavenging activity of total cell extracts for H2O2, as well as O2(·-) and (·)OH species. The present study suggests that the tolerance to the moderate salinity in Pokkali derives largely from the constitutively maintained antioxidant enzymatic activities as well as the induced antioxidant enzyme system.
Related JoVE Video
Histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A modulates the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) can be acetylated via post-translational modification. We investigated the effect of an inhibitor of histone deacetylases on the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1 in HEK293 cells. Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, induced APE1/Ref-1 secretion without changing cell viability. In a fluorescence quantitative assay, the secreted APE1/Ref-1 was estimated to be about 10 ng/mL in response to TSA (1 ?M). However, TSA did not induce the secretion of lysine-mutated APE1/Ref-1 (K6R/K7R). TSA also caused nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. Taken together, these findings suggest that APE1/Ref-1 is a protein whose secretion is governed by lysine acetylation.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of plasma APE1/Ref-1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemic rats: implication of serological biomarker for an endotoxemia.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision DNA repair and in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We investigated whether APE1/Ref-1 increased in plasma of endotoxemic rats. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce endotoxemia in rats. Administration of LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly induced plasma nitrite production and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). A 37 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in cell-free plasma of LPS-treated rats using anti-APE1/Ref-1, which reached a maximum at 12 h after the LPS injection. The 37 kDa immunoreactive band was identified as rat APE1/Ref-1 by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant human APE1/Ref-1 protein (2-5 ?g/ml for 18 h) inhibited TNF-?-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, the level of plasma APE1/Ref-1 increased in LPS-induced endotoxemic rats, suggesting that plasma APE1/Ref-1 might serve as a serological biomarker for endotoxemia.
Related JoVE Video
Proactive Multifactorial Intervention Strategy Reduces the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Estimated with Region-Specific Risk Assessment Models in Pacific Asian Patients Participating in the CRUCIAL Trial.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite race, ethnic, and regional differences in cardiovascular disease risk, many worldwide hypertension management guidelines recommend the use of the Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equation to guide treatment decisions. This subanalysis of the recently published CRUCIAL trial compared the treatment-related reductions in calculated CHD and stroke risk among Pacific Asian (PA) patients using a variety of region-specific risk assessment models. As a result, greater reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed in the proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI) arm compared with the usual care arm at Week 52 for PA patients. The relative percentage change in 10-yr CHD risk between baseline and Week 52 in the PMI versus usual care arms was greatest using the NIPPON DATA80 fatal CHD model (LS [least square] mean difference -42.6%), and similar in the SCORE fatal CHD and Framingham total CHD models (LS mean difference -29.4% and -30.8%, respectively). The single-pill based PMI approach is consistently effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk, evaluated using a variety of risk assessment models. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00407537).
Related JoVE Video
Dissecting the roles of the histone chaperones reveals the evolutionary conserved mechanism of transcription-coupled deposition of H3.3.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mammalian genome encodes multiple variants of histone H3 including H3.1/H3.2 and H3.3. In contrast to H3.1/H3.2, H3.3 is enriched in the actively transcribed euchromatin and the telomeric heterochromatins. However, the mechanism for H3.3 to incorporate into the different domains of chromatin is not known. Here, taking the advantage of well-defined transcription analysis system of yeast, we attempted to understand the molecular mechanism of selective deposition of human H3.3 into actively transcribed genes. We show that there are systemic H3 substrate-selection mechanisms operating even in yeasts, which encode a single type of H3. Yeast HIR complex mediated H3-specific recognition specificity for deposition of H3.3 in the transcribed genes. A critical component of this process was the H3 A-IG code composed of amino acids 87, 89 and 90. The preference toward H3.3 was completely lost when HIR subunits were absent and partially suppressed by human HIRA. Asf1 allows the influx of H3, regardless of H3 type. We propose that H3.3 is introduced into the active euchromatin by targeting the recycling pathway that is mediated by HIRA (or HIR), and this H3-selection mechanism is highly conserved through the evolution. These results also uncover an unexpected role of RI chaperones in evolution of variant H3s.
Related JoVE Video
Travel-Associated Chikungunya Cases in South Korea during 2009-2010.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chikungunya (CHIK) has been classified as a communicable disease group IV in South Korea since late 2010. Based on this, we investigated the extent of imported cases of CHIK in dengue-suspected individuals returning from dengue-endemic regions.
Related JoVE Video
Nanoparticle characterization: state of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanoparticles have received enormous attention as a promising tool to enhance target-specific drug delivery and diagnosis. Various in vitro and in vivo techniques are used to characterize a new system and predict its clinical efficacy. These techniques enable efficient comparison across nanoparticles and facilitate a product optimization process. On the other hand, we recognize their limitations as a prediction tool, due to inadequate applications and overly simplified test conditions. We provide a critical review of in vitro and in vivo techniques currently used for evaluation of nanoparticles and introduce emerging techniques and models that may be used complementarily.
Related JoVE Video
Arginase II inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced cell death by regulation of iNOS and Bcl-2 family proteins in macrophages.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arginase II catalyzes the conversion of arginine to urea and ornithine in many extrahepatic tissues. We investigated the protective role of arginase II on lipopolysaccharide-mediated apoptosis in the macrophage cells. Adenoviral gene transfer of full length of arginase II was performed in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The role of arginase II was investigated with cell viability, cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation assay, arginase activity, nitric oxide production, and Western blot analysis. Arginase II is localized in mitochondria of macrophage cells, and the expression of arginase II was increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS significantly increased cell death which was inhibited by AMT, a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor. In contrast, LPS-induced cell death and nitric oxide production were increased by 2-boronoethyl-L-cysteine, a specific inhibitor of arginase. Adenoviral overexpression of arginase II significantly inhibited LPS-induced cell death and cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation. LPS-induced iNOS expression and poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage were significantly suppressed by arginase II overexpression. Furthermore, arginase II overexpression resulted in a decrease in the Bax protein level and the reverse induction of Bcl-2 protein. Our data demonstrated that inhibition of NO production by arginase II may be due to arginine depletion as well as iNOS suppression though its reaction products. Moreover, arginase II plays a protective role of LPS-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Gene cloning and characterization of MdeA, a novel multidrug efflux pump in Streptococcus mutans.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multidrug resistance, especially multidrug efflux mechanisms that extrude structurally unrelated cytotoxic compounds from the cell by multidrug transporters, is a serious problem and one of the main reasons for the failure of therapeutic treatment of infections by pathogenic microorganisms as well as of cancer cells. Streptococcus mutans is considered one of the primary causative agents of dental caries and periodontal disease, which comprise the most common oral diseases. A fragment of chromosomal DNA from S. mutans KCTC3065 was cloned using Escherichia coli KAM32 as host cells lacking major multidrug efflux pumps. Although E. coli KAM32 cells were very sensitive to many antimicrobial agents, the transformed cells harboring a recombinant plasmid became resistant to several structurally unrelated antimicrobial agents such as tetracycline, kanamycin, rhodamin 6G, ampicillin, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. This suggested that the cloned DNA fragment carries a gene encoding a multidrug efflux pump. Among 49 of the multidrug-resistant transformants, we report the functional gene cloning and characterization of the function of one multidrug efflux pump, namely MdeA from S. mutans, which was expressed in E. coli KAM32. Judging from the structural and biochemical properties, we concluded that MdeA is the first cloned and characterized multidrug efflux pump using the proton motive force as the energy for efflux drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatocellular carcinoma: high hepatitis B viral load and mortality in patients treated with transarterial chemoembolization.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level and the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated by means of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).
Related JoVE Video
A randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy of ramosetron and palonosetron for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopic surgery.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication after anesthesia and surgery; 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been considered as a first-line therapy. Ramosetron and palonosetron are more recently developed drugs and have greater receptor affinity and a longer elimination half-life compared with older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The purpose of this study was to determine which drug is more effective for preventing PONV between ramosetron and palonosetron.
Related JoVE Video
Generation of CF3-containing epoxides and aziridines by visible-light-driven trifluoromethylation of allylic alcohols and amines.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radical reactions! Efficient methods for the generation of CF3-containing epoxides and aziridines have been developed (see scheme). A variety of allylic alcohols and allylic amines were transformed into the corresponding epoxides and aziridines by using [Ru(bpy)3]Cl2 (bpy = 2,2-bipyridine), CF3 I, and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) (or N,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine, TMEDA) under visible-light irradiation.
Related JoVE Video
Composition of the extracellular matrix of lymphatic novel threadlike structures: is it keratin?
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs) is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI). The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and toxicity of plerixafor for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in children with high-risk neuroblastoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Six patients with high-risk neuroblastoma underwent the second stem cell collection round with G-CSF (5 ?g/kg/day) + plerixafor (0.24 mg/kg/day) because the amount of CD34(+) cells collected during the first collection round with G-CSF alone was insufficient. The number of CD34(+) cells collected in the second collection round was higher in four patients and lower in two patients than in the first collection round. Four of the six patients experienced nightmares, nyctophobia, and visual hallucinations with G-CSF + plerixafor, which were not observed with G-CSF alone. Our findings suggest that plerixafor needs to be used with caution in children.
Related JoVE Video
Hematologic recovery after tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in children with high-risk solid tumors.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although the number of studies using tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) for the treatment of high-risk pediatric solid tumors has been increasing, documentation of hematologic recovery after tandem HDCT/autoSCT is very limited. For this reason, we retrospectively analyzed the hematologic recovery of 236 children with high-risk solid tumors who underwent tandem HDCT/autoSCT. The median numbers of CD34(+) cells transplanted during the first and second HDCT/autoSCT were 4.3 × 10(6)/kg (range 0.6-220.2) and 4.1 × 10(6)/kg (range 0.9-157.6), respectively (P = 0.664). While there was no difference in neutrophil recovery between the first and second HDCT/autoSCT, platelet and RBC recoveries were significantly delayed in the second HDCT/autoSCT (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Delayed recovery in the second HDCT/autoSCT was more prominent when the number of transplanted CD34(+) cells was lower, especially if it was < 2 × 10(6)/kg. A lower CD34(+) cell count was also associated with increased RBC transfusion requirements and a higher serum ferritin level after tandem HDCT/autoSCT. More CD34(+) cells need to be transplanted during the second HDCT/autoSCT in order to achieve the same hematologic recovery as the first HDCT/autoSCT.
Related JoVE Video
Safety and efficacy of fimasartan in patients with arterial hypertension (Safe-KanArb study): an open-label observational study.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) play a key role in hypertension therapy. Recently, fimasartan, the ninth ARB, was developed, but its safety and efficacy have not been well established.
Related JoVE Video
Rothia mucilaginosa pneumonia diagnosed by quantitative cultures and intracellular organisms of bronchoalveolar lavage in a lymphoma patient.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rothia mucilaginosa is a gram-positive coccus of the family Micrococcaceae. R. mucilaginosa is considered a part of the normal flora of the human oropharynx and upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract infections attributable to R. mucilaginosa are not frequent. We present a case of pneumonia, in which the R. mucilaginosa infection was diagnosed by quantitative cultures of a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen. A 46-yr-old woman with B lymphoblastic lymphoma was admitted to the hospital for scheduled chemotherapy. Her chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed bilateral multifocal nodular and patchy consolidation in both lungs. Investigation of the BAL specimen revealed that 7% of leukocytes had intracellular gram-positive cocci. The quantitative cultures of the BAL specimen grew mucoid, non-hemolytic, and grayish convex colonies on blood agar at a count of approximately 200,000 colony-forming units/mL. The colonies were identified as R. mucilaginosa. The patient was empirically treated with levofloxacin for 7 days, after which findings on the chest radiograph and CT scan improved. She was discharged with improvement on hospital day 46. To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. mucilaginosa pneumonia diagnosed in Korea. Quantitative culture of BAL specimen and examination of intracellular organisms are crucial for assessing the clinical significance of R. mucilaginosa recovered from the lower respiratory tract.
Related JoVE Video
Role of CXCR2 on the immune modulating activity of ?-iso-cubebenol a natural compound isolated from the Schisandra chinensis fruit.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously, we demonstrated that ?-iso-cubebenol, a natural compound isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, strongly enhances therapeutic efficacy against cecal ligation and puncture challenge-induced sepsis. In this study, we found that ?-iso-cubebenol stimulated calcium increase and degranulation in human neutrophils. ?-Iso-cubebenol also strongly induced neutrophil chemotaxis, which was completely blocked by a CXCR2 antagonist, SB225002. The increased survival rate by ?-iso-cubebenol was also significantly attenuated by SB225002. Taken together, the results indicate that ?-iso-cubebenol-induced anti-septic activity was mediated by CXCR2, suggesting CXCR2 as an important target for the regulation of sepsis and inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicities of ioxitalamate and indigocarmine in human nucleus pulposus cells.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ioxitalamate (Telebrix 300) is an ionic iodinated contrast medium commonly used for discography or percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD), though it has side effects such as anaphylactic shock and renal toxicity. Indigocarmine is an organic compound dye with a distinctive blue color that is commonly used during PELD to stain the acidic, degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP). Although ioxitalamate and indigocarmine are widely used in spinal surgery, there have been no reports on their effects on NP cells. We studied the toxicities of both ioxitalamate and indigocarmine to NP cells.
Related JoVE Video
Phosphorylation and ubiquitination-dependent degradation of CABIN1 releases p53 for transactivation upon genotoxic stress.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CABIN1 acts as a negative regulator of p53 by keeping p53 in an inactive state on chromatin. Genotoxic stress causes rapid dissociation of CABIN1 and activation of p53. However, its molecular mechanism is still unknown. Here, we reveal the phosphorylation- and ubiquitination-dependent degradation of CABIN1 upon DNA damage, releasing p53 for transcriptional activation. The DNA-damage-signaling kinases, ATM and CHK2, phosphorylate CABIN1 and increase the degradation of CABIN1 protein. Knockdown or overexpression of these kinases influences the stability of CABIN1 protein showing that their activity is critical for degradation of CABIN1. Additionally, CABIN1 was found to undergo ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation mediated by the CRL4DDB2 ubiquitin ligase complex. Both phosphorylation and ubiquitination of CABIN1 appear to be relevant for controlling the level of CABIN1 protein upon genotoxic stress.
Related JoVE Video
Heterologous expression of endo-1,4-?-xylanase A from Schizophyllum commune in Pichia pastoris and functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme.
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endo-1,4-?-xylanase A (XynA) from Schizophyllum commune was cloned into pPCZ?A and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The open reading frame of the xynA gene is composed of 684 bp, encoding 278 amino acids with a molecular weight of 26 kDa. Based on sequence similarity, XynA belongs to the CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 11. The optimal activity of XynA was at pH 5 and 50 °C on beechwood xylan. Under these conditions, the K(m), V(max) and specific activity of XynA were 5768 units mg(-1), 4 mg ml(-1) and 9000 ?mol min(-1)mg(-1), respectively. XynA activity was enhanced in the presence of cations, such as K(+), Na(+), Li(2+), Cd(2+), and Co(2+). However, in the presence of EDTA, Hg(2+) and Fe(3+), xylanase activity was significantly inhibited. This enzyme effectively degraded approximately 45% of unsubstituted xylans in the cell wall from poplar stems. The high level of XynA activity might increase the yield of enzyme hydrolysis from biomass. Thus, XynA could be used as a major component of a lignocellulosic degrading enzyme cocktail.
Related JoVE Video
AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates CtBP1 and down-regulates its activity.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CtBP is a transcriptional repressor which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. It was reported that glucose withdrawal causes induction of Bax due to the dissociation of CtBP from the Bax promoter. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of CtBP still remains unclear. In this study, we found that an activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates CtBP1 on Ser-158 upon metabolic stresses. Moreover, AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 (S158) attenuates the repressive function of CtBP1. We also confirmed that triggering activation of AMPK by various factors resulted in an increase of Bax gene expression. These findings provide connections of AMPK with CtBP1-mediated regulation of Bax expression for cell death under metabolic stresses.
Related JoVE Video
Construction and Application of Elastin Like Polypeptide Containing IL-4 Receptor Targeting Peptide.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Various human solid tumors highly express IL-4 receptors which amplify the expression of some of anti-apoptotic proteins, preventing drug-induced cancer cell death. Thus, IL-4 receptor targeted drug delivery can possibly increase the therapeutic efficacy in cancer treatment. Macromolecular carriers with multivalent targeting moieties offered great advantages in cancer therapy as they not only increase the plasma half-life of the drug but also allow delivery of therapeutic drugs to the cancer cells with higher specificity, minimizing the deleterious effects of the drug on normal cells. In this study we designed a library of elastin like polypeptide (ELP) polymers containing tumor targeting AP1 peptide using recursive directional ligation method. AP1 was previously discovered as an atherosclerotic plaque and breast tumor tissue homing peptide using phage display screening method, and it can selectively bind to the interleukin 4 receptor (IL-4R). The fluorescently labeled [AP1-V12]6, an ELP polymer containing six AP1 enhanced tumor-specific targeting ability and uptake efficiency in H226 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines in vitro. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that multivalent presentation of the targeting ligand in the ELP polymer increased the binding affinity towards IL-4 receptor compared to free peptide. The binding of [AP1-V12]6 to cancer cells was remarkably reduced when IL-4 receptors were blocked by antibody against IL-4 receptor further confirmed its binding. Importantly, the Cy5.5-labeled [AP1-V12]6 demonstrated excellent homing and longer retention in tumor tissues in MDA-MB-231 xenograft mouse model. Immunohistological studies of tumor tissues further validated the targeting efficiency of [AP1-V12]6 to tumor tissue. These results indicate that designed [AP1-V12]6 can serve as a novel carrier for selective delivery of therapeutic drugs to tumors.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of orthodontic bonding steps on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of saliva.
Acta Odontol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effects of various orthodontic bonding steps on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of saliva.
Related JoVE Video
Co-immobilization of three cellulases on Au-doped magnetic silica nanoparticles for the degradation of cellulose.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three cystein-tagged cellulases co-immobilized on AuNP and Au-MSNP for the hydrolytic degradation of cellulose. The biochemical properties, stabilities, activities and reusability of these co-immobilized systems were compared to those of mixtures of free cellulases.
Related JoVE Video
Relative etiological role of prior hepatitis B virus infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the development of non-B non-C hepatocellular carcinoma in a hepatitis B-endemic area.
Digestion
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the relative etiological role of prior hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the development of non-B non-C, non-alcohol or specific cause-related hepatocellular carcinoma (NBNC-NA-NS HCC) in an HBV-endemic area of Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates albuminuria and glomerular injury in the animal model of diabetic nephropathy.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pyruvate is an endogenous antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substance. The present study was implemented to investigate the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) against the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in an in vivo and in vitro model. Diabetic rats were prepared by injecting streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Those that developed diabetes after 72 h were treated with EP (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Diabetic rats without pyruvate treatment and nondiabetic rats were used for control. As an in vitro experiment, rat mesangial cells cultured primarily from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated in high-glucose (HG; 50 mM) or normal-glucose (NG; 5 mM) conditions and with or without pyruvate. Pyruvate-treated diabetic rats exhibited decreased albuminuria and attenuated NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species generation. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced laminin, type IV collagen, and fibronectin deposition in the glomeruli compared with nontreated diabetic rats. Parallel changes were shown in tissue mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-?1, laminin, fibronectin, and type IV collagen in the kidney. Concordantly, protective effects were also exhibited in the mesangial cell culture system. These findings suggest that pyruvate protects against kidney injury via NADPH oxidase inhibition. The present study established that activation of NADPH oxidase plays a crucial role in diabetes-induced oxidative stress, glomerular hypertrophy, and ECM molecule expression. Pyruvate exhibited a renoprotective effect in the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy. Future research is warranted to investigate the protective mechanism of pyruvate more specifically in relation to NADPH oxidase in diabetic nephropathy.
Related JoVE Video
The palladium-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of vinyl sulfonates.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A method for the palladium-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of cyclohexenyl sulfonates has been developed. Various cyclohexenyl triflates and nonaflates underwent trifluoromethylation under mild reaction conditions using a catalyst system composed of Pd(dba)(2) or [(allyl)PdCl](2) and the monodentate biaryl phosphine ligand (t)BuXPhos. The trifluoromethyl anion (CF(3)(-)) or its equivalent for the process was generated in situ from TMSCF(3) in combination with KF or TESCF(3) in combination with RbF.
Related JoVE Video
Phenanthroline-based magnetic nanoparticles as a general agent to bind histidine-tagged proteins.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We herein report the preparation of PSMN (phenanthroline-based silica coated magnetic nanoparticles), and their applications for protein purification as selective magnetic probes of histidine-tagged proteins in cell lysates. This simple system serves as a useful alternative to existing protocols for his-tagged protein separation and as a versatile agent for transporting and anchoring proteins.
Related JoVE Video
Phosphorylation of von Hippel-Lindau protein by checkpoint kinase 2 regulates p53 transactivation.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
von-Hippel Lindau protein (pVHL) suppresses tumorigenesis in the kidney, in part through regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF alpha). However, HIF has been proposed to be necessary but insufficient for renal tumorigenesis. p53 was implicated as a transcription factor that is regulated by pVHL, but the molecular mechanism by which pVHL regulates p53 on DNA damage is unknown. We demonstrated that checkpoint kinase-2 (Chk2) binds to the beta-domain of pVHL and phosphorylates Ser 111 on DNA damage. Notably, this modification enhances pVHL-mediated transactivation of p53 by recruiting p300 and Tip60 to the chromatin of p53 target gene. Further, the naturally occurring pVHL mutants pVHL-S111R and pVHL-S111C showed diminished binding to coactivators, ultimately retarding p53-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis. In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism by which pVHL transactivates p53 on DNA damage and demonstrated that p53-related pVHL subtype mutants regulate tumorigenecity in VHL diseases.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.