ABSTRACT? Aims: To characterize a clinical Shigella sonnei strain harboring a conjugatable bla CTX-M-55-borne plasmid. Materials & methods: S. sonnei strain #1081 was isolated from a dysentery patient in China. A CTX-M-55-encoding plasmid harbored in this strain was transformed to Escherichia coli, and then its complete nucleotide sequence was determined by next generation sequencing. The MIC values of bacterial strains were tested by using Vitec(®) 2 (Biomerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Results: Strain #1081 conferred the resistance to multiple beta-lactam antibiotics. bla CTX-M-55 was the only known antibiotic resistance gene and located in a 3090-bp ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-55-orf477 transposition unit carried by a conjugatable plasmid p1081-CTXM in #1081. The ISEcp1-mediated transposition provided a sole promoter, which was located adjacently upstream of the inverted repeat right element of ISEcp1, to drive the expression of CTX-M-55. Conclusion: Plasmid p1081-CTXM was a close variant of the IncI2-type plasmid pHN1122-1 that was harbored in a faecal E. coli strain recovered from a dog in China, indicating the potential transfer of CTX-M-55-encoding plasmids from faecal flora E. coli to human pathogen S. sonnei.
Background The increase in the amount of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria is seriously threatening human health in recent years. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a rapid and reliable method for identification of ESBLs. The purpose of this study was to establish a novel method to discriminate between ESBL-producing and non- ESBL-producing bacteria by using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) technique. Material and Methods We detected hydrolyzed production of cefotaxime after incubation with 69 gram-negative bacteria by using MALDI-TOF-MS. Then we established genetic algorithm (GA), supervised neural networks (SNN), and quick classifier (QC) models using several peaks to identify ESBL-producing strains. To confirm the clinical applicability of the models established, a blinded validation test was performed in 34 clinical isolated strains. Results Using ClinPro Tools software, we identified 4 peaks (456 Da, 396 Da, 370 Da, and 371 Da) in mass spectra of cefotaxime solution that have high enough specificity to discriminate ESBL-producing from non- ESBL-producing strains. Recognition capability of models established were 97.5% (GA), 92.5% (SNN), and 92.5% (QC), and cross validation rates were 90.15% (GA), 97.62 (SNN), and 97.62% (QC). The accuracy rates of the blinded validation test were 82.4% (GA), 88.2% (SNN), and 82.4% (QC). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that identification of ESBLs strains by MALDI-TOF-MS has potential clinical value and could be widely used in the future as a routine test in clinical microbiology laboratories.
Dithienylethene (DTE)-2,6-diiodoBodipy triads were prepared with the aim to photoswitch the triplet excited state of the 2,6-diiodoBodipy moiety. Bodipy was selected due to its low T1 state energy level to avoid sensitized photocyclization of DTE, which is very often encountered in DTE photoswitches, so that the photochemistry of DTE and the organic chromophore can be addressed independently. This is the first time that DTE was covalently connected with an organic triplet photosensitizer. For the triad with DTE-o structure, selective photoexcitation into the diiodoBodipy part did not initiate photocyclization of DTE-o. Upon photoirradiation at 254 nm, thus the DTE-o ? DTE-c transformation, the intersystem crossing (ISC) of 2,6-diiodoBodipy moiety was competed by the photoactivated resonance energy transfer (RET), with Bodipy as the intramolecular energy donor and DTE-c as energy acceptor. The fluorescence of Bodipy was quenched and the triplet state lifetime of Bodipy was reduced from 105.1 to 40.9 ?s. The photoreversion is O2-independent, but can be greatly accelerated upon selective photoexcitation into the diiodoBodipy absorption band (at 535 nm). We concluded that ISC is not outcompeted by RET. The photoswitching of the triplet state was transduced to the singlet oxygen photosensitizing, as well as triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion.
Abstract 1. As a potential new drug candidate for cardiovascular protection and antitumor treatment, the physicochemical properties, gastrointestinal (GI) absorption behaviors and mechanisms of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) were investigated in this study. 2. SPRC exhibited favorable solubility in aqueous media. The log P and log D values were low (?1.93?±?0.08). The pKa in the acidic and basic regions was 2.08?±?0.02 and 8.72?±?0.03, respectively. The isoelectric point was 5.40?±?0.02. SPRC was stable in the rat GI fluids, and showed no obvious adsorption and metabolism in the rat GI tract. 3. SPRC displayed poor gastric absorption and favorable intestinal absorption in the rat in situ GI perfusion model. Absorption rate constants (ka), hourly absorption percentage (P) and apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of SPRC in the small intestine were ?0.77?±?0.06?h(-1), 59.25?±?4.02% and (7.99?±?0.88)?×?10(-5?)cm/s, respectively. Absorption of SPRC exhibited a certain dependence on physiological pH and absorption region. Absorption of SPRC was not inhibited by l-methionine and 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid. 4. SPRC showed favorable oral absorption. It can be categorized as a BCS class I drug. The membrane pore transport appeared to be one of the predominant absorption modes for SPRC.
Acid-switching of the triplet excited state in rhodamine-C60 dyads was achieved. The rhodamine moiety acts as an acid-activated visible light-harvesting antenna and C60 as the singlet energy acceptor and the spin converter, and production of the triplet state was enhanced in the presence of acid.
ß-Ga2 O3 nanorod was first directly prepared by the microwave irradiation hydrothermal way without any subsequent heat treatments, and its characterizations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy techniques, and also its photocatalytic degradation for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was investigated. XRD patterns revealed that ß-Ga2 O3 crystallization increased with the enhancement of microwave power and the adding of active carbon (AC). PFOA, as an environmental and persistent pollutant, is hard decomposed by hydroxyl radicals (HO·); however, it is facilely destroyed by ß-Ga2 O3 photocatalytic reaction in an anaerobic atmosphere. The important factors such as pH, ß-Ga2 O3 dosage and bubbling atmosphere were researched, and the degradation and defluorination was 98.8% and 56.2%, respectively. Reductive atmosphere reveals that photoinduced electron may be the major reactant for PFOA. Furthermore, the degradation kinetics for PFOA was simulated and constant and half-life was calculated, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of paclitaxel and nedaplatin in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Patients (n=310) with recurrent or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, who had a maximum of one previous chemotherapy regimen, were enrolled in this study. All patients had bidimensionally measurable disease. Patients received 175?mg/m of paclitaxel over a 3?h infusion, followed by nedaplatin 80?mg/m in a 1?h infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks for up to 6 treatment cycles. The overall response rate was 47.7%, with complete and partial response rates of 6.1 and 41.7%, respectively. The median time to progression for all patients was 6.8 months (95% confidence interval, 6.2-7.4 months) and the 3-year disease-free survival probability was 3 (15.8%). The major toxicity observed was cumulative neutropenia, with 29% patients developing grade 4 toxicity. There was no treatment-related death. The most common nonhematologic toxicity encountered with this regimen was pain and cumulative peripheral neuropathy, with 26% patients experiencing grade 2 or 3 toxicity. The combination of paclitaxel and nedaplatin shows significant antitumor activity and a favorable toxicity profile in patients with metastatic carcinoma of esophageal cancer.
Bone is the most common site of prostate cancer (PCa) progression to a therapy-resistant, lethal phenotype. We found that blockade of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) with the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor dovitinib has clinical activity in a subset of men with castration-resistant PCa and bone metastases. Our integrated analyses suggest that FGF signaling mediates a positive feedback loop between PCa cells and bone cells and that blockade of FGFR1 in osteoblasts partially mediates the antitumor activity of dovitinib by improving bone quality and by blocking PCa cell-bone cell interaction. These findings account for clinical observations such as reductions in lesion size and intensity on bone scans, lymph node size, and tumor-specific symptoms without proportional declines in serum prostate-specific antigen concentration. Our findings suggest that targeting FGFR has therapeutic activity in advanced PCa and provide direction for the development of therapies with FGFR inhibitors.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour in children and adolescents and is characterised by high malignant and metastatic potentials. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this invasiveness remains unclear. In this study, we determined that PD98059 and SP600125, the two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family inhibitors, decreased the osteosarcoma cell U2OS-AEG-1 migration and invasion that was enhanced by astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) in an in vitro wound-healing and Matrigel invasion assay independently of cell viability. These findings indicate that AEG-1 promoted osteosarcoma cell invasion is relevant to the MAPK pathways. The up-regulation of AEG-1 increased the levels of phosphor-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphor-c-Jun; however, there were no marked changes in the levels of phosphor-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 or phosphor-c-Fos due to the activation of AEG-1 in U2OS. SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) decreased phosphor-c-Jun and MMP-2 in U2OS-AEG-1, while PD98059 (a ERK1/2 inhibitor) had no influence on the levels of phosphor-c-Jun or MMP-2 in U2OS-AEG-1. Further study revealed that the down-regulation of phosphor-c-Jun not only obviously decreased the MMP-2 protein level and the MMP-2 transcriptional activity that were up-regulated by AEG-1 in Western-blot and luciferase reporter assays, but also inhibited the migration and invasion abilities of the U2OS-AEG-1 cells, which suggests that AEG-1 mediated U2OS invasion at least partially via the JNK/c-Jun/MMP-2 pathway. Consistent with these observations, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining revealed that AEG-1 expression was associated with the protein levels of phosphor-c-Jun and MMP-2 in needle biopsy paraffin-embedded archival human osteosarcoma tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that AEG-1 plays a crucial role in the aggressiveness of osteosarcoma via the JNK/c-Jun/MMP-2 pathway.
The study aims to investigate the caregivers' context-specific perceived usefulness of available assistive technology (AT) devices and the professionals' perspectives on the usefulness indicators of AT devices for home-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia.
The Chinese population has been aging rapidly and the country's economy has experienced exponential growth during the past three decades. The goal of this study was to estimate the changes in the prevalence of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) among elderly Chinese individuals and to analyze differences between urban and rural areas.
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia can be activated and polarized to exert pro- or anti-inflammatory roles in response to specific stimulus. Rotenone is an environmental toxin that has been shown to activate microglia and neuroinflammation. However, the effects and mechanisms of rotenone on microglia polarization are poorly studied. In the present study, we demonstrated that rotenone enhanced the levels of M1 phenotypic genes including TNF-?, iNOS and COX-2/PGE2 but reduced that of M2 markers such as Ym1/2 and IL-10 in mouse primary and immortalized microglia. Moreover, the transcription and protein expression of cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), as well as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production were decreased in rotenone-treated primary microglia. Elevating endogenous H2S via CBS over-expression in immortalized microglia not only reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory M1 genes, but also enhanced the anti-inflammatory M2 marker IL-10 production in response to rotenone stimulation as compared to vector-transfected cells. Similarly, pretreatment with H2S donor NaHS (50, 100 and 500?mol/L) attenuated the increases of M1 gene expression triggered by rotenone treatment, and enhanced the M2 gene Ym1/2 expression in mouse primary microglia. In addition, we observed reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine reversed the down-regulation of CBS and H2S generation caused by rotenone in microglia. NaHS pretreatment also decreased the ROS formation in rotenone-stimulated microglia. Taken together, these results reveal that probably via triggering ROS formation, rotenone suppressed the CBS-H2S pathway and thus promoted microglia polarization toward M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype.
DTD is a Chinese herb prescription used for centuries to treat atherosclerosis or dizziness. Previous studies show that DTD could inhibit ICAM-1 expression induced by TNF-?. However, its mechanism has never been clearly described.
This paper proposes a novel concept of refractive index sensing taking advantage of a high-refractive-index-contrast optical Tamm plasmon (OTP) structure, i.e., an air/dielectric alternate-layered distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) coated with metal. In the reflection spectrum of the structure, a dip related to the formation of OTP appears. The wavelength and reflectivity of this dip are sensitive to variation of ambient refractive index, which provides a potential way to realize refractive index sensing with a large measuring range and high sensitivity.
To investigate the expression level of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) in gastric mucosa tissue in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and to analyze the relationship between TRAF1 expression and H. pylori virulence.
Neither the roles of Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC)-containing proteins in embryonic cell fate specification are well defined, nor the underlying mechanisms of their activity are well understood. Here, we compared the embryonic function of zinc finger DHHC-type containing (Zdhhc13) in zebrafish embryos and in an in vitro cell model. Zdhhc13, a critical regulator of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, specifically bound to Smad6 to induce its perinuclear accumulation and degradation through a mechanism independent of its palmitoyltransferase activity. We showed that Zdhhc13 played a crucial role during zebrafish embryogenesis in the control of germ layer specification, particularly in ectoderm and mesoderm differentiation homeostasis. Depletion of Zdhhc13 led to the neuralization of ectoderm and dorsalization of mesoderm in zebrafish embryos. Moreover, Zdhhc13 antagonized Smad6 during BMP-dependent signaling and early lineage decisions in our in vitro cell model. Our results extended the cellular role of Zdhhc13, suggesting that it acts as a regulator in BMP signaling, and established that the embryonic function of Zdhhc13 is in lineage specification.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor survival rates and frequently carries oncogenic KRAS mutation. However, KRAS has thus far not been a viable therapeutic target. We found that the abundance of YAP mRNA, which encodes Yes-associated protein (YAP), a protein regulated by the Hippo pathway during tissue development and homeostasis, was increased in human PDAC tissue compared with that in normal pancreatic epithelia. In genetically engineered Kras(G12D) and Kras(G12D):Trp53(R172H) mouse models, pancreas-specific deletion of Yap halted the progression of early neoplastic lesions to PDAC without affecting normal pancreatic development and endocrine function. Although Yap was dispensable for acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initial step in the progression to PDAC, Yap was critically required for the proliferation of mutant Kras or Kras:Trp53 neoplastic pancreatic ductal cells in culture and for their growth and progression to invasive PDAC in mice. Yap functioned as a critical transcriptional switch downstream of the oncogenic KRAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, promoting the expression of genes encoding secretory factors that cumulatively sustained neoplastic proliferation, a tumorigenic stromal response in the tumor microenvironment, and PDAC progression in Kras and Kras:Trp53 mutant pancreas tissue. Together, our findings identified Yap as a critical oncogenic KRAS effector and a promising therapeutic target for PDAC and possibly other types of KRAS-mutant cancers.
Density functional theory (DFT) was used to investigate palladium(0)-catalyzed cycloaddition of alkynyl aryl ethers and alkynes to generate 2-methylidene-2H-chromenes. Calculations indicated that the cycloaddition had five possible reaction pathways: I, II, III, IV, and V. In the palladium(0)-alkynyl aryl ether complex IM1, the oxidative addition of the Caryl-H bond occurred prior to the dissociation of a ligand PMe3. The dissociation of a ligand PMe3 from the five-coordinated complex IM2 was much easier to achieve than the hydrogen transfer reaction and the substitution reaction of alkynes. In the palladium(0)-hydride complex IM4, the hydrogen migration of H1 from palladium to carbon C1 was much easier to achieve than migration to carbon C2. In the four-coordinated aryl-palladium-alkyne complexes IM6a and IM6b, the alkyne insertion reaction into the Pd-Caryl bond occurred prior to that into the Pd-Calkenyl bond. The reaction channel IM1???TS1???IM2???IM4???TS3a???IM5a???IM6a???TS4a1???IM7a1???TS5a1???IM8a was the most favorable among the catalytic reaction pathways of the cycloaddition of alkynyl aryl ethers and 2-butynes catalyzed by the palladium(0)/PMe3 complex. Moreover, hydrogen migration was the rate-determining step for this channel. The dominant product was 2-methylidene-2H-chromenes P1, which is in agreement with experimental studies.
A growing number of studies have revealed that neurocognitive impairment, induced by adult-onset hypothyroidism, may not be fully restored by traditional hormone substitution therapies, including thyroxine (T4). The present study has investigated the effect of T4 and donepezil (DON; an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor) treatment on the hypothyroidism-induced alterations of acetylcholine (ACh) content and AChE activity. Furthermore, we examined synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1) and SNAP-25 expression in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adding 0.05% propylthiouracil to their drinking water for five weeks induced hypothyroidism in the rat models. From the fourth week, the rats were treated with T4, DON or a combination of both. Concentration of ACh and the activity of AChE was determined colorimetrically. The results demonstrated that hypothyroidism induced a signi?cant decrease of Ach content and AChE activity (by 17 and 34%, respectively), which were restored to control values by T4 administration. DON treatment also restored Ach to the normal level. Protein levels of syt-1 and SNAP-25 were determined by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that syt-1 was expressed at significantly lower levels in hypothyroid rats, while SNAP-25 levels were notably higher compared with the controls. Two-week treatment with T4 alone failed to normalize the expression levels of these two proteins, while co-administration of T4 and DON was able to induce this effect. These data suggested that the thyroid hormone, T4, may have a direct effect on the metabolism of hippocampal ACh in adult rats, and that the DON treatment may facilitate the recovery of synaptic protein impairments induced by hypothyroidism.
The aim of the present study was to prepare luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) nanoliposomal microbubbles specifically targeting ovarian cancer cells. The lyophilization/sonication method was used to prepare non-targeting nanoliposomal microbubbles (N-N-Mbs). Using the biotin-avidin bridge method, conjugated LHRH antibodies to N-N-Mbs generated LHRH nanoliposomal microbubbles (LHRH-N-Mbs) specifically targeting ovarian cancer cells. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the microbubbles was detected using an optical microscope and zeta detector. The binding affinity between the secondary antibody and LHRH-N-Mbs or N-N-Mbs was determined by flow cytometry. The binding of LHRH-N-Mb to human ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3) was detected by light microscopy. The rounded and uniformly distributed N-N-Mbs and LHRH-N-Mbs were successfully generated. The particle size ranged from 295-468 nm with a mean of 360 nm for N-N-Mbs or 369-618 nm with a mean of 508 nm for LHRH-N-Mbs. There was a significant difference in size between the two groups (P<0.05), although the surface potential of the two microbubbles remained the same (-14.6 mV). Following being kept at room temperature for 14 days, no significant difference in the physicochemical properties of the LHRH-N-Mbs was detected compared with that of freshly prepared microbubbles. The secondary antibody binding rate of LHRH-N-Mbs and N-N-Mbs was 75.6 and 0.83%, respectively. Furthermore, the formation of a rosette-like structure surrounding OVCAR-3 cells was observed after the cells were incubated with LHRH-N-Mbs, whereas pre-incubation with LHRH antibody blocked this rosette formation. In conclusion, LHRH-N-Mbs specifically targeting ovarian cancer cells were successfully prepared through biotin-avidin mediation and the lyophilization/sonication method. The key feature of LHRH-N-Mbs is their small size, stability and high efficiency in targeting human OVCAR-3 cells in vitro.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gaseous transmitter, is implicated in various pathophysiologic processes. In the cardiovascular system, H2S exerts effects of cardioprotection, vascular tone regulation, and atherogenesis inhibition. Recent studies demonstrated that atorvastatin, the inhibitor of 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl coenzyme A reductase, affected H2S formation in kidney and other organs. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the effects of three different statins (fluvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin) on H2S formation in raw264.7 macrophages. There was a remarkable rise in H2S level in fluvastatin- and atorvastatin-stimulated macrophages, while pravastatin failed to show any significant effect on it. Moreover, fluvastatin and atorvastatin enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) in dose- and time-dependent manners. Fluvastatin also markedly enhanced the CSE activity. However, fluvastatin did not alter the mRNA or protein expression of another H2S-producing enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Blockade of CSE with its inhibitor dl-propargylglycine (PAG) or siRNA markedly reduced the H2S level in fluvastatin-stimulated macrophages. In addition, fluvastatin elevated Akt phosphorylation, which occurred as early as 15 min after treatment, peaked at 1h, and lasted at least 3h. Both PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (10 ?M) and Akt inhibitor perifosine (10?M) were able to reverse the increases of CSE mRNA and H2S production in fluvastatin-stimulated macrophages. Last, we showed that fluvastatin reduced the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory molecules such as IL-1? and MCP-1 in LPS-treated macrophages, which were completely reversed by CSE inhibitor PAG. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that statins may up-regulate CSE expression/activity and subsequently elevate H2S generation by activating Akt signaling pathway and also imply that CSE-H2S pathway plays a critical role in the anti-inflammation elicited by statins.
Rhodium(III)-catalyzed arylation of arenes bearing a chelating group has been realized via a redox-economy process using 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienones as the arylating reagents, leading to the synthesis of 3-arylated phenols. This redox-neutral process proceeds via a C-H activation pathway with rearomatization being the driving force.
The inclusion complexation behavior of scutellarein (SCUE) with 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) has been investigated in both solution and in the solid state. SCUE/HP-?-CD solid system was prepared by suspension method. The formation of SCUE/HP-?-CD complex in aqueous solution was demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopy, and the Job plot showed a maximum at a molar fraction of 0.5, indicating 1:1 inclusion complexation between SCUE and HP-?-CD. However, SCUE/HP-?-CD inclusion complex was characterized by means of XRD, DSC, (1)H, and two-dimensional NMR. Through the complexation between HP-?-CD and SCUE, the water solubility and antitumor activity of SCUE were obviously increased. This satisfactory water solubility and high antitumor activity of the SCUE/HP-?-CD complex will be potentially useful for its application on human colon cancer chemotherapies.
The genotoxicity of a complex mixture [neutral fraction (NF)] from a wood preserving waste and reconstituted mixture (RM) mimicking the NF with seven major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was investigated by determining DNA adducts and tumor incidence in male B6C3F1 mice exposed to three different doses of the chemical mixtures. The peak values of DNA adducts were observed after 24 h, and the highest levels of PAH-DNA adducts were exhibited in mice administered NF + BaP, and the highest tumor incidence and mortality were also observed in this group. DNA adduct levels after 1, 7, or 21 days were significantly correlated with animal mortality and incidence of total tumors including liver, lung, and forestomach. However, only hepatic DNA adducts after 7 days significantly correlated with liver tumor incidence. Most proteins involved in DNA repair including ATM, pATR, Chk1, pChk1, DNA PKcs, XRCC1, FANCD2, Ku80, Mre11, and Brca2 were significantly lower in liver tumor tissue compared to non-tumor tissue. Expressions of proteins involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation were also significantly different in tumor versus non-tumor tissues, and it is possible that PAH-induced changes in these gene products are important for tumor development and growth.
Background and Importance?Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is an unusual and aggressive neoplasm characterized by the combination of teratoma and carcinosarcoma features that is often misdiagnosed based on a biopsy sample. Approximately 60 cases have been reported in the English literature, but none have been associated with serum tumor markers. We report a case of SNTCS with elevation of serum ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level. Clinical Presentation?The patient was a 22-year-old pregnant woman at diagnosis, and her ?-hCG level was appropriately elevated. Her initial treatment was a surgical resection followed by radiation therapy (RT). Two years later, the patient had a pregnancy work-up after a sexual assault. Her serum ?-hCG was elevated, but a nongravid uterus was seen on ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed an intracranial tumor recurrence in the right frontal lobe. During salvage RT, ?-hCG decreased rapidly to normal levels, with a complete tumor response on MRI. Retrospective examination of the initial surgical specimen showed expression of ?-hCG associated with the anaplastic mesenchymal component. Conclusion?This is the first reported case of a ?-hCG secreting SNTCS. The source of ?-hCG production was traced to a neoplastic smooth muscle component of the tumor.
The characterization, binding ability and inclusion complexation behavior of the inclusion complexes of norathyriol with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and its derivatives such as hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD), sulfobutyl ether ?-cyclodextrin (SBE?CD) and mono (6-ethylene-diamino-6-deoxy)-?-cyclodextrin (EN?CD) were investigated in both solution and solid state by means of femtosecond spectroscopy, (1)H and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, powder X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the aqueous solubility of the complexes was much higher than that of norathyriol. The cytotoxicity of complexes on human colon cancer cell lines HT-29, SW480, Lovo and HCT116 indicated that the antitumor activities of the complexes were better than that of norathyriol. This high antitumor activity, along with the satisfactory aqueous solubility of the complexes, will be potentially useful for their application on cancer chemotherapies.
Depression is a major psychiatric disorder affecting nearly 21% of the world population and imposes a substantial health burden on society. Current available antidepressants are not adequate to meet the clinical needs. Here we report that auraptenol, an active component of the traditional Chinese medicine, angelicae dahuricae radix, had antidepressant-like effects in mice models of depression. In mouse forced swimming test and tail suspension test, two validated models of depression, auraptenol dose-dependently decreased the immobility duration within the dose range of 0.05-0.4?mg/kg. In addition, the antidepressant-like effects of auraptenol was significantly averted by a selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1?mg/kg). These doses that affected the immobile response did not affect locomotor activity. In summary, this study for the first time identified an active component from the herbal medicine angelicae dahuricae radix that possesses robust antidepressant-like efficacy in mice. These data support further exploration for the possibility of developing auraptenol as a novel antidepressant agent in the treatment of major depression disorders.
In order to evaluate the functional significance of palmitoylation during multi-potent neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, retinoic acid-induced P19 cells were used in this study as a model system. Cell behaviour was monitored in the presence of the protein palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2BP). Here, we observed a significant reduction in neuronal differentiation in the 2BP-treated cell model. We further explored the underlying mechanisms and found that 2BP resulted in the decreased acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and interfered with cell cycle withdrawal and neural stem/progenitor cells' renewal. Our results established a direct link between palmitoylation and the regulation of neural cell fate specification and revealed the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the effects of palmitoylation during neural development.
Adult-onset hypothyroidism induces various impairments in hippocampus-dependent cognitive function, in which numerous synaptic proteins and neurotransmitters are involved. Donepezil (DON), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, has been shown to be efficient in improving cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of adult-onset hypothyroidism on the expression levels of the synaptic proteins syntaxin-1 and munc-18, as well as the content of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus. In addition, the study explored the effects of thyroxin (T4) and DON treatment on the altered parameters. The study involved 55 Sprague-Dawley rats that were randomly divided into five groups: Control, hypothyroid (0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil; added to the drinking water), hypothyroid treated with T4 (6 ?g/100 g body weight once daily; intraperitoneal injection), hypothyroid treated with DON (0.005%; added to the drinking water) and hypothyroid treated with a combination of the two drugs (6 ?g/100 g T4 and 0.005% DON). The concentration of ACh was determined in the homogenized hippocampus of each animal by alkaline hydroxylamine colorimetry. The protein levels of syntaxin-1 and munc-18 were determined by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the content of ACh in the hippocampi of the hypothyroid rats was significantly decreased compared with that in the controls and that T4 monotherapy and DON administration restored the ACh content to normal values. In the hippocampi of the hypothyroid group, munc-18 was expressed at significantly lower levels, while the expression levels of syntaxin-1 were increased compared with the levels in the control group. Treatment with T4 alone restored the expression of syntaxin-1 but failed to normalize munc-18 expression levels. The co-administration of T4 and DON returned the munc-18 levels to normal values. These observations indicate that adult-onset hypothyroidism induces alterations in the levels of munc-18, syntaxin-1 and ACh in the hippocampus. Syntaxin-1 and ACh levels were restored by T4 monotherapy while munc-18 levels were not. In addition, the co-administration of T4 and DON resulted in more effective restoration than either alone. The thyroid hormone has a direct effect on metabolism of hippocampal ACh in adult rats and DON is helpful for treatment of synaptic protein impairment induced by hypothyroidism.
Morphological observation and measurements of endocasts have played a vital role in research on the evolution of the human brain. However, endocasts have never been used to investigate how the human brain has evolved since the Neolithic period. We investigated the evolution of the human brain during the Holocene by comparing virtual endocasts from Beiqian site (a Neolithic Chinese site) and a sample of Chinese modern-day humans. Standardized measurements and indices were taken to provide quantification of the overall endocast shape, including the length, breadth, height, frontal breadth, and the ratio of frontal breadth to breadth, as well as the cranial capacity. We found that the height of the endocasts and cranial capacity have decreased between our two samples, whereas the frontal breadth and sexual dimorphism have increased. We argue that these changes can be caused by random genetic mutation and epigenetic change in response to changes in the environment.
Our previous microarray data showed that microRNA-224 (miR-224) was downregulated in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues compared with adjacent benign tissues. However, the underlying mechanisms by which miR-224 is involved in PCa remain unclear. In this study, we identified TRIB1 as a target gene of miR-224. Forced expression of miR-224 suppressed PCa cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and promoted cell apoptosis by downregulating TRIB1. Moreover, the expression level of miR-224 in PCa tissues was negatively correlated with that of TRIB1. miR-224 downregulation was frequently found in PCa tissues with metastasis, higher PSA level and clinical stage, whereas TRIB1 upregulation was significantly associated with metastasis. Both miR-224 downregulation and TRIB1 upregulation were significantly associated with poor biochemical recurrence-free survival of patients with PCa. In conclusion, these findings reveal that the aberrant expression of miR-224 and TRIB1 may promote PCa progression and have potentials to serve as novel biomarkers for PCa prognosis.
Autophagy has recently been found to play important roles in tumorigenesis and leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat motif-containing protein (LRPPRC) has been identified as an inhibitor that suppresses autophagy and mitophagy and maintains mitochondrial activity. The authors hypothesized that LRPPRC levels can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer.
Neuroendocrine tumor cells (NETCs) are commonly observed in prostate cancer. Their presence is associated with castration resistance, metastasis and poor prognosis. Cellular and molecular mechanisms for NETC initiation and growth are unknown. TRAMP mice develop heterogeneous adenocarcinomas induced by expression of the SV40-T/t oncogene in prostate epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate prostate tumors in TRAMP mice with a mixed genetic background are characterized mostly by atypical hyperplasia (AH) containing steroid receptor coactiator-3-positive, androgen receptor-positive and synaptophysin-negative (SRC-3+/AR+/Syp-) cells. Few SRC-3+/AR-/Syp+ NETCs are present in their prostates. We generated TRAMP mice in which SRC-3 was specifically ablated in AR+/Syp- prostatic epithelial cells (termed PE3KOT mice). In these animals, we observed a substantial reduction in SRC-3-/AR+/Syp- AH tumor growth. There was a corresponding increase in SRC-3-/AR+/Syp- phyllodes lesions, suggesting SRC-3 knockout can convert aggressive AH tumors with mostly epithelial tumor cells into less aggressive phyllodes lesions with mostly stromal tissue. Surprisingly, PE3KOT mice developed many more SRC-3+/AR-/Syp+ NETCs versus control TRAMP mice, indicating SRC-3 expression was retained in NETCs. In contrast, TRAMP mice with global SRC-3 knockout did not develop any NETC, indicating SRC-3 is required for developing NETC. Analysis of cell-differentiating markers revealed that these NETCs might not be derived from the mature AR-/Syp+ neuroendocrine cells or the AR+/Syp- luminal epithelial tumor cells. Instead, these NETCs might originate from the SV40-T/t-transformed intermediate/progenitor epithelial cells. In summary, SRC-3 is required for both AR+/Syp- AH tumor growth and AR-/Syp+ NETC development, suggesting SRC-3 is a target for inhibiting aggressive prostate cancer containing NETCs.
The prostate epithelium is composed of basal (BC), luminal (LEC), and neuroendocrine (NEC) cells. It is unclear how many subtypes of BCs in the prostate and which subtype of BCs contains the main stem cell niche in the adult prostate. Here we report seven BC subpopulations according to their p63, cytokeratin 14 (K14) and K5 expression patterns, including p63-positive/K14-negative/K5-negative (p63+/K14-/K5-), p63-/K14+/K5-, p63-/K14-/K5+, p63+/K14+/K5-, p63+/K14-/K5+, p63-/K14+/K5+, and p63+/K14+/K5+ BCs. We generated a p63-CreERT2 knock-in mouse line that expresses tamoxifen-inducible Cre activity in the p63-expressing cells, including the prostate BCs. We then crossbred this line with ROSA26R mice, and generated p63-CreERT2×ROSA26R bi-genic mice harboring the Cre-activated ?-galactosidase reporter gene. We treated these bi-genic mice with tamoxifen to mark the p63+ BCs at different ages or under different hormonal conditions, and then traced the lineage differentiation of these genetically labeled BCs. We discovered that these p63+ BCs contain self-renewable stem cells in culture and efficiently differentiated into LECs, NECs and BCs in the postnatal, adult and re-generating mouse prostates. Therefore, BC population contains heterogeneous BCs that express different combinations of the p63, K14 and K5 differentiation markers. Because K14+ and K5+ BCs were previously shown to be extremely inefficient to produce LECs in adulthood, we propose that the p63+/K5-/K14- subpopulation of BCs contains most stem-like cells, especially in adult animals.
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy.
50% of women had obvious abnormal emotions before hysterectomy and hysterectomy can cause strong mental stress reaction. This study was to investigate the impact of psychological health education based integrated interventions on the preoperative negative emotions and stress of patients younger than 45 years receiving total hysterectomy. Forty patients undergoing total hysterectomy were randomly divided into psychological intervention (PI) group and control group (n=20 per group). Patients in PI received peri-operative psychological intervention (supportive psychotherapy, health education, individual depth psychotherapy, family and society supportive care, education on anesthesia and surgery etc.); Interventions were not used in control group. Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate patients in two groups on admission (T1) and before surgery (T2; after interventions in PI group). Serum levels of cortisol and IL-6 were detected at T1, T2 and the second day after surgery (T3). Results showed that 1) Patients had obvious anxiety and depression symptoms before and after total hysterectomy. For patients in PI group, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score decreased from 14.4±5.9 to 9.1±4.2 and the Hamilton Depressing Scale (HAMD) score from 17.8±3.5 to 9.4±6.8 after interventions; 2) In PI group, the serum cortisol was 13.4±3.9 ?g/dl at T2 and 14.2±4.8 ?g/dl at T3 which were significantly lower than that at T1 (16.6±4.0 ?g/dl) and that in the control group at T2 (13.4±3.9/15.5±4.3 ?g/dl, t=2.10, P<0.05). Thus, preoperative integrated intervention based on psychological health education can improve peri-operative negative emotions and psychological stress in young patients undergoing hysterectomy.
A method for realizing low-threshold all-optical bistable logic control is proposed based on Tamm plasmons (TPs), which are formed in an asymmetric dielectric Bragg reflector (DBR)-metal-DBR (ADMD) structure with a layer of Kerr medium embedded. The ADMD structure supports two TPs due to coupling of trapped modes at each metal-DBR interface, generating two dips in the structures reflection spectrum. Thus, control (i.e., pump) and controlled (i.e., probe) light with wavelengths close to the two dips, respectively, can be imported. It is verified theoretically that, thanks to the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity related to excitation of high-quality TP, bistable switching at very low injection intensity can be initiated by strength or direction variation of the pump. Meanwhile, the probe changes correspondingly with the pump. Thus, all-optical bistable logic operation of the probe can be controlled by the pump.
Amlodipine is a commonly prescribed calcium channel blocker for the treatment of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The drug is slowly cleared in humans primarily via dehydrogenation of its dihydropyridine moiety to a pyridine derivative (M9). Results from clinical drug-drug interaction studies suggest that CYP3A4/5 mediate metabolism of amlodipine. However, attempts to identify a role of CYP3A5 in amlodipine metabolism in humans based on its pharmacokinetic differences between CYP3A5 expressers and nonexpressers failed. Objectives of this study were to determine the metabolite profile of amlodipine (a racemic mixture and S-isomer) in human liver microsomes (HLM), and to identify the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in the M9 formation. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed that amlodipine was mainly converted to M9 in HLM incubation. M9 underwent further O-demethylation, O-dealkylation, and oxidative deamination to various pyridine derivatives. This observation is consistent with amlodipine metabolism in humans. Incubations of amlodipine with HLM in the presence of selective P450 inhibitors showed that both ketoconazole (an inhibitor of CYP3A4/5) and CYP3cide (an inhibitor of CYP3A4) completely blocked the M9 formation, whereas chemical inhibitors of other P450 enzymes had little effect. Furthermore, metabolism of amlodipine in expressed human P450 enzymes showed that only CYP3A4 had significant activity in amlodipine dehydrogenation. Metabolite profiles and P450 reaction phenotyping data of a racemic mixture and S-isomer of amlodipine were very similar. The results from this study suggest that CYP3A4, rather than CYP3A5, plays a key role in metabolic clearance of amlodipine in humans.
FGF signaling requires a plethora of adaptor proteins to elicit downstream responses, but the functional significances of these docking proteins remain controversial. In this study, we used lens development as a model to investigate Frs2? and its structurally related scaffolding protein Gab1 and Gab2 in FGF signaling. We show that genetic ablation of Frs2? alone has modest effect, but additional deletion of tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 causes a complete arrest of lens vesicle development. Biochemical evidence suggests that this Frs2?-Shp2 synergy reflects their epistatic relationship in FGF signaling cascade, as opposed to compensatory or parallel functions of these two proteins. Genetic interaction experiments further demonstrate that direct binding of Shp2 to Frs2? is necessary for activating ERK signaling, while constitutive activation of either Shp2 or Kras signaling can compensate for the absence of Frs2? in lens development. In contrast, knockouts of Gab1 and Gab2 failed to disrupt FGF signaling in vitro and lens development in vivo. These results establish Frs2?-Shp2 complex as the key mediator of FGF signaling in lens development.
Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation and annulation of 1-benzoylpyrrolidine with propargyl alcohols has been achieved for an efficient synthesis of (4-benzylidene)isochroman-1-one. Highly enantioenriched products were obtained starting from optically pure propargyl alcohols.
DNA methylation patterns are maintained in adult somatic cells. Recent findings, however, suggest that all methylation patterns are not preserved. We demonstrate that stimulatory signals can change the DNA methylation status at a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) binding site and a transcription start site and activate expression of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT). A CEBP binding site in the human AGT promoter was hypomethylated in tissues with high expression of AGT, but not in those with low expression. The transcriptional activity of AGT promoter sequences cloned into a reporter plasmid depended on DNA methylation. In cultured human cells, interleukin 6 stimulation caused DNA demethylation around a CEBP binding site and a transcription start site; demethylation was accompanied by increased CEBP-? recruitment and chromatin accessibility of the AGT promoter. DNA methylation activity decreased in the nucleus. Excess circulating aldosterone upregulated AGT expression and was accompanied by DNA hypomethylation around a CEBP binding site and a transcription start site in human visceral adipose tissue. High salt intake led to upregulation of Agt expression, DNA hypomethylation around 2 CEBP binding sites and a transcription start site, and decreased DNA methylation activity in rat visceral adipose tissue. Taken together, CEBP binding initiates chromatin relaxation and transcription, which are followed by DNA demethylation around a CEBP binding site and a transcription start site in the AGT promoter. Decreased DNA methylation activity in the nucleus may play a role in DNA demethylation. DNA demethylation switches the phenotype of AGT expression from an inactive to an active state.
The response to glucocorticoids (GCs) for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by wide interindividual variability, with a significant number of patients who have no response. We analyzed whether genetic polymorphisms within glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene are related to variability in the efficacy of GCs in Chinese population with SLE. A cohort of 220 patients with SLE was studied. These patients were treated with GCs (prednisone) for 12 weeks. The efficacy of GCs was measured with the scores on SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). Patients were classified into two groups (sensitive and insensitive) according to their response to GCs. Polymorphisms of GR gene were genotyped by using multiplex SNaPshot method. A total of 212 patients (96.4%) were included in the final data analyses. Of these patients, 110 patients were considered sensitive to GCs, and 102 patients were considered insensitive to GCs. Eighteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GR gene were selected. Significant associations were seen for rs4912905 (dominant model: crude OR?=?0.410, 95%CI?=?0.233-0.722, p?=?0.002; adjusted OR?=?0.419, 95%CI?=?0.233-0.754, p?=?0.004), rs17100234 (dominant model: crude OR?=?0.521, 95%CI?=?0.282-0.963, p?=?0.038; adjusted OR?=?0.520, 95%CI?=?0.279-0.970, p?=?0.040) and rs7701443 (recessive model: crude OR?=?2.736, 95%CI?=?1.183-6.331, p?=?0.019; adjusted OR?=?2.639, 95%CI?=?1.116-6.239, p?=?0.027) in GR gene, but not for other polymorphisms (p?>?0.05). The results of the present study suggest that GR genetic polymorphisms may play a major role in the efficacy of GCs in Chinese population with SLE.
The differentiation of dental epithelia into enamel-producing ameloblasts or the root epithelial lineage compartmentalizes teeth into crowns and roots. Bmp signaling has been linked to enamel formation, but its role in root epithelial lineage differentiation is unclear. Here we show that cessation of epithelial Bmp signaling by Bmpr1a depletion during the differentiation stage switched differentiation of crown epithelia into the root lineage and led to formation of ectopic cementum-like structures. This phenotype is related to the upregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Although epithelial ?-catenin depletion during the differentiation stage also led to variable enamel defect and precocious/ectopic formation of fragmented root epithelia in some teeth, it did not cause ectopic cementogenesis and inhibited EMT in cultured dental epithelia. Concomitant epithelial ?-catenin depletion rescued EMT and ectopic cementogenesis caused by Bmpr1a depletion. These data suggested that Bmp and Wnt/?-catenin pathways interact antagonistically in dental epithelia to regulate the root lineage differentiation and EMT. These findings will aid in the design of new strategies to promote functional differentiation in the regeneration and tissue engineering of teeth and will provide new insights into the dynamic interactions between the Bmp and Wnt/?-catenin pathways during cell fate decisions.
Advanced prostate cancer carries a poor prognosis and novel therapies are needed. Research has focused on identifying mechanisms that promote angiogenesis and cellular proliferation during prostate cancer progression from the primary tumor to bone-the principal site of prostate cancer metastases. One candidate pathway is the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) axis. Aberrant expression of FGF ligands and FGF receptors leads to constitutive activation of multiple downstream pathways involved in prostate cancer progression including mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and phospholipase C?. The involvement of FGF pathways in multiple mechanisms relevant to prostate tumorigenesis provides a rationale for the therapeutic blockade of this pathway, and two small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors-dovitinib and nintedanib-are currently in phase II clinical development for advanced prostate cancer. Preliminary results from these trials suggest that FGF pathway inhibition represents a promising new strategy to treat castrate-resistant disease.
Growing evidence suggests that dynein dysfunction may be implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. It plays a central role in aggresome formation, the delivery of autophagosome to lysosome for fusion and degradation, which is a pro-survival mechanism essential for the bulk degradation of misfolded proteins and damaged organells. Previous studies reported that dynein dysfuntion was associated with aberrant aggregation of ?-synuclein, which is a major component of inclusion bodies in Parkinsons disease (PD). However, it remains unclear what roles dynein plays in ?-synuclein degradation. Our study demonstrated a decrease of dynein expression in neurotoxin-induced PD models in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by an increase of ?-synuclein protein level. Dynein down-regulation induced by siRNA resulted in a prolonged half-life of ?-synuclein and its over-accumulation in A53T overexpressing PC12 cells. Dynein knockdown also prompted the increase of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II) and sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) expression, and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, dynein suppression impaired the autophagosome fusion with lysosome. In summary, our findings indicate that dynein is critical for the clearance of aberrant ?-synuclein via autophagosome-lysosome pathway.
A constant supply of epithelial cells from dental epithelial stem cell (DESC) niches in the cervical loop (CL) enables mouse incisors to grow continuously throughout life. Elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this unlimited growth potential is of broad interest for tooth regenerative therapies. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for the development of mouse incisors and for maintenance of the CL during prenatal development. However, how FGF signaling in DESCs controls the self-renewal and differentiation of the cells is not well understood. Herein, we report that FGF signaling is essential for self-renewal and the prevention of cell differentiation of DESCs in the CL as well as in DESC spheres. Inhibiting the FGF signaling pathway decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of the cells in DESC spheres. Suppressing FGFR or its downstream signal transduction pathways diminished Lgr5-expressing cells in the CL and promoted cell differentiation both in DESC spheres and the CL. Furthermore, disruption of the FGF pathway abrogated Wnt signaling to promote Lgr5 expression in DESCs both in vitro and in vivo. This study sheds new light on understanding the mechanism by which the homeostasis, expansion, and differentiation of DESCs are regulated.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly produced by cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) in vascular system, emerges as a novel gasotransmitter exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Alterations of CSE/H2S pathway may thus be involved in atherosclerosis pathogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study showed that the levels of CSE mRNA and protein expression, as well as H2S production were decreased in ox-LDL-treated macrophage. CSE overexpression reduced the ox-LDL-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) generation in Raw264.7 and primary macrophage while CSE knockdown enhanced it. Exogenous supplementation of H2S with NaHS and Na2S also decreased the production of TNF-? and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in ox-LDL-stimulated macrophage, and alleviated the adhesion of macrophage to endothelial monolayer. Cysteine, a CSE preferential substrate for H2S biosynthesis, produced similar effects on the pro-inflammatory cytokine generation, which were reversed by CSE inhibitors PAG and BCA, respectively. Moreover, NaHS and Na2S attenuated the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B? and p65 nuclear translocation, as well as JNK activation caused by ox-LDL. The JNK inhibitor suppressed the NF-?B transcription activity in ox-LDL-treated cells. Furthermore, inhibitors of NF-?B (PDTC), ERK (U0126 and PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) partially blocked the suppression by ox-LDL on the CSE mRNA levels. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that ox-LDL may down-regulate the CSE/H2S pathway, which plays an anti-inflammatory role in ox-LDL-stimulated macrophage by suppressing JNK/NF-?B signaling. The study reveals new therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis, based on modulating CSE/H2S pathway.
This is the first reported case of liver abscess attributable to Salmonella serovar Dublin infection and also the fourth case of Salmonella liver abscess complicated with hepatocellular carcinoma reported since 1990. Drainage combined with intravenous antibiotics resulted in improvement, but recovery regressed again. Subsequent hepatic left lobectomy led to full recovery.
The safe and effective polyrotaxane-based drug delivery system could potentially increase the antiproliferative activity of antitumor medicine. A novel scutellarin-polyrotaxane (SCU-PR), in which scutellarin (SCU) was covalently bound to one of the hydroxyl groups of polyrotaxane (PR), was synthesized, and its characterization was further investigated by NMR, XRD, TG, DSC. The cytotoxicity of SCU-PR was assessed in vitro using human HCT116 and LOVO cell lines in results that the IC50 values of SCU-PR (1.03×10(-6) and 1.01×10(-6)mol/L, respectively), which compared with those of free SCU (7.80×10(-5) and 7.70×10(-5)mol/L, respectively), were lower. The valuable properties of SCU-PR will be potentially useful for its application on human colon cancer chemotherapies.
Cleft palate is a common congenital birth defect. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family has been shown to be important for palatogenesis, which elicits the regulatory functions by activating the FGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Mutations in Fgf or Fgfr are associated with cleft palate. To date, most mechanistic studies on FGF signaling in palate development have focused on FGFR2 in the epithelium. Although Fgfr1 is expressed in the cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived palate mesenchyme and Fgfr1 mutations are associated with palate defects, how FGFR1 in palate mesenchyme regulates palatogenesis is not well understood. Here, we reported that by using Wnt1(Cre) to delete Fgfr1 in neural crest cells led to cleft palate, cleft lip, and other severe craniofacial defects. Detailed analyses revealed that loss-of-function mutations in Fgfr1 did not abrogate patterning of CNC cells in palate shelves. However, it upset cell signaling in the frontofacial areas, delayed cell proliferation in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments, prevented palate shelf elevation, and compromised palate shelf fusion. This is the first report revealing how FGF signaling in CNC cells regulates palatogenesis.
FGF signaling plays a pivotal role in eye development. Previous studies using in vitro chick models and systemic zebrafish mutants have suggested that FGF signaling is required for the patterning and specification of the optic vesicle, but due to a lack of genetic models, its role in mammalian retinal development remains elusive. In this study, we show that specific deletion of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 in the optic vesicle disrupts ERK signaling, which results in optic disc and nerve dysgenesis and, ultimately, ocular coloboma. Defective FGF signaling does not abrogate Shh or BMP signaling, nor does it affect axial patterning of the optic vesicle. Instead, FGF signaling regulates Mitf and Pax2 in coordinating the closure of the optic fissure and optic disc specification, which is necessary for the outgrowth of the optic nerve. Genetic evidence further supports that the formation of an Frs2?-Shp2 complex and its recruitment to FGF receptors are crucial for downstream ERK signaling in this process, whereas constitutively active Ras signaling can rescue ocular coloboma in the FGF signaling mutants. Our results thus reveal a previously unappreciated role of FGF-Frs2?-Shp2-Ras-ERK signaling axis in preventing ocular coloboma. These findings suggest that components of FGF signaling pathway may be novel targets in the diagnosis of and the therapeutic interventions for congenital ocular anomalies.
IFN-? is a cytokine that plays crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular bacterial infections and for tumor control. IFN-? is also a key activator of macrophages [1,2]. In the present study, we studied detailed modulation of IFN-? on phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Phenotypic and functional maturation of BMDCs was evaluated by light microscope, flow cytometry(FCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytochemistry method, acid phosphatase activity(ACP), FITC-dextran bio-assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We elucidated that IFN-? up-regulated the expression of MHC II, CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 molecules on BMDCs, down-regulated the activity of pinocytosis and phagocytosis by BMDCs, and induced higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-? secreted by BMDCs. It is therefore confirmed that IFN-? can effectively promote the maturation of BMDCs. Our study provides more evidence and rationale on future application of IFN-? for enhancing host immunity.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus AphA and OpaR are the two master regulators of quorum sensing (QS) that are abundantly produced and operate at low cell density (LCD) and high cell density (HCD), respectively, with an outcome of reciprocally gradient production of these two proteins with transition between LCD and HCD. The cpsQ-mfpABC gene cluster is transcribed as two operons cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC in V. parahaemolyticus. MfpABC is a putative membrane fusion transporter that contributes to biofilm development. CpsQ is a c-di-GMP-binding regulator that activates the expression of capsular polysaccharide genes and mfpABC and, thus, induces biofilm development. As shown in this study, OpaR and AphA bind to the promoter region of mfpABC to enhance and repress its transcription, respectively. In contrast, the positive and negative regulation of cpsQ-mfpABC by AphA and OpaR, respectively, achieves probably through acting of AphA or OpaR on additional unknown regulator(s) of cpsQ-mfpABC. The transcriptional levels of cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC enhance gradually with transition from LCD to HCD due to the above reciprocal regulatory action of OpaR and AphA. Data presented here present a novel paradigm of combined action of the two master QS regulators in controlling expression of the QS regulon members.
Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic (RGD), is the specific recognition site of integrins with theirs ligands, and regulates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The RGD motif can be combined with integrins overexpressed on the tumor neovasculature and tumor cells with a certain affinity, becoming the new target for imaging agents, and drugs, and gene delivery for tumor treatment. Further, RGD as a biomimetic peptide can also promote cell adherence to the matrix, prevent cell apoptosis and accelerate new tissue regeneration. Functionalizing material surfaces with RGD can improve cell/biomaterial interactions, which facilitates the generation of tissue-engineered constructs. This paper reviews the main functions and advantages of RGD, describes the applications of RGD in imaging agents, drugs, gene delivery for tumor therapy, and highlights the role of RGD in promoting the development of tissue engineering (bone regeneration, cornea repair, artificial neovascularization) in recent years.
Paclitaxel, a natural antitumor compound, is produced by yew trees at very low concentrations, causing a worldwide shortage of this important anticancer medicine. These plants also produce significant amounts of 7-?-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol, which can be bio-converted into 10-deacetyltaxol for the semi-synthesis of paclitaxel. Some microorganisms can convert 7-?-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol into 10-deacetyltaxol, but the bioconversion yield needs to be drastically improved for industrial applications. In addition, the related ?-xylosidases of these organisms have not yet been defined. We set out to discover an efficient enzyme for 10-deacetyltaxol production. By combining the de novo sequencing of ?-xylosidase isolated from Lentinula edodes with RT-PCR and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we cloned two cDNA variants, Lxyl-p1-1 and Lxyl-p1-2, which were previously unknown at the gene and protein levels. Both variants encode a specific bifunctional ?-d-xylosidase/?-d-glucosidase with an identical ORF length of 2412 bp (97% identity). The enzymes were characterized, and their 3.6-kb genomic DNAs (G-Lxyl-p1-1, G-Lxyl-p1-2), each harboring 18 introns, were also obtained. Putative substrate binding motifs, the catalytic nucleophile, the catalytic acid/base, and potential N-glycosylation sites of the enzymes were predicted. Kinetic analysis of both enzymes showed kcat/Km of up to 1.07 s(-1)mm(-1) against 7-?-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol. Importantly, at substrate concentrations of up to 10 mg/ml (oversaturated), the engineered yeast could still robustly convert 7-?-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol into 10-deacetyltaxol with a conversion rate of over 85% and a highest yield of 8.42 mg/ml within 24 h, which is much higher than those reported previously. Therefore, our discovery might lead to significant progress in the development of new 7-?-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol-converting enzymes for more efficient use of 7-?-xylosyltaxanes to semi-synthesize paclitaxel and its analogues. This work also might lead to further studies on how these enzymes act on 7-?-xylosyltaxanes and contribute to the growing database of glycoside hydrolases.
The transcriptional coactivator SRC-3 plays a key role in enhancing prostate cancer cell proliferation. Although SRC-3 is highly expressed in advanced prostate cancer, its role in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) driven by PTEN mutation is unknown. We documented elevated SRC-3 in human CRPC and in PTEN-negative human prostate cancer. Patients with high SRC-3 and undetectable PTEN exhibited decreased recurrence-free survival. To explore the causal relationship in these observations, we generated mice in which both Pten and SRC-3 were inactivated in prostate epithelial cells (Pten3CKO mice), comparing them with mice in which only Pten was inactivated in these cells (PtenCKO mice). SRC-3 deletion impaired cellular proliferation and reduced tumor size. Notably, while castration of PtenCKO control mice increased the aggressiveness of prostate tumors relative to noncastrated counterparts, deletion of SRC-3 in Pten3CKO mice reversed all these changes. In support of this finding, castrated Pten3CKO mice also exhibited decreased levels of phospho-Akt, S6 kinase (RPS6KB1), and phosphorylated S6 protein (RPS6), all of which mediate cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, these tumors appeared to be more differentiated as evidenced by higher levels of Fkbp5, an AR-responsive gene that inhibits Akt signaling. Lastly, these tumors also displayed lower levels of certain androgen-repressed genes such as cyclin E2 and MMP10. Together, our results show that SRC-3 drives CRPC formation and offer preclinical proof of concept for a transcriptional coactivator as a therapeutic target to abrogate CRPC progression.
Differences in regioselectivity were observed during the S(N)Ar reaction of amines with unsymmetrical 3,5-dichloropyrazines. This study revealed that when the 2-position of the pyrazine was occupied with an electron-withdrawing group (EWG), nucleophilic attack occurred preferentially at the 5-position. When the 2-position was substituted with an electron-donating group (EDG), nucleophilic attack occurred preferentially at the 3-position. These results are reported along with a computational rationale for the experimental observations based on the Fukui index at the reacting centers.
The fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is ectopically expressed in prostate carcinoma cells, but its functional contributions are undefined. In this study, we report the evaluation of a tissue-specific conditional deletion mutant generated in an ARR2PBi(Pbsn)-Cre/TRAMP/fgfr1(loxP/loxP) transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer. Mice lacking fgfr1, in prostate cells developed smaller tumors that also included distinct cancer foci still expressing fgfr1 indicating focal escape from gene excision. Tumors with confirmed fgfr1 deletion exhibited increased foci of early, well-differentiated cancer and phyllodes-type tumors, and tumors that escaped fgfr1 deletion primarily exhibited a poorly differentiated phenotype. Consistent with these phenotypes, mice carrying the fgfr1 null allele survived significantly longer than those without fgfr1 deletion. Most interestingly, all metastases were primarily negative for the fgfr1 null allele, exhibited high FGFR1 expression, and a neuroendocrine phenotype regardless of fgfr1 status in the primary tumors. Together, these results suggest a critical and permissive role of ectopic FGFR1 signaling in prostate tumorigenesis and particularly in mechanisms of metastasis.
To investigate stepwise sedation for elderly patients with mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy.
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