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Draft Genome Sequences of Marine Flavobacterium Algibacter lectus Strains SS8 and NR4.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Here, we present the draft genome sequences of a zeaxanthin-producing flavobacterium, Algibacter lectus strains SS8 and NR4, isolated from coastal sediment and rock surfaces in Hakodate, Japan, respectively. This genomic information represents the first Algibacter genome sequences, which will help us to elucidate the biology and evolution of Flavobacteriaceae bacteria.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Marine Flavobacterium Nonlabens Strains NR17, NR24, NR27, NR32, NR33, and Ara13.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Here, we present the draft genome sequences of six carotenoid producers affiliated with Nonlabens spp. isolated from marine environments in both the northern and southern parts of Japan. The genomic information will help to elucidate the function and evolution of carotenoid synthetic gene clusters not only in the genus Nonlabens but also in the family Flavobacteriaceae.
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Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera.
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Microbial community diversity and physical-chemical features of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Microbial oceanography studies have demonstrated the central role of microbes in functioning and nutrient cycling of the global ocean. Most of these former studies including at Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) focused on surface seawater and benthic organisms (e.g., coral reefs and sponges). This is the first metagenomic study of the SAO. The SAO harbors a great microbial diversity and marine life (e.g., coral reefs and rhodolith beds). The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community diversity of the SAO along the depth continuum and different water masses by means of metagenomic, physical-chemical and biological analyses. The microbial community abundance and diversity appear to be strongly influenced by the temperature, dissolved organic carbon, and depth, and three groups were defined [1. surface waters; 2. sub-superficial chlorophyll maximum (SCM) (48-82 m) and 3. deep waters (236-1,200 m)] according to the microbial composition. The microbial communities of deep water masses [South Atlantic Central water, Antarctic Intermediate water and Upper Circumpolar Deep water] are highly similar. Of the 421,418 predicted genes for SAO metagenomes, 36.7 % had no homologous hits against 17,451,486 sequences from the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian Oceans. From these unique genes from the SAO, only 6.64 % had hits against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. SAO microbial communities share genes with the global ocean in at least 70 cellular functions; however, more than a third of predicted SAO genes represent a unique gene pool in global ocean. This study was the first attempt to characterize the taxonomic and functional community diversity of different water masses at SAO and compare it with the microbial community diversity of the global ocean, and SAO had a significant portion of endemic gene diversity. Microbial communities of deep water masses (236-1,200 m) are highly similar, suggesting that these water masses have very similar microbiological attributes, despite the common knowledge that water masses determine prokaryotic community and are barriers to microbial dispersal. The present study also shows that SCM is a clearly differentiated layer within Tropical waters with higher abundance of phototrophic microbes and microbial diversity.
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Genomic and phenotypic attributes of novel salinivibrios from stromatolites, sediment and water from a high altitude lake.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Salinivibrios are moderately halophilic bacteria found in salted meats, brines and hypersaline environments. We obtained three novel conspecific Salinivibrio strains closely related to S. costicola, from Socompa Lake, a high altitude hypersaline Andean lake (approx. 3,570 meters above the sea level).
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Microbiota of the Major South Atlantic Reef Building Coral Mussismilia.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The Brazilian endemic scleractinian corals, genus Mussismilia, are among the main reef builders of the South Atlantic and are threatened by accelerating rates of disease. To better understand how holobiont microbial populations interact with corals during health and disease and to evaluate whether selective pressures in the holobiont or neutral assembly shape microbial composition, we have examined the microbiota structure of Mussismilia corals according to coral lineage, environment, and disease/health status. Microbiota of three Mussismilia species (Mussismilia harttii, Mussismilia hispida, and Mussismilia braziliensis) was compared using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and clone library analysis of coral fragments. Analysis of biological triplicates per Mussismilia species and reef site allowed assessment of variability among Mussismilia species and between sites for M. braziliensis. From 173,487 V6 sequences, 6,733 coral- and 1,052 water-associated operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed. M. braziliensis microbiota was more similar across reefs than to other Mussismilia species microbiota from the same reef. Highly prevalent OTUs were more significantly structured by coral lineage and were enriched in Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacterial OTUs from healthy corals were recovered from a M. braziliensis skeleton sample at twice the frequency of recovery from water or a diseased coral suggesting the skeleton is a significant habitat for microbial populations in the holobiont. Diseased corals were enriched with pathogens and opportunists (Vibrios, Bacteroidetes, Thalassomonas, and SRB). Our study examines for the first time intra- and inter-specific variability of microbiota across the genus Mussismilia. Changes in microbiota may be useful indicators of coral health and thus be a valuable tool for coral reef management and conservation.
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Oenococcus alcoholitolerans sp. nov., a lactic acid bacteria isolated from cachaça and ethanol fermentation processes.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cachaça and alcohol fermentation vats in Brazil were characterised in order to determine their taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belong to the genus Oenococcus and should be distinguished from their closest neighbours. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity against the type strains of the other two species of the genus was below 94.76 % (Oenococcus kitaharae) and 94.62 % (Oenococcus oeni). The phylogeny based on pheS gene sequences also confirmed the position of the new taxon. DNA-DNA hybridizations based on in silico genome-to-genome comparison, Average Amino Acid Identity, Average Nucleotide Identity and Karlin genomic signature confirmed the novelty of the taxon. Distinctive phenotypic characteristics are the ability to metabolise sucrose but not trehalose. The name Oenococcus alcoholitolerans sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon, with the type strain UFRJ-M7.2.18(T) ( = CBAS474(T) = LMG27599(T)). In addition, we have determined a draft genome sequence of the type strain.
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Cholesterol depletion induces transcriptional changes during skeletal muscle differentiation.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Myoblasts undergo major changes in their plasma membrane during the initial steps of skeletal muscle differentiation, including major alterations in the distribution of cholesterol. Cholesterol is involved in crucial membrane functions, such as fluidity, and permeability, and in the organization of specialized membrane microdomains (or lipid rafts). We have previously shown that alterations in cholesterol levels in myoblasts induce changes in proliferation and differentiation, which involves activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. In this study we used methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MbCD) to extract cholesterol from the membrane of chick skeletal muscle cells grown in culture. Using Ion Torrent-based sequencing, we compared the transcriptome of untreated and MbCD treated cells. Our aim was to define the genes that are expressed in these two conditions and relate their expression to cellular functions.
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Comparative genomics of 274 Vibrio cholerae genomes reveals mobile functions structuring three niche dimensions.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Vibrio cholerae is a globally dispersed pathogen that has evolved with humans for centuries, but also includes non-pathogenic environmental strains. Here, we identify the genomic variability underlying this remarkable persistence across the three major niche dimensions space, time, and habitat.
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Vibrio madracius sp. nov. isolated from Madracis decactis (Scleractinia) in St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Three novel isolates (A-354(T), A-328, and A-384) were retrieved from apparently healthy scleractinian Madracis decactis in the remote St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. The novel isolates formed a distinct lineage based on the phylogenetic reconstruction using the 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences. They fell into the Mediterranei clade and their closest phylogenetic neighbour was V. mediterranei species, sharing upto 98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Genomic analysis including in silico DDH, MLSA, AAI and genomic signature distinguished A-354(T) from V. mediterranei LMG 19703 (=AK1) with values of 33.3, 94.2, 92 %, and 11.3, respectively. Phenotypically, the novel isolates can be differentiated from V. mediterranei based on the four following features. They do not grow at 8 % NaCl; use D-gluconic acid but not L-galactonic acid lactone as carbon source; and do not have the fatty acid C18:0. Differentiation from both the other Mediterranei clade species (V. maritimus and V. variabilis) is supported by fifteen features. The novel species show lysine decarboxylase and tryptophan deaminase, but not gelatinase and arginine dihydrolase activity; produce acetoin; use ?-D-lactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, myo-Inositol, D-gluconic acid, and ?-hydroxy-D,L-butyric acid; and present the fatty acids C14:0 iso, C15:0 anteiso, C16:0 iso, C17:0 anteiso, and C17:1x8c . Whole-cell protein profiles, based on MALDI-TOF, showed that the isolates are not clonal and also distinguished them from the closes phylogenetic neighbors. The name Vibrio madracius sp. nov. is proposed to encompass these novel isolates. The G+C content of the type strain A-354(T) (=LMG 28124(T)=CBAS 482(T)) is 44.5 mol%.
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Genotype to phenotype: identification of diagnostic vibrio phenotypes using whole genome sequences.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Vibrios are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and can be found in association with animal or plant hosts. The range of ecological relationships includes pathogenic and mutualistic associations. To gain a better understanding of the ecology of these microbes, it is important to determine their phenotypic features. However, the traditional phenotypic characterization of vibrios has been expensive, time-consuming and restricted in scope to a limited number of features. In addition, most of the commercial systems applied for phenotypic characterization cannot characterize the broad spectrum of environmental strains. A reliable and possible alternative is to obtain phenotypic information directly from whole genome sequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole genome sequences as a source of phenotypic information. We performed a comparison of the vibrio phenotypes obtained from the literature with the phenotypes obtained from whole genome sequences. We observed a significant correlation between the previously published phenotypic data and the phenotypic data retrieved from whole genome sequences of vibrios. Analysis of 26 vibrio genomes revealed that all genes coding for the specific proteins involved in the metabolic pathways responsible for positive phenotypes of the 14 diagnostic features (Voges-Proskauer reaction, indole production, arginine dihydrolase, ornithine decarboxylase, utilization of myo-inositol, sucrose and L-leucine, and fermentation of D-mannitol, D-sorbitol, L-arabinose, trehalose, cellobiose, D-mannose and D-galactose) were found in the majority of the vibrios genomes. Vibrio species that were negative for a given phenotype revealed the absence of all or several genes involved in the respective biochemical pathways, indicating the utility of this approach to characterize the phenotypes of vibrios. The absence of the global regulation and regulatory proteins in the Vibrio parahaemolyticus genome indicated a non-vibrio phenotype. Whole genome sequences represent an important source for the phenotypic identification of vibrios.
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A survey on cultivable heterotrophic bacteria inhabiting a thermally unstratified water column in an Atlantic Rainforest lake.
PeerJ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Due to the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in biogeochemical cycles and their influence on water quality, many studies have assessed the composition of the bacterial community. Most of these were made in temperate freshwaters. Eighteen heterotrophic bacteria communities distributed over time and space in the water column of Carioca Lake, not exposed to anthropogenic activities, were analyzed to characterize their composition. A polyphasic approach was used, including 16S rDNA restriction analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, BIOLOG Ecoplates and statistical methods. The physiological profiles among the 18 microbial communities were diverse. Clustering analysis and the metabolic fingerprint of the Biolog Ecoplate(TM) system data separated the communities based on temporal scale. A set of 673 isolates were recovered on high nutrient medium. The 673 isolates obtained yielded 360 Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Most (313) of the ARDRA patterns, OTUs, were from isolates obtained in a single sampling point, in temporal and spatial scales, indicating changes in the bacterial community. A subset of representative isolates for each ARDRA OTU was identified by 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and categorized into five phyla, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, represented by 38 genera. The results of this work contribute to a better understanding about the phylogeny of tropical freshwater heterotrophic bacteria.
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Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. isolated from bleached Madracis decactis (Scleractinia) in the St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil.
PeerJ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Five novel strains of Photobacterium (A-394T, A-373, A-379, A-397 and A-398) were isolated from bleached coral Madracis decactis (scleractinian) in the remote St Peter & St Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. Healthy M. decactis specimens were also surveyed, but no strains were related to them. The novel isolates formed a distinct lineage based on the 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA gene sequences analysis. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Photobacterium rosenbergii, P. gaetbulicola, and P. lutimaris, sharing 96.6 to 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The novel species can be differentiated from the closest neighbours by several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic markers. It grows at pH 11, produces tryptophane deaminase, presents the fatty acid C18:0, but lacks C16:0 iso. The whole cell protein profile, based in MALDI-TOF MS, distinguished the strains of the novel species among each other and from the closest neighbors. In addition, we are releasing the whole genome sequence of the type strain. The name Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. The G + C content of the type strain A-394(T) (= LMG27910(T) = CAIM1892(T)) is 48.2 mol%.
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Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis.
PeerJ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.
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Microbial genomic taxonomy.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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A need for a genomic species definition is emerging from several independent studies worldwide. In this commentary paper, we discuss recent studies on the genomic taxonomy of diverse microbial groups and a unified species definition based on genomics. Accordingly, strains from the same microbial species share >95% Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), >95% identity based on multiple alignment genes, <10 in Karlin genomic signature, and > 70% in silico Genome-to-Genome Hybridization similarity (GGDH). Species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) and supertree analysis. In addition to the established requirements for species descriptions, we propose that new taxa descriptions should also include at least a draft genome sequence of the type strain in order to obtain a clear outlook on the genomic landscape of the novel microbe. The application of the new genomic species definition put forward here will allow researchers to use genome sequences to define simultaneously coherent phenotypic and genomic groups.
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Culturable Heterotrophic Bacteria Associated with Healthy and Bleached Scleractinian Madracis decactis and the Fireworm Hermodice carunculata from the Remote St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, Brazil.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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We report on the first characterization of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria of the scleractinian Madracis decactis. In addition, we characterized the culturable bacteria associated with the fireworm Hermodice carunculata, observed predating partially bleached coral colonies. Our study was carried out in the remote St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. We constituted a 403 isolates collection and subsequently characterized it by means of pyrH and 16S rRNA partial sequences. We identified Photobacterium, Bacillus, and Vibrio species as members of the culturable microbiota of healthy M. decactis. V. campbellii, V. harveyi, V. communis, and V. maritimus were the most commonly found Vibrio species in healthy corals, representing more than 60 % of all vibrio isolates. Most of the vibrios isolated from the fireworms tissues (n = 143; >90 %) were identified as V. shiloi. However, we did not recover V. shiloi from bleached M. decactis. Instead, we isolated V. communis, a novel Photobacterium species, Bacillus, Kocuria, and Pseudovibrio, suggesting a possible role of other facultative anaerobic bacteria and/or environmental features (such as water quality) in the onset of bleaching in SPSPAs M. decactis.
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Genomic taxonomy of the genus prochlorococcus.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The genus Prochlorococcus is globally abundant and dominates the total phytoplankton biomass and production in the oligotrophic ocean. The single species, Prochlorococcus marinus, comprises six named ecotypes. Our aim was to analyze the taxonomic structure of the genus Prochlorococcus. We analyzed the complete genomes of 13 cultured P. marinus type and reference strains by means of several genomic taxonomy tools (i.e., multilocus sequence analysis, amino acid identity, Karlin genomic signature, and genome to genome distance). In addition, we estimated the diversity of Prochlorococcus species in over 100 marine metagenomes from all the major oceanic provinces. According to our careful taxonomic analysis, the 13 strains corresponded, in fact, to ten different Prochlorococcus species. This analysis establishes a new taxonomic framework for the genus Prochlorococcus. Further, the analysis of the metagenomic data suggests that, in total, there may only be 35 Prochlorococcus species in the worlds oceans. We propose that the dearth of species observed in this study is driven by high selective pressures that limit diversification in the global ocean.
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Physiologic and metagenomic attributes of the rhodoliths forming the largest CaCO3 bed in the South Atlantic Ocean.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the worlds largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ?21?000?km(2)) and has one of the largest marine CaCO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of CaCO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16??mol carbon?m(-2?)s(-1)), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 10(5)?tons?C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South Atlantic Ocean.
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Dynamics of coral reef benthic assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, eastern Brazil: inferences on natural and anthropogenic drivers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3-10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted.
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Metagenomic analysis of healthy and white plague-affected Mussismilia braziliensis corals.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Coral health is under threat throughout the world due to regional and global stressors. White plague disease (WP) is one of the most important threats affecting the major reef builder of the Abrolhos Bank in Brazil, the endemic coral Mussismilia braziliensis. We performed a metagenomic analysis of healthy and WP-affected M. braziliensis in order to determine the types of microbes associated with this coral species. We also optimized a protocol for DNA extraction from coral tissues. Our taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinomycetes as the main groups in all healthy and WP-affected corals. Vibrionales, members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides complex, Rickettsiales, and Neisseriales were more abundant in the WP-affected corals. Diseased corals also had more eukaryotic metagenomic sequences identified as Alveolata and Apicomplexa. Our results suggest that WP disease in M. braziliensis is caused by a polymicrobial consortium.
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Traffic of secondary metabolites to cell surface in the red alga Laurencia dendroidea depends on a two-step transport by the cytoskeleton.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In Laurencia dendroidea, halogenated secondary metabolites are primarily located in the vacuole named the corps en cerise (CC). For chemical defence at the surface level, these metabolites are intracellularly mobilised through vesicle transport from the CC to the cell periphery for posterior exocytosis of these chemicals. The cell structures involved in this specific vesicle traffic as well as the cellular structures related to the positioning and anchoring of the CC within the cell are not well known. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of cytoskeletal elements in both processes. Cellular and molecular assays were conducted to i) determine the ultrastructural apparatus involved in the vesicle traffic, ii) localise cytoskeletal filaments, iii) evaluate the role of different cytoskeletal filaments in the vesicle transport, iv) identify the cytoskeletal filaments responsible for the positioning and anchoring of the CC, and v) identify the transcripts related to cytoskeletal activity and vesicle transport. Our results show that microfilaments are found within the connections linking the CC to the cell periphery, playing an essential role in the vesicle traffic at these connections, which means a first step of the secondary metabolites transport to the cell surface. After that, the microtubules work in the positioning of the vesicles along the cell periphery towards specific regions where exocytosis takes place, which corresponds to the second step of the secondary metabolites transport to the cell surface. In addition, microtubules are involved in anchoring and positioning the CC to the cell periphery. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the expression of genes coding for actin filaments, microtubules, motor proteins and cytoskeletal accessory proteins. Genes related to vesicle traffic, exocytosis and membrane recycling were also identified. Our findings show, for the first time, that actin microfilaments and microtubules play an underlying cellular role in the chemical defence of red algae.
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Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, isolated from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone and Atlantic salmon).
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6?% similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) (?=?JCM 16453(T) ?=?LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 (?=?JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 (?=?JCM 16455).
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Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis revealed that it contains Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 and a set of genes related to pathogenesis and fitness, such as the type VI secretion system, present in choleragenic V. cholerae strains.
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Reclassification of Rhizobium tropici type A strains as Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Rhizobium tropici is a well-studied legume symbiont characterized by high genetic stability of the symbiotic plasmid and tolerance to tropical environmental stresses such as high temperature and low soil pH. However, high phenetic and genetic variabilities among R. tropici strains have been largely reported, with two subgroups, designated type A and B, already defined within the species. A polyphasic study comprising multilocus sequence analysis, phenotypic and genotypic characterizations, including DNA-DNA hybridization, strongly supported the reclassification of R. tropici type A strains as a novel species. Type A strains formed a well-differentiated clade that grouped with R. tropici, Rhizobium multihospitium, Rhizobium miluonense, Rhizobium lusitanum and Rhizobium rhizogenes in the phylogenies of the 16S rRNA, recA, gltA, rpoA, glnII and rpoB genes. Several phenotypic traits differentiated type A strains from all related taxa. The novel species, for which the name Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov. is proposed, is a broad host range rhizobium being able to establish effective root-nodule symbioses with Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Gliricidia sepium. Strain CFN 299(T) (?=?USDA 9039(T)?=?LMG 9517(T)?=?CECT 4844(T)?=?JCM 21088(T)?=?IAM 14230(T)?=?SEMIA 4083(T)?=?CENA 183(T)?=?UMR1026(T)?=?CNPSo 141(T)) is designated the type strain of Rhizobium leucaenae sp. nov.
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Complete genome sequence of the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum harboring the pJM1 virulence plasmid and genomic comparison with other virulent strains of V. anguillarum and V. ordalii.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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We dissected the complete genome sequence of the O1 serotype strain Vibrio anguillarum 775(pJM1) and determined the draft genomic sequences of plasmidless strains of serotype O1 (strain 96F) and O2? (strain RV22) and V. ordalii. All strains harbor two chromosomes, but 775 also harbors the virulence plasmid pJM1, which carries the anguibactin-producing and cognate transport genes, one of the main virulence factors of V. anguillarum. Genomic analysis identified eight genomic islands in chromosome 1 of V. anguillarum 775(pJM1) and two in chromosome 2. Some of them carried potential virulence genes for the biosynthesis of O antigens, hemolysins, and exonucleases as well as others for sugar transport and metabolism. The majority of genes for essential cell functions and pathogenicity are located on chromosome 1. In contrast, chromosome 2 contains a larger fraction (59%) of hypothetical genes than does chromosome 1 (42%). Chromosome 2 also harbors a superintegron, as well as host "addiction" genes that are typically found on plasmids. Unique distinctive properties include homologues of type III secretion system genes in 96F, homologues of V. cholerae zot and ace toxin genes in RV22, and the biofilm formation syp genes in V. ordalii. Mobile genetic elements, some of them possibly originated in the pJM1 plasmid, were very abundant in 775, resulting in the silencing of specific genes, with only few insertions in the 96F and RV22 chromosomes.
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An MLSA-based online scheme for the rapid identification of Stenotrophomonas isolates.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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An online scheme to assign Stenotrophomonas isolates to genomic groups was developed using the multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), which is based on the DNA sequencing of selected fragments of the housekeeping genes ATP synthase alpha subunit (atpA), the recombination repair protein (recA), the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) and the excision repair beta subunit (uvrB). This MLSA-based scheme was validated using eight of the 10 Stenotrophomonas species that have been previously described. The environmental and nosocomial Stenotrophomonas strains were characterised using MLSA, 16S rRNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridisation (DDH) analyses. Strains of the same species were found to have greater than 95% concatenated sequence similarity and specific strains formed cohesive readily recognisable phylogenetic groups. Therefore, MLSA appeared to be an effective alternative methodology to amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and DDH techniques. Strains of Stenotrophomonas can be readily assigned through the open database resource that was developed in the current study (www.steno.lncc.br/).
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Effect of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine on gene expression in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
Microbes Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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We analyzed the effect of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) on gene expression in the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The total number of genes whose expression was induced and repressed genes in the presence of GlcNAc was 81 and 55, respectively. The induced genes encoded a variety of products, including proteins related to energy metabolism (e.g. GlcNAc and chitin utilization), transport, central metabolism and chemotaxis, hypothetical proteins, mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pilus (MSHA), and a PilA protein, whereas the repressed genes encoded mainly hypothetical proteins. GlcNAc appears to influence directly or indirectly a variety of cellular processes, including energy metabolism, chitin utilization, competence, biofilm formation and pathogenicity. GlcNAc, one of the most abundant aminosugars in the oceans, is used by V. parahaemolyticus as an energy source and affects the cellular functioning of this marine bacterium.
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Genomic and proteomic analyses of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus reveal a diverse virulence repertoire.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Vibrio coralliilyticus has been implicated as an important pathogen of coral species worldwide. In this study, the nearly complete genome of Vibrio coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696) was sequenced and proteases implicated in virulence of the strain were specifically investigated. The genome sequence of P1 (5,513,256 bp in size) consisted of 5222 coding sequences and 58 RNA genes (53 tRNAs and at least 5 rRNAs). Seventeen metalloprotease and effector (vgrG, hlyA and hcp) genes were identified in the genome and expressed proteases were also detected in the secretome of P1. As the VcpA zinc-metalloprotease has been considered an important virulence factor of V. coralliilyticus, a vcpA deletion mutant was constructed to evaluate the effect of this gene in animal pathogenesis. Both wild-type and mutant (?vcpA) strains exhibited similar virulence characteristics that resulted in high mortality in Artemia and Drosophila pathogenicity bioassays and strong photosystem II inactivation of the coral dinoflagellate endosymbiont (Symbiodinium). In contrast, the ?vcpA mutant demonstrated higher hemolytic activity and secreted 18 proteins not secreted by the wild type. These proteins included four types of metalloproteases, a chitinase, a hemolysin-related protein RbmC, the Hcp protein and 12 hypothetical proteins. Overall, the results of this study indicate that V. coralliilyticus strain P1 has a diverse virulence repertoire that possibly enables this bacterium to be an efficient animal pathogen.
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Towards a genome based taxonomy of Mycoplasmas.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Mycoplasmas are Gram-positive wall-less bacteria with a wide environmental and host distribution, causing disease in man and in (wild and farmed) animals. The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of a genomic taxonomic approach in Mycoplasma systematics. Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), average amino acid identity (AAI), and Karlin genomic signature allowed a clear identification of species. For instance, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium had only 71% MLSA similarity, 67% AAI, and 88 for Karlin genomic signature. Codon usage (Nc) of the phylogenetically distantly related species Mycoplasma conjunctivae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum was identical, in spite of clear differences in MLSA, AAI, and Karlin, suggesting that these two species were subjected to convergent adaptation due to similar environmental conditions. We suggest that a Mycoplasma species may be better defined based on genomic features. In our hands, a Mycoplasma species is defined as a group of strains that share ? 97% DNA identity in MLSA, ? 93.9% AAI and ? 8 in Karlin genomic signature. This new definition may be useful to advance the taxonomy of Mycoplasmas.
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Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov., isolated from Palythoa caribaeorum.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Two novel vibrio isolates (R-40492(T) and R-40493(T)) originating from the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum in Brazil in 2005 were taxonomically characterized by means of a polyphasic approach comprising multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), ?T(m) analysis and phenotypic characterization. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) fell within the genus Vibrio and were most closely related to each other with 99% similarity; similarities of these two novel isolates towards Vibrio neptunius LMG 20536(T), Vibrio coralliilyticus LMG 20984(T), Vibrio nigripulchritudo LMG 3896(T), Vibrio sinaloensis LMG 25238(T) and Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) varied between 97.1 and 98.5%. DDH experiments showed that the two isolates had less than 15% relatedness to the phylogenetically most closely related Vibrio species. R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) had 55-57% relatedness to each other. The ?T(m) between R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) was 6.12 °C. In addition, MLSA of concatenated sequences (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gyrB, recA, rpoA, topA, pyrH and mreB; 6035 bp in length) showed that the two novel isolates formed a separate branch with less than 92% concatenated gene sequence similarity towards known species of vibrios. Two novel species are proposed to accommodate these novel isolates, namely Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. (type strain, R-40492(T)=LMG 25438(T)=CAIM 1454(T)) and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov. (type strain, R-40493(T)=LMG 25439(T)=CAIM 1455(T)).
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The genus Listonella MacDonell and Colwell 1986 is a later heterotypic synonym of the genus Vibrio Pacini 1854 (Approved Lists 1980)--a taxonomic opinion.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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We analysed the taxonomic position of the genus Listonella based on phylogenetic, genomic and phenotypic data. The species of the genus Listonella were nested within the genus Vibrio according to the 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic tree. The closest neighbour of Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum strains LMG 4437(T) and ATCC 68554 (=strain 775) was Vibrio ordalii LMG 13544(T), with more than 99.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Furthermore, Vibrio (Listonella) pelagius is highly related to Vibrio splendidus. According to average amino acid identity (AAI), multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and Karlin genome signature, the closest neighbour of L. anguillarum ATCC 68554 is V. ordalii LMG 13544(T), with 95% AAI, 98% MLSA and 5 in Karlin. V. anguillarum ATCC 68554 and Vibrio cholerae N16961 had 77% similarity in AAI, 85% in MLSA and 14 in the Karlin signature. Phenotypic analyses of previously published data for V. (L.) anguillarum and V. (L.) pelagius revealed that the genus Listonella is extremely similar to the genus Vibrio. V. ordalii and L. anguillarum strains yielded up to 67% DNA-DNA hybridization. There are only a few phenotypic features that might be used to discriminate these two species: L. anguillarum is positive for the Voges-Proskauer reaction, citrate utilization, starch hydrolysis, lipase activity and acid production from glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose, whereas V. ordalii is negative for these traits. We suggest that the genus Listonella is a later heterotypic synonym of the genus Vibrio and propose to use the names Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio pelagius in place of Listonella anguillarum and Listonella pelagia, respectively.
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Usefulness of a real-time PCR platform for G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization estimations in vibrios.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a real-time PCR platform to estimate the DNA G+C content (mol%) and DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values in the genus Vibrio. In total, nine vibrio strains were used to determine the relationship between genomic DNA G+C content and T(m) (°C). The T(m) and HPLC datasets fit a linear regression curve with a significant correlation coefficient, corroborating that this methodology has a high correlation with the standard methodology based on HPLC (R(2)?=?0.94). Analysis of 31 pairs of vibrios provided a wide range of ?T(m) values, varying between 0.72 and 12.5 °C. Pairs corresponding to strains of the same species or strains from sister species showed the lowest ?T(m) values. For instance, the ?T(m) of the sister species Vibrio harveyi LMG 4044(T) and Vibrio campbellii LMG 11216(T) was 5.2 °C, whereas the ?T(m) of Vibrio coralliilyticus LMG 20984(T) and Vibrio neptunius LMG 20536(T) was 8.75 °C. The mean ?T(m) values corresponding to pairs of strains with DDH values lower than 60?% or higher than 80?% were, respectively, 8.29 and 2.21 °C (significant difference, P<0.01). The high correlation between DDH values obtained in previous studies and the ?T(m) values (R(2)?=?0.7344) indicates that the fluorimetric methodology is a reliable alternative for the estimation of both DNA G+C content and ?T(m) in vibrios. We suggest that strains of the same Vibrio species will have less than 4 °C ?T(m). The use of a real-time PCR platform represents a valuable alternative for the development of the taxonomy of vibrios.
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Comparative genomic analyses identify the Vibrio harveyi genome sequenced strains BAA-1116 and HY01 as Vibrio campbellii.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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Three notable members of the Harveyi clade, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are best known as marine pathogens of commercial and medical import. In spite of this fact, the discrimination of Harveyi clade members remains difficult due to genetic and phenotypic similarities, and this has led to misidentifications and inaccurate estimations of a species involvement in certain environments. To begin to understand the underlying genetics that complicate species level discrimination, we compared the genomes of Harveyi clade members isolated from different environments (seawater, shrimp, corals, oysters, finfish, humans) using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA). Surprisingly, we found that the only two V. harveyi strains that have had their genomes sequenced (strains BAA-1116 and HY01) have themselves been misidentified. Instead of belonging to the species harveyi, they are actually members of the species campbellii. In total, 28% of the strains tested were found to be misidentified and 42% of these appear to comprise a novel species. Taken together, our findings correct a number of species misidentifications while validating the ability of both CGH and MLSA to distinguish closely related members of the Harveyi clade.
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Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of the bioethanol process.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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Bacteria may compete with yeast for nutrients during bioethanol production process, potentially causing economic losses. This is the first study aiming at the quantification and identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present in the bioethanol industrial processes in different distilleries of Brazil.
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Vibrio2009: the third international conference on the biology of Vibrios.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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Vibrio2009, the third international conference on the biology of Vibrios, was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in November 2009. This conference united researchers studying various aspects of pathogenesis, symbiosis and environmental persistence of this diverse group of marine bacteria. Through many of the presentations, it became apparent how horizontal gene transfer and genetic flexibility has driven the incredible diversity of these microbes. Interestingly, unifying themes of behaviour could be seen in the interaction(s) of Vibrios with other organisms, such as with other bacteria, corals, invertebrates and humans. Presentations illuminated the idea that the path towards symbiosis is not that different from the path towards disease, and that alterations in environmental conditions, such as climate change, can tip the balance and change the Vibrio interactions from benign to pathogenic.
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Marinomonas brasilensis sp. nov., isolated from the coral Mussismilia hispida, and reclassification of Marinomonas basaltis as a later heterotypic synonym of Marinomonas communis.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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A Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain R-40503(T), was isolated from mucus of the reef-builder coral Mussismilia hispida, located in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo, Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain R-40503(T) belongs to the genus Marinomonas. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of R-40503(T) was above 97 % with the type strains of Marinomonas vaga, M. basaltis, M. communis and M. pontica, and below 97 % with type strains of the other Marinomonas species. Strain R-40503(T) showed less than 35 % DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) with the type strains of the phylogenetically closest Marinomonas species, demonstrating that it should be classified into a novel species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses provided further evidence for the proposal of a novel species. Concurrently, a close genomic relationship between M. basaltis and M. communis was observed. The type strains of these two species showed 78 % DDH and 63 % AFLP pattern similarity. Their phenotypic features were very similar, and their DNA G+C contents were identical (46.3 mol%). Collectively, these data demonstrate unambiguously that Marinomonas basaltis is a later heterotypic synonym of Marinomonas communis. Several phenotypic features can be used to discriminate between Marinomonas species. The novel strain R-40503(T) is clearly distinguishable from its neighbours. For instance, it shows oxidase and urease activity, utilizes l-asparagine and has the fatty acid C(12 : 1) 3-OH but lacks C(10 : 0) and C(12 : 0). The name Marinomonas brasilensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain R-40503(T) (?= R-278(T) ?= LMG 25434(T) ?= CAIM 1459(T)). The DNA G+C content of strain R-40503(T) is 46.5 mol%.
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Coastal bacterioplankton community diversity along a latitudinal gradient in Latin America by means of V6 tag pyrosequencing.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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The bacterioplankton diversity of coastal waters along a latitudinal gradient between Puerto Rico and Argentina was analyzed using a total of 134,197 high-quality sequences from the V6 hypervariable region of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA) (mean length of 60 nt). Most of the OTUs were identified into Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria, corresponding to approx. 80% of the total number of sequences. The number of OTUs corresponding to species varied between 937 and 1946 in the seven locations. Proteobacteria appeared at high frequency in the seven locations. An enrichment of Cyanobacteria was observed in Puerto Rico, whereas an enrichment of Bacteroidetes was detected in the Argentinian shelf and Uruguayan coastal lagoons. The highest number of sequences of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were obtained in the Amazon estuary mouth. The rarefaction curves and Good coverage estimator for species diversity suggested a significant coverage, with values ranging between 92 and 97% for Good coverage. Conserved taxa corresponded to aprox. 52% of all sequences. This study suggests that human-contaminated environments may influence bacterioplankton diversity.
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Screening for endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Brazilian sugar cane varieties used in organic farming and description of Stenotrophomonas pavanii sp. nov.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated ICB 89(T), was isolated from stems of a Brazilian sugar cane variety widely used in organic farming. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain ICB 89(T) belonged to the genus Stenotrophomonas and was most closely related to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia LMG 958(T), Stenotrophomonas rhizophila LMG 22075(T), Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens L2(T), [Pseudomonas] geniculata ATCC 19374(T), [Pseudomonas] hibiscicola ATCC 19867(T) and [Pseudomonas] beteli ATCC 19861(T). DNA-DNA hybridization together with chemotaxonomic data and biochemical characteristics allowed the differentiation of strain ICB 89(T) from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, strain ICB 89(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Stenotrophomonas pavanii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ICB 89(T) (?=?CBMAI 564(T) ?=?LMG 25348(T)).
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Identification of non-coding RNAs in environmental vibrios.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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The discovery of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been mainly limited to laboratory model systems and human pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we begin to explore the ncRNA diversity in four recently sequenced environmental Vibrio species (Vibrio alginolyticus 40B, Vibrio communis 1DA3, Vibrio mimicus VM573 and Vibrio campbellii BAA-1116) by performing in silico searches using Infernal and Rfam for the identification of putative ncRNA-encoding genes. This search method resulted in the identification of 31-38 putative ncRNA genes per species and the total ncRNA catalogue spanned an assortment of regulatory mechanisms (riboswitches, cis-encoded ncRNAs, trans-encoded ncRNAs, modulators of protein activity, ribonucleoproteins, transcription termination ncRNAs and unknown). We chose to experimentally validate the identifications for V. campbellii BAA-1116 using a microarray-based expression profiling strategy. Transcript hybridization to tiled probes targeting annotated V. campbellii BAA-1116 intergenic regions revealed that 21 of the 38 predicted ncRNA genes were expressed in mid-exponential-phase cultures grown in nutrient-rich medium. The microarray findings were confirmed by testing a subset of three highly expressed (6S, tmRNA and TPP-2) and three moderately expressed (CsrB, GcvB and purine) ncRNAs via reverse transcription PCR. Our findings provide new information on the diversity of ncRNA in environmental vibrios while simultaneously promoting a more accurate annotation of genomic intergenic regions.
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Vibrio communis sp. nov., isolated from the marine animals Mussismilia hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Litopenaeus vannamei.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Eight Vibrio isolates originating from the marine corals Mussismilia hispida and Phyllogorgia dilatata and the zoanthids Palythoa caribaeorum and Palythoa variabilis in Brazil and the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Ecuador were studied by means of a polyphasic approach. The novel isolates formed a tight monophyletic group in the genus Vibrio and were closely related to species of the Vibrio harveyi group, to which they showed more than 99?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Analysis based on concatenated sequences of the following seven genes, 16S rRNA, gyrB, recA, rpoA, topA, pyrH and mreB (5633 bp in length), showed clear separation between the isolates and species of the V. harveyi group. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, performed previously, revealed that a representative isolate of this group, LMG 20370, was clearly separate from known Vibrio species (it belonged to the so-called AFLP cluster A31). DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) experiments with representative isolates and type strains of the V. harveyi species group revealed high DDH between the novel isolates (more than 74?%) and less than 70?% DDH towards type strains of related Vibrio species, proving the novel species status of the isolates. Phenotypically, the novel species belongs to the arginine dihydrolase (A)-negative, lysine decarboxylase (L)-positive and ornithine decarboxylase (O)-positive (A-/L+/O+) cluster reported previously. Most species of the V. harveyi group (i.e. Vibrio rotiferianus, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus) also belong to this A-/L+/O+ cluster. However, several phenotypic features can be used for the identification of the novel species. In contrast to its closest phylogenetic neighbours, the novel species exhibits esterase (C4) and N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase activities, but it does not produce acetoin, does not use citrate, ?-ketoglutaric acid or propionic acid and does not ferment melibiose. The novel species can also be differentiated on the basis of the presence of the fatty acids C(17?:?0,) C(17?:?1)?8c, iso-C(17?:?0) and iso-C(13?:?0) and the absence of the fatty acid C(18?:?0). The name Vibrio communis sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. Strain R-40496(T) (=LMG 25430(T) =CAIM 1816(T)) is the type strain.
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Photobacterium swingsii sp. nov., isolated from marine organisms.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Six Gram-negative coccobacilli were isolated from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from Mexico and haemolymph of spider crabs (Maja brachydactyla) from Spain. All of the isolates grew as small green colonies on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar and were facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-positive and sensitive to the vibriostatic agent O/129. Repetitive palindromic PCR analysis revealed a high degree of genomic homogeneity among the isolates. Several phenotypic traits differentiated the isolates from the type strains of species of the genus Photobacterium. DNA-DNA relatedness between two representative isolates and their closest phylogenetic neighbours by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, Photobacterium aplysiae CAIM 14(T) and Photobacterium frigidiphilum CAIM 20(T), was 44.01-53.85?%. We propose a novel species of the genus Photobacterium to accommodate the six isolates, with the name Photobacterium swingsii sp. nov. The type strain is CAIM 1393(T) (=CECT 7576(T)).
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Bacterial community diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest soils.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial community diversity of the Brazilian Atlantic forest soil by means of both cultivation and 16S rRNA clone libraries. A collection of 86 representative isolates, obtained from six samples of Atlantic forest soils from the National Park of Serra dos Órgãos (PARNASO), belonged to the genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Leifsonia, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Serratia, and Streptomyces according to the 16S rRNA sequences. Representative isolates from the different genera degraded cellulose and lignin. The culture-independent analysis based on 894 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the most frequently retrieved groups belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria (29-54%), Proteobacteria (16-38%), and Verrucomicrobia (0.6-14%). The majority of the sequences (82.6%) were unidentified singletons and doubletons, indicating a high diversity of rare unique sequences. Chao1 estimator disclosed a high number of phyla (41-152) and species (263-446). This is the first survey on the Atlantic Forest soils using a combination of cultivation and culture-independent approaches. We conclude that the Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil represents a vast source of novel bacteria.
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Bacterial community associated with healthy and diseased reef coral Mussismilia hispida from eastern Brazil.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2010
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In order to characterize the bacterial community diversity associated to mucus of the coral Mussismilia hispida, four 16S rDNA libraries were constructed and 400 clones from each library were analyzed from two healthy colonies, one diseased colony and the surrounding water. Nine bacterial phyla were identified in healthy M. hispida, with a dominance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Lentisphaerae, and Nitrospira. The most commonly found species were related to the genera Azospirillum, Hirschia, Fabibacter, Blastochloris, Stella, Vibrio, Flavobacterium, Ochrobactrum, Terasakiella, Alkalibacter, Staphylococcus, Azospirillum, Propionibacterium, Arcobacter, and Paenibacillus. In contrast, diseased M. hispida had a predominance of one single species of Bacteroidetes, corresponding to more than 70% of the sequences. Rarefaction curves using evolutionary distance of 1% showed a greater decrease in bacterial diversity in the diseased M. hispida, with a reduction of almost 85% in OTUs in comparison to healthy colonies. integral-Libshuff analyses show that significant p values obtained were <0.0001, demonstrating that the four libraries are significantly different. Furthermore, the sympatric corals M. hispida and Mussismilia braziliensis appear to have different bacterial community compositions according to Principal Component Analysis and Lineage-specific Analysis. Moreover, lineages that contribute to those differences were identified as alpha-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The results obtained in this study suggest host-microbe co-evolution in Mussismilia, and it was the first study on the diversity of the microbiota of the endemic and endangered of extinction Brazilian coral M. hispida from Abrolhos bank.
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Marinobacterium coralli sp. nov., isolated from mucus of coral (Mussismilia hispida).
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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A Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated R-40509(T), was isolated from mucus of the reef builder coral (Mussismilia hispida) located in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo, Brazil. The strain was oxidase-positive and catalase-negative, and required Na(+) for growth. Its phylogenetic position was in the genus Marinobacterium and the closest related species were Marinobacterium sediminicola, Marinobacterium maritimum and Marinobacterium stanieri; the isolate exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.5-98.0?% with the type strains of these species. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with other type strains of the genus Marinobacterium were below 96?%. DNA-DNA hybridizations between strain R-40509(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest species of the genus Marinobacterium revealed less than 70?% DNA-DNA relatedness, supporting the novel species status of the strain. Phenotypic characterization revealed that the strain was able to grow at 15-42 °C and in medium containing up to 9?% NaCl. The isolate could be differentiated from phenotypically related species by several features, including its ability to utilize d-alanine, l-alanine, bromosuccinic acid, ?-hydroxybutyric acid and ?-ketovaleric acid, but not acetate or l-arabinose. It produced acetoin (Voges-Proskauer), but did not have esterase lipase (C8) or catalase activities. It possessed C(18?:?1)?7c (35?%), summed feature 3 (iso-C(15?:?0) 2-OH and/or C(16?:?1)?7c; 25?%) and C(16?:?0) (22?%) as major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 58.5 mol%. The name Marinobacterium coralli sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this novel isolate; the type strain is R-40509(T) (=LMG 25435(T) =CAIM 1449(T)).
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Photobacterium jeanii sp. nov., isolated from corals and zoanthids.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Four novel isolates (R-40508(T), R-40507, R-40903 and R-21419) were obtained from different cnidarian species (Phyllogorgia dilatata, Merulina ampliata and Palythoa caribaeorum) from different places in Brazil and Australia. The novel isolates formed a tight phylogenetic group based on 16S rRNA, recA, topA, ftsZ, mreB and rpoA gene sequences. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were the type strains of Photobacterium leiognathi, P. rosenbergii and P. halotolerans, sharing 97.1-97.5?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization between a representative strain (R-40508(T)) and the type strains of these Photobacterium species revealed less than 20?% relatedness, showing that the new isolates belong to a novel species. Several phenotypic features allow the differentiation of the novel species from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. It has gelatinase and lipase activity and can utilize melibiose, but it cannot grow on 6?% NaCl. In addition, the novel species has the fatty acid iso-C(16?:?0), but lacks the fatty acids C(17?:?0), C(17?:?0) cyclo, iso-C(17?:?0), C(17?:?1)?8c and iso-C(17?:?1)?9c. The name Photobacterium jeanii sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with the type strain R-40508(T) (=LMG 25436(T) =CAIM 1817(T)). The G+C content of the type strain is 45.5mol%.
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Quorum sensing signal production and inhibition by coral-associated vibrios.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Corals are inhabited by complex communities of microbes that affect their growth and survival. Several studies suggest that coral disease may be attributed to the success of vibrios in out-competing other bacteria in the mucus and tissues of corals. Vibrios utilize a variety of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules to regulate processes that could be used to colonize corals during adverse environmental conditions. We therefore screened a range of Vibrios isolated from a variety of healthy and diseased corals, for the production of the QS signal molecules, N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and the AI-2 (autoinducer-2) small furanone signal molecule. All 29 strains examined activated the AI-2 biosensor, but only 17 activated an AHL biosensor. Using reverse phase thin-layer chromatography, we showed that the effect of temperature on AHL production varied considerably among the isolates. For the first time, the QS inhibition by Vibrio harveyi is reported. This only occurred at higher temperatures and does not appear to be due to degradation of AHLs. The large diversity of vibrios and the different effects of temperature on signal production may partly explain the complexity of coral-associated community changes in response to environmental factors.
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Diversity and pathogenic potential of vibrios isolated from Abrolhos Bank corals.
Environ Microbiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
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We performed the first taxonomic characterization of vibrios and other culturable microbiota from apparently healthy and diseased Brazilian-endemic corals at the Abrolhos reef bank. The diseases affecting corals were tissue necrosis in Phyllogorgia dillatata, white plague and bleaching in Mussismilia braziliensis and bleaching in Mussismilia hispida. Bacterial isolates were obtained from mucus of 22 coral specimens originated from the Abrolhos Bank (i.e. Itacolomis reef, Recife de Fora reef and Santa Barbara Island) in 2007. Vibrios counts in the water and coral mucus were approximately 104?cfu?ml(-1) and 106?cfu?ml(-1) respectively. One hundred and thirty-one representative vibrio isolates were identified. Most vibrio isolates (n?=?79) fell into the core group using the pyrH identification marker. According to our analysis, diseased corals did not possess a unique vibrio microbiota. Vibrio species encompassed strains originated from both apparently healthy and diseased corals. The pathogenic potential of representative vibrio isolates (V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3 and V. coralliilyticus 2DA3) were evaluated in a standardized bioassay using the animal model Drosophila melanogaster and caused 25-88% mortality. This is the first taxonomic characterization of the culturable microbiota from the Brazilian-endemic corals. Endemic Brazilian corals are a reservoir of the vibrio core group. Vibrio alginolyticus, V. harveyi and V. coralliilyticus are dominant in the mucus of these corals and may be a normal component of the holobiont.
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Multilocus sequence analysis of Brazilian Rhizobium microsymbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) reveals unexpected taxonomic diversity.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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The diazotrophic bacteria collectively known as "rhizobia" are important for establishing symbiotic N(2)-fixing associations with many legumes. These microbes have been used for over a century as an environmentally beneficial and cost-effective means of ensuring acceptable yields of agricultural legumes. The most widely used phylogenetic marker for identification and classification of rhizobia has been the 16S rRNA gene; however, this marker fails to discriminate some closely related species. In this study, we established the first multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for the identification and classification of rhizobial microsymbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). We analyzed 12 Brazilian strains representative of a collection of over 850 isolates in addition to type and reference rhizobial strains, by sequencing recA, dnaK, gltA, glnII and rpoA genes. Gene sequence similarities among the five type/reference Rhizobium strains which are symbionts of common bean ranged from 95 to 100% for 16S rRNA, and from 83 to 99% for the other five genes. Rhizobial species described as symbionts of common bean also formed separate groups upon analysis of single and concatenated gene sequences, and clusters formed in each tree were in good mutual agreement. The five additional loci may thus be considered useful markers of the genus Rhizobium; in addition, MLSA also revealed broad genetic diversity among strains classified as Rhizobium tropici, providing evidence of new species.
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Genomic taxonomy of Vibrios.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios.
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Mutation is the Main Driving Force in the Diversification of the Vibrio splendidus Clade.
Microbes Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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The Vibrio splendidus clade is the biggest in Vibrionales composed of 11 described species (25). Diversification of these species may have occurred 260 million years ago. The main driving forces of speciation in this clade have never been studied. Population biological parameters (population base recombination rate (?), population base mutation rate (?), and index of association (Ia)) were determined among 16 strains of 9 defined species in the Splendidus cluster. A comparison of individual gene phylogeny indicated significant incongruence in tree topology, which suggests the occurrence of recombination between species. Homologous recombination between species was detected at four loci. However, the mutation rate ? was higher than the recombination rate ?, suggesting that mutation is the main driving force in the diversification of V. splendidus-related species.
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Polyketide synthase gene diversity within the microbiome of the sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to the Southern Atlantic Ocean.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
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Microbes associated with marine sponges are considered important producers of bioactive, structurally unique polyketides. The synthesis of such secondary metabolites involves type I polyketide synthases (PKSs), which are enzymes that reach a maximum complexity degree in bacteria. The Haplosclerida sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis hosts a complex microbiota and is the source of arenosclerins, alkaloids with cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In the present investigation, we performed high-throughput sequencing of the ketosynthase (KS) amplicon to investigate the diversity of PKS genes present in the metagenome of A. brasiliensis. Almost 4,000 ketosynthase reads were recovered, with about 90% annotated automatically as bacterial. A total of 235 bacterial KS contigs was rigorously assembled from this sequence pool and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A great diversity of six type I PKS groups has been consistently detected in our phylogenetic reconstructions, including a novel and A. brasiliensis-exclusive group. Our study is the first to reveal the diversity of type I PKS genes in A. brasiliensis as well as the potential of its microbiome to serve as a source of new polyketides.
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Transcriptomic analysis of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta) and its microbiome.
BMC Genomics
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Seaweeds of the Laurencia genus have a broad geographic distribution and are largely recognized as important sources of secondary metabolites, mainly halogenated compounds exhibiting diverse potential pharmacological activities and relevant ecological role as anti-epibiosis. Host-microbe interaction is a driving force for co-evolution in the marine environment, but molecular studies of seaweed-associated microbial communities are still rare. Despite the large amount of research describing the chemical compositions of Laurencia species, the genetic knowledge regarding this genus is currently restricted to taxonomic markers and general genome features. In this work we analyze the transcriptomic profile of L. dendroidea J. Agardh, unveil the genes involved on the biosynthesis of terpenoid compounds in this seaweed and explore the interactions between this host and its associated microbiome.
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Taxonomic and functional microbial signatures of the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis.
PLoS ONE
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The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (?150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome.
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Abrolhos bank reef health evaluated by means of water quality, microbial diversity, benthic cover, and fish biomass data.
PLoS ONE
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The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (Southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the "paper park" of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial pathogens.
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Genome sequences of the ethanol-tolerant Lactobacillus vini strains LMG 23202T and JP7.8.9.
J. Bacteriol.
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We report on the genome sequences of Lactobacillus vini type strain LMG 23202(T) (DSM 20605) (isolated from fermenting grape musts in Spain) and the industrial strain L. vini JP7.8.9 (isolated from a bioethanol plant in northeast Brazil). All contigs were assembled using gsAssembler, and genes were predicted and annotated using Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST). The identified genome sequence of LMG 23202(T) had 2.201.333 bp, 37.6% G+C, and 1,833 genes, whereas the identified genome sequence of JP7.8.9 had 2.301.037 bp, 37.8% G+C, and 1,739 genes. The gene repertoire of the species L. vini offers promising opportunities for biotechnological applications.
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Rhodolith beds are major CaCO3 bio-factories in the tropical South West Atlantic.
PLoS ONE
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Rhodoliths are nodules of non-geniculate coralline algae that occur in shallow waters (<150 m depth) subjected to episodic disturbance. Rhodolith beds stand with kelp beds, seagrass meadows, and coralline algal reefs as one of the worlds four largest macrophyte-dominated benthic communities. Geographic distribution of rhodolith beds is discontinuous, with large concentrations off Japan, Australia and the Gulf of California, as well as in the Mediterranean, North Atlantic, eastern Caribbean and Brazil. Although there are major gaps in terms of seabed habitat mapping, the largest rhodolith beds are purported to occur off Brazil, where these communities are recorded across a wide latitudinal range (2°N-27°S). To quantify their extent, we carried out an inter-reefal seabed habitat survey on the Abrolhos Shelf (16°50-19°45S) off eastern Brazil, and confirmed the most expansive and contiguous rhodolith bed in the world, covering about 20,900 km(2). Distribution, extent, composition and structure of this bed were assessed with side scan sonar, remotely operated vehicles, and SCUBA. The mean rate of CaCO(3) production was estimated from in situ growth assays at 1.07 kg m(-2) yr(-1), with a total production rate of 0.025 Gt yr(-1), comparable to those of the worlds largest biogenic CaCO(3) deposits. These gigantic rhodolith beds, of areal extent equivalent to the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, are a critical, yet poorly understood component of the tropical South Atlantic Ocean. Based on the relatively high vulnerability of coralline algae to ocean acidification, these beds are likely to experience a profound restructuring in the coming decades.
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Genome sequence of the bacterioplanktonic, mixotrophic Vibrio campbellii strain PEL22A, isolated in the Abrolhos Bank.
J. Bacteriol.
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Vibrio campbellii PEL22A was isolated from open ocean water in the Abrolhos Bank. The genome of PEL22A consists of 6,788,038 bp (the GC content is 45%). The number of coding sequences (CDS) is 6,359, as determined according to the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) server. The number of ribosomal genes is 80, of which 68 are tRNAs and 12 are rRNAs. V. campbellii PEL22A contains genes related to virulence and fitness, including a complete proteorhodopsin cluster, complete type II and III secretion systems, incomplete type I, IV, and VI secretion systems, a hemolysin, and CTX?.
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Structuring of bacterioplankton diversity in a large tropical bay.
PLoS ONE
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Structuring of bacterioplanktonic populations and factors that determine the structuring of specific niche partitions have been demonstrated only for a limited number of colder water environments. In order to better understand the physical chemical and biological parameters that may influence bacterioplankton diversity and abundance, we examined their productivity, abundance and diversity in the second largest Brazilian tropical bay (Guanabara Bay, GB), as well as seawater physical chemical and biological parameters of GB. The inner bay location with higher nutrient input favored higher microbial (including vibrio) growth. Metagenomic analysis revealed a predominance of Gammaproteobacteria in this location, while GB locations with lower nutrient concentration favored Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. According to the subsystems (SEED) functional analysis, GB has a distinctive metabolic signature, comprising a higher number of sequences in the metabolism of phosphorus and aromatic compounds and a lower number of sequences in the photosynthesis subsystem. The apparent phosphorus limitation appears to influence the GB metagenomic signature of the three locations. Phosphorus is also one of the main factors determining changes in the abundance of planktonic vibrios, suggesting that nutrient limitation can be observed at community (metagenomic) and population levels (total prokaryote and vibrio counts).
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Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov., isolated from marine organisms.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
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Five strains (CAIM 1831(T), CAIM 1832, CAIM 1833, CAIM 1834 and CAIM 1836) were isolated from cultured sole (Solea senegalensis) in two regions of Spain, two strains (CAIM 404 and CAIM 1294) from wild-caught spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) in Mexico, and one strain (CAIM 1835) from corals in Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed similarity to Vibrio ponticus (98.2-98.3%, GenBank accession no. AJ630103) and to a lesser degree to Vibrio furnissii (97.2-97.3%, X76336) and to Vibrio fluvialis (96.9-97.1%, X74703). Multilocus sequence analysis clustered these strains closely together and clearly separated them from phylogenetically related species of the genus Vibrio. Genomic fingerprinting by rep-PCR clustered the novel strains according to their geographical origin. Phenotypic analyses showed a large variation among the new strains, but many tests enabled them to be differentiated from other species of the genus Vibrio. The mean ?T(m) values between the strains analysed here and closely related type strains were above 6.79 °C. The values between the novel isolates were below 2.35 °C, well outside the limit suggested for the delineation of a bacterial species. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented here clearly place these new strains as a coherent group within the genus Vibrio, for which we propose the name Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov. with CAIM 1831(T) (?= DSM 24595(T) = S277(T)) as the type strain.
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Genome sequence of the marine bacterium Vibrio campbellii DS40M4, isolated from open ocean water.
J. Bacteriol.
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Vibrio sp. strain DS40M4 is a marine bacterium that was isolated from open ocean water. In this work, using genomic taxonomy, we were able to classify this bacterium as V. campbellii. Our genomic analysis revealed that V. campbellii DS40M4 harbors genes related to iron transport, virulence, and environmental fitness, such as those encoding anguibactin and vanchrobactin biosynthesis proteins, type II, III, IV, and VI secretion systems, and proteorhodopsin.
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