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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Trans and interesterified fat and palm oil during the pregnancy and lactation period inhibit the central anorexigenic action of insulin in adult male rat offspring.
J Physiol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Palm oil and interesterified fat have been used to replace partially hydrogenated fats, rich in trans isomers, in processed foods. This study investigated whether the maternal consumption of normolipidic diets containing these lipids affects the insulin receptor and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) contents in the hypothalamus and the hypophagic effect of centrally administered insulin in 3-month-old male offspring. At 90 days, the intracerebroventricular injection of insulin decreased 24-h feeding in control rats but not in the palm, interesterified or trans groups. The palm group exhibited increases in the insulin receptor content of 64 and 69 % compared to the control and trans groups, respectively. However, the quantifications of PKB did not differ significantly across groups. We conclude that the intake of trans fatty acid substitutes during the early perinatal period affects food intake regulation in response to centrally administered insulin in the young adult offspring; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
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Endogenous inhibition of hippocampal LTD and depotentiation by vasoactive intestinal peptide VPAC1 receptors.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an important modulator of hippocampal synaptic transmission, influences exploration and hippocampal-dependent learning in rodents. Homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) and depotentiation are two plasticity phenomena implicated in learning of behavior flexibility and spatial novelty detection. In this study, we investigated the influence of endogenous VIP on LTD and depotentiation induced by low-frequency stimulation (1 Hz, 900 pulses) of the hippocampal CA1 area in vitro in juvenile and young adult rats, respectively. LTD and depotentiation were enhanced by the VIP receptor antagonist Ac-Tyr(1) , D-Phe(2) GRF (1-29), and the selective VPAC1 receptor antagonist, PG 97-269, but not the selective VPAC2 receptor antagonist, PG 99-465. This action was mimicked by an anti-VIP antibody, suggesting that VIP, and not pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), is the endogenous mediator of these effects. Selective inhibition of PAC1 receptors with PACAP (6-38) enhanced depotentiation, but not LTD. VPAC1 receptor blockade also revealed LTD in young adult rats, an effect abolished by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, evidencing an involvement of GABAergic transmission. We conclude that inhibition of LTD and depotentiation by endogenous VIP occurs through VPAC1 receptor-mediated mechanisms and suggest that disinhibition of pyramidal cell dendrites is the most likely physiological mechanism underlying this effect. As such, VPAC1 receptor ligands may be considered promising pharmacological targets for treatment of cognitive dysfunction in diseases involving altered GABAergic circuits and pathological saturation of LTP/LTD like Down's syndrome and temporal lobe epilepsy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Development and validation of an educational booklet for healthy eating during pregnancy.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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to describe the validation process of an educational booklet for healthy eating in pregnancy using local and regional food.
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[Autonomy for financial management in public and private healthcare facilities in Brazil].
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Autonomy in financial management is an advantage in public administration. A 2009 National Healthcare Facility Survey showed that 3.9% of Brazil's 52,055 public healthcare facilities had some degree of financial autonomy. Such autonomy was more common in inpatient facilities (17.8%), those managed by State governments (26.3%), and in Southern Brazil (6.6%). Autonomy was mainly partial (for resources in specific areas, relating to small outlays, consumables and capital goods, and outsourced services or personnel). 74.3% of 2,264 public facilities with any financial autonomy were under direct government administration. Financial autonomy in public healthcare facilities appears to be linked to local political decisions and not necessarily to the facility's specific legal and administrative status. However, legal status displays distinct scopes of autonomy - those under direct government administration tend to be less autonomous, and those under private businesses more autonomous; 85.8% of the 45,394 private healthcare facilities reported that they were financially autonomous.
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Induced over-expression of AtDREB2A CA improves drought tolerance in sugarcane.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Drought is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable sugarcane production and, in some cases, yield losses caused by drought are nearly 50%. DREB proteins play vital regulatory roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. The transcription factor DREB2A interacts with a cis-acting DRE sequence to activate the expression of downstream genes that are involved in drought-, salt- and heat-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of stress-inducible over-expression of AtDREB2A CA on gene expression, leaf water potential (?L), relative water content (RWC), sucrose content and gas exchanges of sugarcane plants submitted to a four-days water deficit treatment in a rhizotron-grown root system. The plants were also phenotyped by scanning the roots and measuring morphological parameters of the shoot. The stress-inducible expression of AtDREB2A CA in transgenic sugarcane led to the up-regulation of genes involved in plant response to drought stress. The transgenic plants maintained higher RWC and ?L over 4 days after withholding water and had higher photosynthetic rates until the 3rd day of water-deficit. Induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane increased sucrose levels and improved bud sprouting of the transgenic plants. Our results indicate that induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane enhanced its drought tolerance without biomass penalty.
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Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).
Rev Bras Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior.
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Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 ?g/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 ?g/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 ?g/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 ?g/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons.
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A study of the routes of contamination by lead and cadmium in Santo Amaro, Brazil.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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The problem of contamination by cadmium and lead in Santo Amaro, Brazil, has been studied since 1970 and the severity of this contamination case has been demonstrated by many authors. This study evaluates the persistence of the superficial soil contamination around the metallurgical plant and attempts to correlate the lead and cadmium concentrations to the past atmospheric emissions from the lead plant and with the presence of lead debris under urban road surface and in the backyards of homes. Past emissions still play an important role in soil contamination. In areas without debris, about 30% of the soil samples had lead concentrations above the agricultural use limit of 180 parts per million (ppm) (according to CONAMA 420, 2009), 20% of the samples had concentrations above 300 ppm (maximum for residential use) and 9.6% of the samples had concentrations above 900 ppm (maximum for industrial use). These concentrations are higher cldse to the chimney of the metallurgical plant. An average lead concentration of 1316 ppm was found in the backyard samples. About 80% of the houses had lead concentrations above 300 ppm and about 50% of the samples had values above 900 ppm, indicating the importance of the lead debris in the contamination scenario. Although a matter of concern, the cadmium concentrations seem to be less problematic than lead at the present time, probably due to the higher mobility of cadmium. The cadmium concentrations in the atmospheric dispersion and backyard samples showed similar trends, while the influence of the lead debris on the soil contamination is less evident.
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Growth and development of tomato plants Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. under different saline conditions by fertirrigation with pretreated cheese whey wastewater.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been used at different salinity levels: 1.75, 2.22, 3.22, 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) and compared with fresh water (1.44 dS m(-1)). Two cultivars (cv.) of the tomato plant Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (Roma and Rio Grande) were exposed to saline conditions for 72 days. Salinity level (treatment) had no significant effects on the fresh weight and dry matter of the leaves, stems and roots. Similar results were found when specific leaf area, leaflet area, ramifications number of 1st order/plant, stem diameter and length, nodes number/stem and primary root length were considered. Conversely, the salinity level significantly influenced the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and the distance between nodes in the plant stem. In the first case, an increase of 21% was obtained in the salinity levels of 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) for cv. Rio Grande, compared with the control run. The results showed that the pretreated CWW can be a source of nutrients for tomato plants, with reduced effects on growth and development.
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Pretreated cheese whey wastewater management by agricultural reuse: chemical characterization and response of tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under salinity conditions.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The agricultural reuse of pretreated industrial wastewater resulting from cheese manufacture is shown as a suitable option for its disposal and management. This alternative presents attractive advantages from the economic and pollution control viewpoints. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has high contents of biodegradable organic matter, salinity and nutrients, which are essential development factors for plants with moderate to elevated salinity tolerance. Five different pretreated CWW treatments (1.75 to 10.02 dS m(-1)) have been applied in the tomato plant growth. Fresh water was used as a control run (average salinity level=1.44 dS m(-1)). Chemical characterization and indicator ratios of the leaves, stems and roots were monitored. The sodium and potassium leaf concentrations increased linearly with the salinity level in both cultivars, Roma and Rio Grande. Similar results were found in the stem sodium content. However, the toxic sodium accumulations in the cv. Roma exceeded the values obtained in the cv. Rio Grande. In this last situation, K and Ca uptake, absorption, transport and accumulation capacities were presented as tolerance mechanisms for the osmotic potential regulation of the tissues and for the ion neutralization. Consequently, Na/Ca and Na/K ratios presented lower values in the cv. Rio Grande. Na/Ca ratio increased linearly with the salinity level in leaves and stems, regardless of the cultivar. Regarding the Na/K ratio, the values demonstrated competition phenomena between the ions for the cv. Rio Grande. Despite the high chloride content of the CWW, no significant differences were observed for this nutrient in the leaves and stems. Thus, no nitrogen deficiency was demonstrated by the interaction NO3(-)/Cl(-). Nitrogen also contributes to maintain the water potential difference between the tissues and the soil. Na, P, Cl and N radicular concentrations were maximized for high salinity levels (?2.22 dS m(-1)) of the pretreated CWW.
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Fenton-like application to pretreated cheese whey wastewater.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Cheese whey wastewater has been treated by the Fenton-like oxidation system after being pre-processed through a coagulation - flocculation stage with FeCl3 or alternatively, through a sedimentation step with Ca(OH)2 plus aerobic digestion. In the first case, Fenton-like oxidation is capable of reducing the initial COD (chemical oxygen demand) to 80% of the initial value, 20% of COD shows recalcitrance to chemical oxidation regardless of the operating conditions used. In the second case, the oxidation system is capable of removing almost the total COD present in the pretreated effluent. Given the lower values of initial COD, complete COD conversion is achieved at short reaction times within minutes depending on the initial reagent concentration. Removal of Fe(III) from the oxidation treatment can be achieved by Ca(OH)2 addition. Sedimentation pH significantly affects the observed settling rate. Hence, neutral conditions lead to better results than slightly acidic pHs.
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Communication disorders in subjects with normal hearing: a behavioral and electrophysiological study.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Hearing thresholds are not always predictive of performance in environments with reduced extrinsic redundancy.
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Phenotyping soybean plants transformed with rd29A:AtDREB1A for drought tolerance in the greenhouse and field.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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The development of drought tolerant plants is a high priority because the area suffering from drought is expected to increase in the future due to global warming. One strategy for the development of drought tolerance is to genetically engineer plants with transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress defense responses. This work assessed the performance of soybean plants overexpressing the TF DREB1A under drought conditions in the field and in the greenhouse. Drought was simulated in the greenhouse by progressively drying the soil of pot cultures of the P58 and P1142 lines. In the field, the performance of the P58 line and of 09D-0077, a cross between the cultivars BR16 and P58, was evaluated under four different water regimes: irrigation, natural drought (no irrigation) and water stress created using rain-out shelters in the vegetative or reproductive stages. Although the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) plants did not outperform the cultivar BR16 in terms of yield, some yield components were increased when drought was introduced during the vegetative stage, such as the number of seeds, the number of pods with seeds and the total number of pods. The greenhouse data suggest that the higher survival rates of DREB plants are because of lower water use due to lower transpiration rates under well watered conditions. Further studies are needed to better characterize the soil and atmospheric conditions under which these plants may outperform the non-transformed parental plants.
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Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems.
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Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis).
An Bras Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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The authors present images of two of the most common clinical forms of granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) in males and females. Donovanosis is considered a sexually transmitted disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Two microscopic images are also shown, one of a direct smear (the presence of Donovan bodies within large mononuclear cells identified using Giemsa stain) and the other of typical histological findings (rod-shaped Donovan bodies within a mononuclear histiocyte).
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Effects of long-term chronic exposure to sun radiation in immunological system of commercial fishermen in Recife, Brazil.
An Bras Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Among the various occupations which necessarily require long-term and chronic sun exposure is that of a fisherman. However, clinical experience in dermatology earned over several years of medical practice does not seem to confirm this hypothesis.
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EGFR expression in acquired middle ear cholesteatoma in children and adults.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Middle ear cholesteatomas are characterized by the presence of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium inside this cavity. It is considered to be more aggressive in childhood. In normal skin, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed in the cytoplasmic membrane of epithelial cells of the basal layer. In contrast, its expression in middle ear cholesteatoma extends to suprabasal layers. The objective of this study is to detect the presence of EGFR in cases of acquired cholesteatoma of the middle ear and correlate the expression of this receptor with patients ages. In this cross-sectional study, cholesteatoma samples were collected from 50 patients (35 adults and 15 children) who underwent otological surgery, throughout 1 year of study. These samples were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical assays. Results were submitted to statistical analyses and main findings were: EGFR was present in the parabasal layers in 27 cases and EGFR expression was extended to all layers of the matrix in 17 cases. There were no statistically significant differences in what concerns age-related variances in EGFR expression. The intensity and location of EGFR expression in acquired cholesteatoma of the middle ear confirm the hyperproliferative capacity of keratinocytes.
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Varicocoelectomy in adolescents: laparoscopic versus open high ligation technique.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Treatment of varicocoele is aimed at eliminating the retrograde reflux of venous blood through the internal spermatic veins. The purpose of this investigation was to compare laparoscopic varicocoelectomy (LV) with open high ligation technique in the adolescent population.
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Parasites of Satanoperca jurupari (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) from Brazil.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Satanoperca jurupari (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) is reported for the first time to be parasitized by the nematodes Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rarus Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., larvae of Raphidascaroides sp. and Anisakidae gen. sp., and by the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) paraguayensis Machado Filho (Rev Bras Biol 19:379-381, 1959).
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Aerobic biodegradation of precoagulated cheese whey wastewater.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Prior to the application of an aerobic biological process, cheese whey wastewater has been pretreated by means of a precipitation stage by adding either NaOH or CaOH2. Both precipitating agents reduce roughly 50% of the raw wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD). The sludge generated in the prestage shows acceptable settling properties, although solids from the CaOH2-treated effluent are better separated from the liquid bulk than those formed in NaOH-processed wastewater. In both situations, the presedimentation stage renders a supernatant more prone to biodegradation than the untreated effluent. The previous statement is corroborated by the determination of some biological kinetic parameters. Under the operating conditions used in this work, sludge generation after the biological process is reduced to a minimum. The sludge generated shows good settling properties, especially for those experiments in which CaOH2 has previously been added.
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[Nursing care during the preoperative stage and rehabilitation of mastectomy: narrative review of literature].
Rev Bras Enferm
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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This is a bibliographic research carried out in Lilacs and Scielo database, which aimed to review the production about nursing care during the preoperative and rehabilitation stages of mastectomy. Eighteen articles were analyzed with focus in these categories: Nursing care in the preoperative mastectomy and The role of nursing in the rehabilitation of women submitted to a mastectomy. It was observed that nursing cares, in the two periods, are a key step for a more human treatment. However, they are scarce and with little enlightening guidance there must be a greater focus on the role by the nursing team in relation to women care.
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Plasma levels of trans-fatty acids are low in exclusively breastfed infants of adolescent mothers.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1-trans) and trans-isomers of linoleic acid (18:2-trans), as well as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), in the plasma from infants of adolescent mothers at 3 months of age, exclusively breastfed, and the relationship with the levels of the same isomers in plasma and milk of the mothers. Samples of blood and mature milk were obtained from 49 healthy adolescent mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants treated at the Instituto Fernandes Figueira-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF-FIOCRUZ) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. trans-Fatty acids (TFA) were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results of this study showed low levels of TFA in milk (1.53%), maternal plasma (0.50%), and plasma of infants (0.74%). The results show that, although TFA have been found in the plasma of the studied infants, the LC-PUFA levels are kept within normal limits. No association between TFA presence and parameters of nutritional status of the infants was observed, probably due to the low levels of these fatty acids found in this study.
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Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) lanfrediae sp. nov. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the fish Satanoperca jurupari (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae).
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) lanfrediae sp. nov. is described from the intestine of the freshwater fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) (Cichlidae) from the Guamá River, state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence in fish (n = 59) was 27% with intensity of one-124 (mean 16) nematodes per fish. The new species is characterized mainly by the markedly larger size of ventricular appendix in relation to the oesophagus, presence of short male caudal alae, 14-16 subventral pairs of preanal papillae and six pairs of postanal papillae.
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Prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy: evidence for nursing care.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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This integrative review analyzed evidence available in the literature concerning the prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy. The following databases were used for selecting studies: PubMed, CINAHL and LILACS. A total of 240 primary studies were identified; 13 papers were included in the integrative reviews sample after reading the titles and abstracts and according to the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. There is evidence indicating that pregnancy does not worsen the evolution of breast cancer and a poor prognosis is related to late stage tumors. Among the gaps identified in the studied theme, the need for further studies addressing nursing care provided to pregnant women with breast cancer is highlighted in order to promote improved care in the context of health care.
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Distribution of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in two portions of placenta of teenager and adult women.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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The placenta is fundamental for fetal development. The aim of this study was to determine Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn content in the fetal and maternal portions of the placentas of teenage and adult women. Measurement of the minerals was conducted using Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Forty samples from the fetal portion of teenagers and adults and 40 samples from the maternal portion of teenagers and adults were analyzed. There were significant differences in the Ca and Cu concentrations of the placentas maternal portion when compared to the fetal portion, for both teenagers and adults. There were differences in Fe and Zn concentrations only when comparing the maternal portion of placenta with the fetal portion of the adults. These results suggest important differences in mineral content based on the placental portion. No significant difference was observed between the minerals studied of the maternal portion of teenagers and adults; however, in the fetal portion, mineral concentrations were greater in adults than in teenagers. Therefore, the mineral concentration of the fetal portion of the placenta is influenced by the mothers age. If there is minerals competition between the mother and fetus during pregnancy in adolescence due to the importance of these minerals in growth and development, then the mechanism and reason for it should be elucidated in future research. In addition, we believe that further research should be carried out on transporters of these minerals in the same portions of the placentas analyzed by our group, in teenagers and adults.
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Octreotide in the treatment of neonatal postoperative chylothorax: report of three cases and literature review.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Chylothorax is a well-recognized complication after neonatal cardiothoracic surgery. Management strategies include cessation of enteral feedings, repeated aspiration, chest drainage, and total parenteral nutrition. Somatostatin and its analogue, octreotide, have been used with promising results. The authors present three cases of neonatal postoperative chylothorax in which octreotide was used. After literature review, we can say that octreotide is relatively safe, and may reduce clinical course and complications associated with neonatal postoperative chylothorax. One should be aware of possible association between octreotide and necrotizing enterocolitis. Prospective controlled trials supporting octreotide use are lacking.
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[Education-learning strategies according to nursing students perception].
Rev Bras Enferm
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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The process of teaching consists in determining the entire procedure of education seeking more efficient methods to provide the society of formation. The objective was to evaluate the perception of students of the nursing undergraduate program on the teaching learning strategies experienced. The research is qualitative research which data were collected by a semi-structured interview applied to 12 nursing students. It was made by the content analysis. The data collected led to two categories with their units of analysis. The results showed that the practice of alternative education enable the student beyond the scientific-technical teaching for the education of the professional as a human being by participation of students, group interaction and technological innovations.
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Evaluation of the geotechnical properties of MSW in two Brazilian landfills.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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The characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) play a key role in many aspects of waste disposal facilities and landfills. Because most of a landfill is made up of MSW, the overall stability of the landfill slopes are governed by the strength parameters and physical properties of the MSW. These parameters are also important in interactions involving the waste body and the landfill structures: cover liner, leachate and gas collection systems. On the other hand, the composition of the waste, which affects the geotechnical behavior of the MSW, is dependent on a variety of factors such as climate, disposal technology, the culture and habits of the local community. It is therefore essential that the design and stability evaluations of landfills in each region be performed based on the local conditions and the geotechnical characteristic of the MSW. The Bandeirantes Landfill, BL, in São Paulo and the Metropolitan Center Landfill, MCL, in Salvador, are among the biggest landfills in Brazil. These two disposal facilities have been used for the development of research involving waste mechanics in recent years. Considerable work has been made in the laboratory and in the field to evaluate parameters such as water and organic contents, composition, permeability, and shear strength. This paper shows and analyzes the results of tests performed on these two landfills. The authors believe that these results could be a good reference for certain aspects and geotechnical properties of MSW materials in countries with similar conditions.
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Treatment of cheese whey wastewater: combined coagulation-flocculation and aerobic biodegradation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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Cheese wastewater has been treated by means of a coagulation-flocculation process. Three different coagulants have been used, namely, FeSO(4), Al(2)(SO(4))(3), and FeCl(3). When FeSO(4) was used, the optimum conditions were obtained using 250 ppm of the salt at pH 8.5. At these conditions, 50 and 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were reduced, respectively. Al(2)(SO(4))(3) achieved slightly lower reductions of COD and BOD; however, the amount needed was significantly higher (1000 ppm). When FeCl(3) was added, similar results to those obtained with FeSO(4) were experienced; again, 250 ppm was enough to eliminate COD and BOD contents in the range of 40-60%, depending upon operating conditions. The sludge formed in the coagulation-flocculation process did show acceptable settling properties, which is crucial in settling tank design. A first approach to sedimentation tank design is also conducted on the basis of experimental results. The aerobic biodegradation of cheese whey wastewater achieves the reduction of the main contaminant indicators (COD and BOD) to values close to 100%; however, effluents coming from the coagulation-flocculation pre-stage necessitate half of the time required by the non-pretreated raw wastewater.
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Characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from an estuarine environment.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Thirty water samples were collected, at two week intervals, from the estuary of the River Cocó. The aim was to characterize the presence, distribution and types of Aeromonas spp, in the estuary of the River Cocó, Ceara, Brazil (03°4628.83S e 38°2636.52S). Aeromonas were identified in 19 (63%) samples analyzed by plating and CFU counts. Presence/absence tests were positive for 11 (37%) of the samples resulting in the detection of Aeromonas in a total of 23 (77%) of samples. CFU counts varied from < 10 to 1.4 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1). From the isolated strains seven species of Aeromonas were identified: A. caviae (29/69), A. veronii bv. sobria (13/69), A. veronii bv. veronii (8/69), A. trota (6/69), A. media (5/69), A. sobria (4/69) and A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sp. (2/69). Of the 38 strains tested, 23 (60%) showed resistance to at least one of the eight antimicrobials. Multiple resistance to antibiotics was observed in A. caviae, A. media , A. sóbria and A. veronii bv. sobria. Aeromonas caviae showed the highest multiple resistance, being resistant to four antibiotics. The presence of those microorganisms may contribute to the occurrence of gastroenteritis, mainly in children, since they are considered opportunists.
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[Therapeutic communication in perioperative care of mastectomy].
Rev Bras Enferm
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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The authors report their experience as teacher-nurse for years in oncologic hospital with the aim of enabling reflection on the development of nursing therapeutic communication at the hospital preoperative unit for mastectomized women. It was found that the practice of therapeutic communication becomes a favorable practice, because establish the nurse-patient relationship, with patient producing his own care. Understanding the fragility of the patient at this stage, the nurse takes commitment to predefine the nursing care in partnership, in order to meet the patient needs, aiming to, mainly, the autonomy of care. In this way, the authors present a proposal for nursing managed care based on a mutual relationship, human and participatory care.
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[Knowledge and expectations of women in the preoperative mastectomy].
Rev Esc Enferm USP
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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The objective of this study was to understand the knowledge, concerns and expectations of patients suffering from breast cancer in relation to mastectomy. Interviews were performed with 11 women before their being submitted to surgery at the Hospital das Clinicas in Fortaleza (Ceará state) on December 2008. The hermeneutic-dialectical method was used for discourse analysis, and three theme categories were defined: Knowledge about the surgery, Feelings and expectations surrounding mastectomy, and Removing the breast. It was found that women go through a stressful preoperative period, lack knowledge about the surgery, experience anxiety and fear of what they should expect, as well as feelings of panic and shock before their breast is removed. It is, therefore, observed that the health team caring for those patients has an important role in education and in providing emotional support so as to minimize the tragedy those women are experiencing.
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Nursing communication in nursing care to mastectomized women: a grounded theory study.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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The goal was to understand the nurse/patient communication process, emphasizing nursing care to mastectomized women. Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory were used to interview eight nurses from a referral institution in cancer treatment, using the guiding question: how do nurses perceive their communication process with mastectomized women? Data analysis allowed for the creation of a central theory: the meaning of communication in nursing care to women, constituted by three distinct but inter-related phenomena: perceiving communication, the relationship nurse/mastectomized woman and rethinking the communication nurse/mastectomized woman. With a view to satisfactory communication, professionals need to get involved and believe that their presence is as important as the performance of technical procedures that relieve situations of stress.
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[The perception of mastectomized womens partners regarding life after surgery].
Rev Esc Enferm USP
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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The objective of this study was to understand how the partners of mastectomized women perceived life after the surgery. The study is both descriptive and exploratory, and was conducted in 2006 with five men who lived with mastectomized women in Fortaleza, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were performed and the results were grouped into three analytic categories. We identified a level of misinformation about the illness, tranquility attributed to a faith in God, and a strong conviction that cancer and death are synonyms. Nursing/health professionals are responsible for providing knowledge about breast cancer and for fostering for integration between the woman and her partner, prioritizing a healthy life together.
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Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and pond environment in northeastern Brazil.
J Environ Sci Health B
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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This study aimed to test the susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated from the water, bottom sediments and individuals cultivated in shrimp farm ponds, to antibiotics belonging to different families, namely B-Lactams: Imipenem (IPM; 10 micro g), Ampicillin (AMP; 10 micro g), Cephalothin (CEP; 30 micro g), Cefoxitin (FOX; 30 micro g), Ceftriaxone (CRO; 30 micro g); Tetracycline: Tetracycline (TCY; 30 micro g); Aminoglycosides: Gentamicin (GEN; 10 micro g), Amikacin (AMK; 30 micro g); Chloramphenicol: Chloramphenicol (CHO; 30 micro g); Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin (CIP; 5 micro g); Nitrofurans: Nitrofurantoin (NIT; 300 micro g); Sulfonamides: Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT; 30 micro g); Quilononas: Nalidixic Acid (NAL; 30 micro g). In the laboratory, the method of dissemination (Test Kirby-Bauer) was performed in order to fulfill the antibiogram tests. The results showed high indices of resistance to Imipenem, Cephalothin and Ampicillin. Chloramphenicol, Nitrofurantoin, Cefoxitin, Ceftiaxone and Ciprofloxacin have displayed the highest index of sensitive strains. The antibiotic resistance index (ARI) and the multiple resistance index (MAR) varied within the ranges of 0.068-0.077 and 0.15-0.39, respectively. More than 90.5% of strains of Escherichia coli showed a variety of resistance profiles to the tested antibiotics. The high indices of resistance may be a consequence of indiscriminate use of antibiotics, but also the transfer of resistance through mobile genetic elements found in shrimp farms.
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Venous thrombosis risk: effects of palm oil and hydrogenated fat diet in rats.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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We tested whether diets containing partially hydrogenated fat (PHVO, rich in trans fatty acids) or palm oil (PO, rich in saturated fat-C16 palmitic fatty acid) had different effects on the propensity for venous thrombosis, a marker of haemostatic cardiovascular risk.
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[Transforming the hunger problem into food and nutritional approach: a continuous social inequality].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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The origin of the social (public) politics related to food and nutrition in Brazil has a discontinuous and neglected course by the Brazilian State throughout its history. The objective of this article is to rescue this process and to identify elements that interfere in the insertion of the food and nutrition question in the Brazilian politics agenda. Thus, it reviews the politics and social programs formulated since the decade of 40s aimed to solve the problem of hunger in Brazil, identifying the changes of an epidemiological and nutritional transition of the local population. It is necessary to progress in the agreement of the biological manifestations of the hunger: malnutrition or obesity (bad nutrition) is reflected on a social development model that privileges the capital in detriment of the welfare state. Also it reflects the alimentary and nutritional context, therefore the submission of the society to the capital reflecting in the ways of eating, living, falling ill and dying.
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Lead levels in milk and blood from donors to the Breast Milk Bank in Southern Brazil.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Brazilian scientific literature on the adverse effects of lead on the general population is still very limited. Lead, a potentially toxic substance, has become a public health problem due to its effects, mainly those affecting the central nervous system and on the synthesis of heme. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of lead exposure of donors to the Breast Milk Bank in the city of Londrina, Parana, by estimating the levels of that metal in milk and blood samples. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during the period between January and July 2007. All mothers enrolled as donors in the Breast Milk Bank were included in this study. A total of 92 volunteers presenting the following inclusion criteria were evaluated in the project: volunteers who were healthy, without any chronic disease, full-term pregnancy, breastfeeding between the 15th and 210 th day after giving birth, and living in the city of the study. Lead in milk and blood was quantified using the inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) technique. All mothers signed a consent form approved by the Research Ethics Committee from Londrina State University. The median lead concentration in milk samples was 3.0 microg/L, varying from 1.0 to 8.0 microg/L. The median of lead in blood was of 2.7 microg/dl, varying from 1.0 to 5.5 microg/dl. In Spearman correlation analysis, significant but modest correlations could be observed between the concentration of lead in blood and in milk (r(s)=0.207, p=0.048), hemoglobin and ALAD activity (r(s)=-0.264, p=0.011), level of lead in blood and mothers age (r(s)=0.227, p=0.029). However, for hematocrit and hemoglobin, the correlation was higher (r(s)=0.837, p<0.001). No statistically significant associations were found between concentrations of lead in milk and blood and demographic variables studied, obtained through interviews and validated questionnaire. The mean of milk/blood lead ratio was equal to 0.11. In general, the values found in the present study are similar to those obtained in populations in other countries, and are within background levels.
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Maternal-fetal distribution of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in pregnant teenagers and adults.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Adolescence is marked by intensive growth and development. When pregnancy occurs during this period of the mothers growth, there is an increase in her nutritional needs. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in maternal plasma, the placenta, and in the cord plasma of pregnant teenagers and adults. A total of 80 sets of maternal plasma, placentas, and cord plasma (40 from teenagers and 40 from adults) were analyzed using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The levels of calcium, copper, and zinc in the maternal and cord plasma from teenagers were not significantly different than those from adults. Iron levels in the teenagers maternal and cord plasma were higher than in the adults. All of the minerals analyzed were present at higher levels in the placentas from adults than those from teenagers. However, the low quantities of placental calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in the teenagers do not compromise the levels of these minerals in the cord plasma. Future research regarding the placental transport of these minerals is recommended to investigate the efficiency of mechanisms of transfer of these minerals in pregnant teenagers.
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Otomycosis: a retrospective study.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear canal with only a few studies about its real frequency in Brazil.
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Association between stress and breast cancer in women: a meta-analysis.
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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The objective of the current meta-analysis was to verify the association between stressful life events and primary breast cancer incidence in women. A total of 618 studies from 1982-2007 were found in the PubMed, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases. Methodological quality was evaluated according to the Downs & Black criteria. Eight studies were selected (six case-controls and two cohorts). The studies were grouped in three analyses, two of which based on the categories widowhood and divorce and the other based on self-rated intensity and frequency of stressful events. Relative risks were: widowhood 1.04 (95%CI: 0.75-1.44; p = 0.800); divorce 1.03 (95%: 0.72-1.48; p = 0.850); and intensity/frequency of stress 1.73 (95%CI: 0.98-3.05; p = 0.059). We conclude that stressful life events as a whole are not associated with risk of breast cancer in women. However, it is not possible to rule out high-intensity stress as a risk factor for breast cancer.
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Application of multivariate techniques in the optimization of a procedure for the determination of bioavailable concentrations of Se and As in estuarine sediments by ICP OES using a concomitant metals analyzer as a hydride generator.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2009
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A procedure has been developed for the determination of bioavailable concentrations of selenium and arsenic in estuarine sediments employing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using a concomitant metals analyzer device to perform hydride generation. The optimization of hydride generation was done in two steps: using a two-level factorial design for preliminary evaluation of studied factors and a Doehlert design to assess the optimal experimental conditions for analysis. Interferences of transition metallic ions (Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Ni(2+)) to selenium and arsenic signals were minimized by using higher hydrochloric acid concentrations. In this way, the procedure allowed the determination of selenium and arsenic in sediments with a detection limit of 25 and 30 microg kg(-1), respectively, assuming a 50-fold sample dilution (0.5 g sample extraction to 25 mL sample final volume). The precision, expressed as a relative standard deviation (% RSD, n=10), was 0.2% for both selenium and arsenic in 200 microg L(-1) solutions, which corresponds to 10 microg g(-1) in sediment samples after acid extraction. Applying the proposed procedure, a linear range of 0.08-10 and 0.10-10 microg g(-1) was obtained for selenium and arsenic, respectively. The developed procedure was validated by the analysis of two certified reference materials: industrial sludge (NIST 2782) and river sediment (NIST 8704). The results were in agreement with the certified values. The developed procedure was applied to evaluate the bioavailability of both elements in four sediment certified reference materials, in which there are not certified values for bioavailable fractions, and also in estuarine sediment samples collected in several sites of Guanabara Bay, an impacted environment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
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Anthropometric evaluation, risk factors for malnutrition, and nutritional therapy for children in teaching hospitals in Brazil.
J Pediatr (Rio J)
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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To evaluate risk factors for malnutrition, nutritional status and nutritional support provided in hospitalized children.
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Association between Sickle Cell Anemia and Pulp Necrosis.
J Endod
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between sickle cell anemia (SCA) and pulp necrosis (PN).
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Determination of labile barium in petroleum-produced formation water using paper-based DGT samplers.
Talanta
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A polyacrylamide hydrogel containing the Chelex-100 resin has traditionally been used as the binding agent for the diffusion gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. The Chelex-100 resin, although important for the determination of various transition metals, is unsatisfactory for the determination of alkaline earth metals, particularly Ba. In this paper, a cellulose membrane, treated with phosphate (P81 membrane), was evaluated as a binding agent for DGT devices for the determination of Ba in produced formation water (PFW) samples. In addition, diffusive layers of filter paper (cellulose) were tested to diffuse Ba through the DGT devices. Experiments to evaluate the key variables of the technique (pH, deployment time, and ionic strength/salinity) were performed. The Ba sampled by these DGT devices was measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Aiming to generate information (related to bioavailability of Ba) on the reuse of PFW for irrigation, the determination of Ba in onshore and offshore samples was performed. The new approach was effective for determination of Ba in onshore samples. To determine Ba in offshore samples, it was necessary to use an alternative calibration procedure due to the high NaCl concentration in these samples.
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Craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in individuals with sickle cell anemia: a critical review of the literature.
Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter
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This study aims to critically review the literature in respect to craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in sickle cell anemia individuals. The Bireme and Pubmed electronic databases were searched using the following keywords: malocclusion, maxillofacial abnormalities, and Angle Class I, Class II and lass III malocclusions combined with sickle cell anemia. The search was limited to publications in English, Spanish or Portuguese with review articles and clinical cases being excluded from this study. Ten scientific publications were identified, of which three were not included as they were review articles. There was a consistent observation of orthodontic and orthopedic variations associated with sickle cell anemia, especially maxillary protrusions. However, convenience sampling, sometimes without any control group, and the lack of estimates of association and hypotheses testing undermined the possibility of causal inferences. It was concluded that despite the high frequency of craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion among patients with sickle cell anemia, there is insufficient scientific proof that this disease causes malocclusion.
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Evaluation of an educational handbook as a knowledge-acquisition strategy for mastectomized women.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
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This descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study presents an analysis of knowledge acquired by mastectomized women concerning breast cancer after reading an educational handbook. The sample was composed of 125 women. Data were collected in a specialized cancer facility in three phases: preparatory, operational I and operational II. As to the knowledge acquired, the posttest showed an 11% increase in the number of correct answers compared to the pretest. The most frequent correct answer regarded a question asking the name of the surgery (97.60%) while the question concerning breast reconstruction obtained the lowest number of correct answers (58.40%). Answers to all the questions significantly improved in the posttest, with the exception of a question addressing breast reconstruction (p=0.754). The assessment of knowledge showed positive results after reading, suggesting that cognition is essential to understanding and adhering to guidance, thus the handbook is a favorable resource to be used in the rehabilitation of mastectomized women.
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Coordination of thiosemicarbazones and bis(thiosemicarbazones) to bismuth(III) as a strategy for the design of metal-based antibacterial agents.
Chem. Biodivers.
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Complexes [Bi(2Fo4Ph)Cl(2)] (1), [Bi(2Ac4Ph)Cl(2)] (2), [Bi(2Bz4Ph)Cl(2)] (3), [Bi(H(2)Gy3DH)Cl(3)] (4), [Bi(H(2)Gy4Et)(OH)(2)Cl] (5), and [Bi(H(2)Gy4Ph)Cl(3)] (6) were prepared with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde 4-phenylthiosemicarbazone (H2Fo4Ph), 1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethanone 4-phenylthiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4Ph), phenyl(pyridin-2-yl)methanone 4-phenylthiosemicarbazone (H2Bz4Ph), as well as with glyoxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) (H(2)Gy4DH) and its 4-Et (H(2)Gy4Et) and 4-Ph (H(2)Gy4Ph) derivatives. The complexes exhibited antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Coordination to Bi(III) proved to be an effective strategy to increase the antibacterial activity of the thiosemicarbazones and bis(thiosemicarbazones).
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Qualitative SEM/EDS analysis of microleakage and apical gap formation of adhesive root-filling materials.
J Appl Oral Sci
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The aim of this study was to compare the correspondence between gap formation and apical microleakage in root canals filled with epoxy resin-based (AH Plus) combined or not with resinous primer or with a dimethacrylate-based root canal sealer (Epiphany).
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Subtractive libraries for prospecting differentially expressed genes in the soybean under water deficit.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
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Soybean has a wide range of applications in the industry and, due to its crop potential, its improvement is widely desirable. During drought conditions, soybean crops suffer significant losses in productivity. Therefore, understanding the responses of the soybean under this stress is an effective way of targeting crop improvement techniques. In this study, we employed the Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) technique to investigate differentially expressed genes under water deficit conditions. Embrapa 48 and BR 16 soybean lines, known as drought-tolerant and -sensitive, respectively, were grown hydroponically and subjected to different short-term periods of stress by withholding the nutrient solution. Using this approach, we have identified genes expressed during the early response to water deficit in roots and leaves. These genes were compared among the lines to assess probable differences in the plant transcriptomes. In general, similar biochemical processes were predominant in both cultivars; however, there were more considerable differences between roots and leaves of Embrapa 48. Moreover, we present here a fast, clean and straightforward method to obtain drought-stressed root tissues and a large enriched collection of transcripts expressed by soybean plants under water deficit that can be useful for further studies towards the understanding of plant responses to stress.
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Cheese whey management: a review.
J. Environ. Manage.
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Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with nutritional value and a strong organic and saline content. Cheese whey management has been focused in the development of biological treatments without valorization; biological treatments with valorization; physicochemical treatments and direct land application. In the first case, aerobic digestion is reported. In the second case, six main processes are described in the literature: anaerobic digestion, lactose hydrolysis, fermentation to ethanol, hydrogen or lactic acid and direct production of electricity through microbial fuel cells. Thermal and isoelectric precipitation, thermocalcic precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, acid precipitation, electrochemical and membrane technologies have been considered as possible and attractive physicochemical processes to valorize or treat cheese whey. The direct land application is a common and longstanding practice, although some precautions are required. In this review, these different solutions are analyzed. The paper describes the main reactors used, the influence of the main operating variables, the microorganisms or reagents employed and the characterizations of the final effluent principally in terms of chemical oxygen demand. In addition, the experimental conditions and the main results reported in the literature are compiled. Finally, the comparison between the different treatment alternatives and the presentation of potential treatment lines are postulated.
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Sciadicleithrum juruparii n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the gills of Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) in the Guamá River, Amazon Delta, Brazil.
Syst. Parasitol.
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Sciadicleithrum juruparii n. sp. is described from the gills of the Neotropical cichlid fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) caught in the Guamá River, in the delta of the Amazon River, at Belém, Pará State, Brazil. Diagnostic characters of the new species are a basally articulated male copulatory organ with clockwise coils and an accessory piece; a ventral bar with a median process; similar hooklets; vagina in the form of a sclerotised tube; and a sinistral vaginal aperture with a sclerotised papilla lying in a small surface depression. It is the only species of Sciadicleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1989 with a medial projection on the ventral bar.
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Influence of calcium hydroxide intracanal medication on bond strength of two endodontic resin-based sealers assessed by micropush-out test.
Dent Traumatol
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To evaluate the influence of calcium hydroxide (CH) paste used as intracanal medication on the bond strength of AH Plus (AH) and Epiphany (EP) sealers to root dentin.
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