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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Fabrication of ultraviolet-curable adhesive bottle-like microresonators by wetting and photocuring.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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This work presents a remarkably simple method for the fabrication of ultraviolet (UV)-curable adhesive bottle-like microresonators (BLMRs). The main fabrication process involves two steps: (1) creating liquid bottle-like microcavities along the taper waist of an optical fiber taper under interfacial tension and (2) curing the liquids into solids by UV light irradiation. The shape of the BLMRs can be fitted with a truncated harmonic-oscillator profile. Whispering gallery mode resonances of the bottle-like microcavity were excited via a tapered fiber at different positions along its axis. A cleaner spectrum with identifiable and traceable features over a broad wavelength range at the center excitation position and the estimated Q factors close to 105 around 1.55 ?m are observed. The shifts of resonance frequency by the input light power change demonstrate the potential applications of thermo-optic sensing and frequency tuning.
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Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance in county-level laboratories in Hunan province, China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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The Xpert MTB/RIF showed high sensitivity and specificity in previous studies carried out in different epidemiological and geographical settings and patient populations in high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries. However, there were little data obtained by validation or demonstration study of the assay in China. In this study, the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF was investigated in two county-level laboratories in Hunan Province, China.
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Enhancement of pulsed laser ablation in environmentally friendly liquid.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Enhancement of pulsed laser ablation can be achieved in acetic acid as an environmentally friendly liquid. This paper evaluates microholes and textured features induced by a nanosecond pulsed laser under different processing circumstances. The microholes are fabricated by laser drilling in acetic acid and found to be 100% deeper than in air. The textured features achieved in the liquid demonstrate a higher content of Copper and a lower content of Oxygen. The improvement of laser ablation efficiency in the liquid is attributed to the strong confinement of plasma plume accompanying with shockwave and cavitation bubbles. Meanwhile, the laser enhanced chemical etching by the weak acid plays a critical role.
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Switchable and spacing-tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped silica fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifier loop mirror.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A kind of switchable and spacing-tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped silica fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifier loop mirror is presented and experimentally demonstrated. By adjusting the polarization controllers (PCs), stable dual-wavelength operation is obtained at the 2 ?m band. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is better than 56 dB. The wavelength tuning is performed by applying static strain into the fiber Bragg grating. A tuning range from 0 to 5.14 nm is achieved for the dual-wavelength spacing. By adjusting the PCs properly, the fiber laser can also operate in single-wavelength state with the OSNR for each wavelength more than 50 dB.
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[Study on the release of copper ion and corrosion for intrauterine contraceptive device with two kinds of Cu-containing stent].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Two kinds of Cu-containing intrauterine contraceptive device (Cu-IUD) has been evaluated through the study on the release of copper ion and corrosion of copper surface in artificially formulated fluid. The result showed that the copper ions were released profusely from the stainless steel stents Cu-IUD in the first week of soak (25-12 microg/d), and then it became slowly and steady. The release of the copper ions from the titanium nickel shape memory alloy stents Cu-IUD were always slowly and steady in two months (0.5-5 microg/d). It obviously shows that the corrosion on copper surface of stainless steel stents Cu-IUD were more serious than titanium nickel shape memory alloy stents Cu-IUD by using 200 times microscope testing before and after soaking in formulated fluid.
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Association study of TPH2 polymorphisms and bipolar disorder in the Han Chinese population.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a serious and common mental disorder with high heritability. The serotonergic system is known to be implicated in the etiology of the disorder. Tryptophan hydroxylase isoform-2 (TPH2), which controls the synthesis of serotonin in the brain, has been suggested as a candidate gene for BDP. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the polymorphisms in TPH2 and BPD.
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Recognition of Bungarus multicinctus venom by a DNA aptamer against ?-bungarotoxin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Antibody-based technology is the main method for diagnosis and treatment of snake bite envenoming currently. However, the development of an antibody, polyclonal or monoclonal, is a complicated and costly procedure. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides that recognize specific targets such as proteins and have shown great potential over the years as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In contrast to antibodies, aptamers can be selected in vitro without immunization of animals, and synthesized chemically with extreme accuracy, low cost and high degree of purity. In this study we firstly report on the identification of DNA aptamers that bind to ?-bungarotoxin (?-BuTx), a neurotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus. A plate-SELEX method was used for the selection of ?-BuTx specific aptamers. After 10 rounds of selection, four aptamer candidates were obtained, with the dissociation constant ranged from 65.9 nM to 995 nM measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Competitive binding assays using both the fluorescently labeled and unlabeled aptamers revealed that the four aptamers bound to the same binding site of ?-BuTx. The best binder, ?B-1, bound specifically to ?-BuTx, but not to BSA, casein or ?-Bungarotoxin. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and enzyme-linked aptamer assay demonstrated that ?B-1 could discriminate B. multicinctus venom from other snake venoms tested. The results suggest that aptamer ?B-1 can serve as a useful tool for the design and development of drugs and diagnostic tests for ?-BuTx poisoning and B. multicinctus bites.
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Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1) is an independently prognostic biomarker of non-small cell lung cancers with cigarette smoke.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1) has been recently documented in various malignancies, but its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains uncertain. In the current study, we investigated the level of Cthrc1 in NSCLC tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results revealed that Cthrc1 overexpression was significantly associated with differentiation (P?=?0.039), tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P?=?0.035), lymph node status (P?=?0.001), and cigarette smoke (P?=?0.037). Furthermore, it was shown that patients with high Cthrc1 expression had significantly poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS; P?=?0.004 and P?=?0.010, respectively). Interestingly, high Cthrc1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS (P?=?0.010 and P?=?0.005, respectively) only in NSCLCs with cigarette smoke. These results indicated and suggested that Cthrc1 could be used as a prognostic marker for NSCLC, and it may play an important role in the smoked-related NSCLC.
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Synthesis, antibacterial activity, and biological evaluation of formyl hydroxyamino derivatives as novel potent peptide deformylase inhibitors against drug-resistant bacteria.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Peptide deformylase (PDF) has been identified as a promising target for novel antibacterial agents. In this study, a series of novel formyl hydroxyamino derivatives were designed and synthesized as PDF inhibitors and their antibacterial activities were evaluated. Among the potent PDF inhibitors (1o, 1q, 1o', 1q', and 1x), in vivo studies showed that compound 1q possesses mild toxicity, a good pharmacokinetic profile and protective effects. The good in vivo efficacy and low toxicity suggest that this class of compounds has potential for development and use in future antibacterial drugs.
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Chromogenic and fluorescent 'turn-on' chemodosimeter for fluoride based on a F(-) -triggered cascade reaction.
Luminescence
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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We developed a new chromogenic and fluorescent 'turn-on' chemodosimeter 1 based on a F(-) -triggered cascade reaction. This system displayed significant changes in UV/vis absorption and fluorescence emission intensities selectively for F(-) over other anions in a mixture of CH3 CN/H2 O (95 : 5, v/v) and in acetonitrile. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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A novel COL4A5 mutation identified in a Chinese Han family using exome sequencing.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Alport syndrome (AS) is a monogenic disease of the basement membrane (BM), resulting in progressive renal failure due to glomerulonephropathy, variable sensorineural hearing loss, and ocular anomalies. It is caused by mutations in the collagen type IV alpha-3 gene (COL4A3), the collagen type IV alpha-4 gene (COL4A4), and the collagen type IV alpha-5 gene (COL4A5), which encodes type IV collagen ?3, ?4, and ?5 chains, respectively. To explore the disease-related gene in a four-generation Chinese Han pedigree of AS, exome sequencing was conducted on the proband, and a novel deletion mutation c.499delC (p.Pro167Glnfs*36) in the COL4A5 gene was identified. This mutation, absent in 1,000 genomes project, HapMap, dbSNP132, YH1 databases, and 100 normal controls, cosegregated with patients in the family. Neither sensorineural hearing loss nor typical COL4A5-related ocular abnormalities (dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, and the rare posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy) were present in patients of this family. The phenotypes of patients in this AS family were characterized by early onset-age and rapidly developing into end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Our discovery broadens the mutation spectrum in the COL4A5 gene associated with AS, which may also shed new light on genetic counseling for AS.
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Identification of a novel PHEX mutation in a Chinese family with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets using exome sequencing.
Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Abstract Familial hypophosphatemic rickets (HR), the most common inherited form of rickets, is a group of inherited renal phosphate wasting disorders characterized by growth retardation, rickets with bone deformities, osteomalacia, poor dental development, and hypophosphatemia. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic defect responsible for familial HR in a 4-generation Chinese Han pedigree by exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Clinical features include skeletal deformities, teeth abnormalities, hearing impairments and variable serum phosphate level in patients of this family. A novel deletion mutation, c.1553delT (p.F518Sfs*4), was identified in the X-linked phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog gene (PHEX). The mutation is predicted to result in prematurely truncated and loss-of-function PHEX protein. Our data suggest that exome sequencing is a powerful tool to discover mutation(s) in HR, a disorder with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. The findings may also provide new insights into the cause and diagnosis of HR, and have implications for genetic counseling and clinical management.
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Cadmium tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi origining from a zinc/lead mining site - a hydroponics experiment.
Int J Phytoremediation
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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In this study, a hydroponics experiment was conducted to investigate the characteristics of Cd tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi natively growing on the soil with high levels of heavy metals in a Zn/Pb mining site. Seedlings of E. argyi grown for 4 weeks and then were treated with 0(CK), 5,10,15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50,100 umM Cd for 21 days. Each treatment had three replications. No visual toxic symptoms on shoots of E. argyi were observed at Cd level < or = 50 muM. The results indicated that the dry biomass of each tissue and the whole plants of the treatments with < or =40 umM cadmium were similar to that of the control, implying that E. argyi was a cadmium tolerant plant. The results also showed that the shoot Cd concentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the increase in the Cd level in nutrient solution. The shoot Cd concentration of the treatment with 40 umM Cd was as high as 237.9 mg kg(-1), which was higher than 100 mg kg(-1), normally used as the threshold concentration for identifying the Cd hyperaccumulating plant. It could be concluded that E. argyi was a Cd tolerant and accumulating plant species.
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No association of SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms with schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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The SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 genes are members of a class of neurotransmitter transporters for the release, re-uptake and recycling of neurotransmitters in synapses. SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 encode a dopamine transporter and serotonin transporter, respectively. Abnormal expression and genetic polymorphism of SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 genes may increase the risk of developing mental illness, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and aggressive behavior in Alzheimer disease, etc. Nevertheless, association between SLC6A3, SLC6A4 genes polymorphism and schizophrenia patients have not been well studied in Han Chinese people. In this study, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC6A3, SLC6A4 were associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese people (893 schizophrenia patients and 611 healthy controls). No significant difference in allelic or genotypic frequency was found between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. No positive linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected either. No haplotypic distributions were positive. Accordingly, our study suggests that the 10 SNPs within both genes we examined do not play a major role in schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.
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Autosomal dominant eccentric core disease caused by a heterozygous mutation in the MYH7 gene.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Autosomal dominant (AD) central core disease (CCD) is a congenital myopathy characterised by the presence of cores in the muscle fibres which correspond to broad areas of myofibrils disorganisation, Z-line streaming and lack of mitochondria. Heterozygous mutations in the RYR1 gene were observed in the large majority of AD-CCD families; however, this gene was excluded in some of AD-CCD families.
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Methionine enkephalin (MENK) improves lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood of 50 cancer patients by inhibiting regulatory T cells (Tregs).
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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MENK, a penta-peptide is considered as being involved in the regulatory feedback loop between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, with marked modulation of various functions of human immune cells. The aim of the present work was to investigate change of lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of 50 cancer patients before and after treatment with MENK. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of peripheral blood from 50 cancer patients were isolated by density gradient centrifugation using Ficoll-Paque solution and cultured with MENK. We measured proliferation of total nucleated cells, subpopulations of individual CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg), natural killer cells (NK) before and after treatment with 10(-12)M MENK in cell culture by flow cytometry (FCM). Our results indicated that MENK showed a strong inhibiting effect on Treg cells while it stimulated marked proliferation of other lymphocyte subpopulations. All data obtained were of significance statistically. It was therefore concluded that MENK could work as a strong immune booster with great potential in restoring damaged human immune system and we could consider MENK as a drug to treat cancer patients, whose immune systems are damaged by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Furthermore we could consider MENK as a chemotherapy additive, which would sustain immune system of cancer patients during the process of chemotherapy to get maximized efficacy with minimized side effect.
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SLC17A7 gene may be the indicator of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment response in the Chinese Han population.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used drugs for major depressive disorder (MDD), although the treatment outcomes vary in different people. The vesicular glutamate transporter 1 coded by SLC17A7 gene has been reported associated with MDD. According to its role in glutamate transmission, it is reasonable to consider it as a potential pharmacogenetic candidate in SSRI treatment. A total of 290 MDD patients who had been taking SSRIs for 6 weeks were recruited. Their genotypes were assessed for the presence of 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were selected from either the HapMap Chinese ethnic group or the literature report. Treatment effects were evaluated by the change rate of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. After the adjustment for the false discovery rate, 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs74174284, false discovery rate; P = 0.032) demonstrated significant association with SSRI treatment response at week 6. Our results suggest that genetic variants in the SLC17A7 gene may be indicators of treatment response in MDD patients treated by SSRIs.
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A bio-inspired inner-motile photocatalyst film: a magnetically actuated artificial cilia photocatalyst.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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A new type of inner-motile photocatalyst film is explored to enhance photocatalytic performance using magnetically actuated artificial cilia. The inner-motile photocatalyst film is capable of generating flow and mixing on the microscale because it produces a motion similar to that of natural cilia when it is subjected to a rotational magnetic field. Compared with traditional photocatalyst films, the inner-motile photocatalyst film exhibits the unique ability of microfluidic manipulation. It uses an impactful and self-contained design to accelerate interior mass transfer and desorption of degradation species. Moreover, the special cilia-like structures increase the surface area and light absorption. Consequently, the photocatalytic activity of the inner-motile photocatalyst film is dramatically improved to approximately 3.0 times that of the traditional planar film. The inner-motile photocatalyst film also exhibits high photocatalytic durability and can be reused several times with ease. Furthermore, this feasible yet versatile platform can be extended to other photocatalyst systems, such as TiO2, P25, ZnO, and Co3O4 systems, to improve their photocatalytic performance.
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Effect of hydroxyl groups and rigid structure in 1,4-cyclohexanediol on percutaneous absorption of metronidazole.
AAPS PharmSciTech
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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In a previous study, a synergistic retardation effect of 1,4-cyclohexanediol and 1,2-hexanediol on percutaneous absorption and penetration of metronidazole (MTZ) was discovered. A complex formation between 1,4-cyclohexanediol and 1,2-hexanediol was proposed to be responsible for the observed effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the necessity of hydroxyl group and the ring structure in 1,4-cyclohexanediol on percutaneous absorption and penetration of MTZ. Eleven formulations were studied in an in vitro porcine skin model using glass vertical Frans Diffusion Cell. 1,4-Cyclohexanediol was changed into 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, trans (and cis)-1,2-cyclohexanediol and 1,6-hexanediol, respectively, to study if H-bonding or ring structure would influence the retardation effect. MTZ was applied at infinite dose (100 mg), which corresponded to 750 ?g of MTZ. Based on modifier ratios (MR) calculated by the flux values, the retardation effect on percutaneous absorption and penetration of MTZ was found in the formulations containing 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid or cis-1,2-cyclohexanediol (MR values were 0.47 for which only contains 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 0.74 for the formulation containing both 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid and 1,2-hexanediol, and 0.90 for the formulation containing cis-1,2-cyclohexanediol and 1,2-hexanediol, respectively). The results showed that the hydroxyl group and structure of 1,4-cyclohexanediol played a significant role in retardation effects and provided valuable insight on the mechanisms of retardation effect through structure-activity relationships.
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Predicting survival time in noncurative patients with advanced cancer: a prospective study in China.
J Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Accurate prediction of prognosis for cancer patients is important for good clinical decision making in therapeutic and care strategies. The application of prognostic tools and indicators could improve prediction accuracy.
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Activity of the novel fungicide SYP-Z048 against plant pathogens.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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In in vitro tests with 18 plant pathogens, the fungicide 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinyl] pyridine (SYP-Z048) was highly effective on inhibiting mycelial growth of various ascomycota and basidiomycota, with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 1.140 ?g/ml. SYP-Z048 had much weaker activity against growth of oomycota with EC50 values > 100 ?g/ml. In a second in vitro test with Monilinia fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 inhibited mycelial growth (EC50 = 0.013 ?g/ml), germ tube elongation (EC50 = 0.007 ?g/ml), and sporulation but did not affect spore germination. In a detached pear fruit assay inoculated with M. fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 showed protective and curative activity. Field tests indicated that SYP-Z048 was an efficacious fungicide for control of brown rot disease in two peach orchards. When applied to a single spot on a tomato leaflet in a compound leaf, SYP-Z048 suppressed the growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates on the rest 4 leaflets, indicating that the fungicide has systemic movement in plant tissues. These results indicate that SYP-Z048 has potential for management of brown rot causing by M. fructicola and other diseases caused by ascomycota and basidiomycota.
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Formulation and characterization of albumin microspheres containing norcantharidate for liver tumor targeting.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Abstract The objectives of this study were first to encapsulate norcantharidate into albumin microspheres by the emulsion crosslinking method and second to characterize the microspheres in terms of the morphological examination, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency. The in vitro release of norcantharidate from the microspheres was studied by using the dialysis bag method. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies were used to evaluate the advantages of microspheres than the conventional formulations. The microspheres prepared by crosslink emulsion were with uniform size, smooth surface, spherical shape, and disperse evenly. The particle size was uniform (13.3?±?0.4?µm) and the encapsulation efficiency was 54.3?±?4.18%. In vitro release indicated that the norcantharidate microspheres had a well-sustained release efficacy and fitted Korsmeyer's Peppas release model. In vivo studies showed that pharmacokinetics of norcantharidate microspheres could be described by the model of two-compartment after i.v. administration and had higher AUC inside liver and spleen than the injection group. No histological change occurred to the rat liver after the administration of norcantharidate microspheres.
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Rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 in soil by real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
J. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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In this study, a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) was developed and evaluated for the rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (R4) in soil.
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Maturation of mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) induced by Laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP).
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The seaweed Laminaria japonica has been investigated in a laboratory research for its medical significance and LJP has been purified now. The objective of present study was to look at effect of LJP on structural, phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDCs. The structural maturation of BMDCs induced by LJP was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); The phenotypic maturation of BMDCs was studied by flow cytometry(FCM) and functional maturation of BMDCs was analyzed by FITC-dextran, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We hereby proved that LJP markedly induced maturation of BMDCs with the data of decreased the number of lysosomes, upregulated expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, CD40 and MHC II key membrane molecules on BMDCs, downregulated phagocytosis, enriched production of IL-12 and TNF-? secreted by BMDCs. Therefore it should be concluded that LJP was with strong ability to induce maturation of BMDCs. Our data provided direct evidence to suggest that LJP could be considered as an immune stimulant in improving immune handicapped situation and as a useful adjuvant in vaccine designing.
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Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 ?A/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3??mm?mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 ?A was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.
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Development of series H(-) multicusp ion source at China Institute of Atomic Energy.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The development of H(-) multicusp ion sources has been carried out at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for more than ten years. The first H(-) ion source with 5.2 mA was made in 2002. After improving the configured magnetic field, a H(-) ion source of 10 mA was made in 2004, and the beam intensity of 15 mA was obtained in 2008 after further improvements of the filter field. The beam intensity of 18 mA was achieved in 2010 following the in-depth study and optimization on some essential operation conditions. Now a series of H(-) cusp sources with different sizes and beam intensity ranging from 3 mA to 18 mA have been successfully developed at CIAE. All the ion sources can fast finish the test on the test stand now, since all the connections are modularized and can fit all kinds of H(-) mulitcusp source of CIAE. The development status of the various H(-) multicusp ion sources at CIAE are presented in the paper.
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A robust approach for blind detection of balanced chromosomal rearrangements with whole-genome low-coverage sequencing.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Balanced chromosomal rearrangement (or balanced chromosome abnormality, BCA) is a common chromosomal structural variation. Next-generation sequencing has been reported to detect BCA-associated breakpoints with the aid of karyotyping. However, the complications associated with this approach and the requirement for cytogenetics information has limited its application. Here, we provide a whole-genome low-coverage sequencing approach to detect BCA events independent of knowing the affected regions and with low false positives. First, six samples containing BCAs were used to establish a detection protocol and assess the efficacy of different library construction approaches. By clustering anomalous read pairs and filtering out the false-positive results with a control cohort and the concomitant mapping information, we could directly detect BCA events for each sample. Through optimizing the read depth, BCAs in all samples could be blindly detected with only 120 million read pairs per sample for data from a small-insert library and 30 million per sample for data from nonsize-selected mate-pair library. This approach was further validated using another 13 samples that contained BCAs. Our approach advances the application of high-throughput whole-genome low-coverage analysis for robust BCA detection-especially for clinical samples-without the need for karyotyping.
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Biomimetic and cell-mediated mineralization of hydroxyapatite by carrageenan functionalized graphene oxide.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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In bone tissue engineering, it is imperative to design multifunctional biomaterials that can induce and assemble bonelike apatite that is close to natural bone. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized by carrageenan. The resulting GO-carrageenan (GO-Car) composite was further used as a substrate for biomimetic and cell-mediated mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA). It was confirmed that carrageenan on the GO surface facilitated the nucleation of HA. The observation of the effect of the GO-Car on the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated. In vitro studies clearly show the effectiveness of GO-Car in promoting HA mineralization and cell differentiation. The results of this study suggested that the GO-Car hybrid will be a promising material for bone regeneration and implantation.
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Antiproliferative effects of n-butyl-?-D-fructofuranoside from Kangaisan on Bel-7402 cells.
Indian J Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Kangaisan is a powdered compound prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine which has been used in cancers for many years in Hubei province, China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of Kangaisan and screen bioactive components.
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Antiviral activity of an isatin derivative via induction of PERK-Nrf2-mediated suppression of cap-independent translation.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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We report here an isatin derivative 45 (ID45) against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) replication, which was synthesized based on a high-throughput screen of a unique natural product library. ID45 showed the most potent anti-CVB3 activity among the four synthesized compounds. Treatment of cells with ID45 before or after infection significantly reduced viral particle formation, resulting in protection of cells from virus-induced apoptosis. In addition, ID45 treatment caused remarkable up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a hallmark of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and an indicator of enhanced cell viability. In identifying the ER stress response pathway induced by ID45, we found that ID45 activated PKR-like ER protein kinase (PERK) but failed to up-regulate eIF2? phosphorylation. Instead ID45 activated transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor-2), which is evidenced by its nuclear translocation and upregulation of its downstream target genes NQO1 (NAD(P)H quinone-oxidoreductase 1) and GCLM (glutamate-cysteine ligase, modifier subunit). This observation was further verified by using siRNAs of GRP78 or Nrf2, which blocked both the translocation of Nrf2 and up-regulation of its target genes, leading to aggressive viral replication and enhanced cell apoptosis. Finally, we found that ID45-induced up-regulation of NQO1 protected eIF4GI, a eukaryotic cap-dependent translation initiation factor, from cleavage by CVB3 protease and degradation by proteasomes. Taken together, our findings established that a novel antiviral mechanism of isatin derivative ID45 inhibits CVB3 replication by promoting cell survival through a PERK/Nrf2-dependent ER stress pathway, which benefits host cap-dependent translation but suppresses CVB3 cap-independent translation.
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Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library for the hexaploid wheat line 92R137.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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For map-based cloning of genes conferring important traits in the hexaploid wheat line 92R137, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, including two sublibraries, was constructed using the genomic DNA of 92R137 digested with restriction enzymes HindIII and BamHI. The BAC library was composed of total 765,696 clones, of which 390,144 were from the HindIII digestion and 375,552 from the BamHI digestion. Through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 453 clones randomly selected from the HindIII sublibrary and 573 clones from the BamHI sublibrary, the average insert sizes were estimated as 129 and 113 kb, respectively. Thus, the HindIII sublibrary was estimated to have a 3.01-fold coverage and the BamHI sublibrary a 2.53-fold coverage based on the estimated hexaploid wheat genome size of 16,700 Mb. The 765,696 clones were arrayed in 1,994 384-well plates. All clones were also arranged into plate pools and further arranged into 5-dimensional (5D) pools. The probability of identifying a clone corresponding to any wheat DNA sequence (such as gene Yr26 for stripe rust resistance) from the library was estimated to be more than 99.6%. Through polymerase chain reaction screening the 5D pools with Xwe173, a marker tightly linked to Yr26, six BAC clones were successfully obtained. These results demonstrate that the BAC library is a valuable genomic resource for positional cloning of Yr26 and other genes of interest.
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Colorimetric and ultra-sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer determination of H2O2 and glucose by multi-functional Au nanoclusters.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Ultra-sensitive colorimetric determination of H2O2 is accomplished based on the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) stabilized by glutathione (GSH). The color change of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) catalyzed by AuNCs offers an indirect method to measure glucose. This sensing platform makes use of a dual optical signal change, including the color change in an aqueous solution under visible light illumination and an ultra-sensitive fluorescent assay arising from efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the AuNCs and oxidized TMB. The detection limits of H2O2 and glucose are 4.9 × 10(-13) M and 1.0 × 10(-11) M, respectively. In addition, enhanced fluorescence is observed from the AuNCs due to the use of ethanol which produces clear changes in the quantum yield and lifetime of the AuNCs. The quantum yield of AuNCs is enhanced from ?12.5% as an isolated fluorophore to 38.9% in an AuNCs-ethanol complex. The enhanced fluorescence lowers the detection limits of H2O2 and glucose by 2 orders of magnitude compared to those attained from the original AuNCs.
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Quality of Life in Patients With Advanced Cancer at the End of Life as Measured by the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire: A Survey in China.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Quality of life (QOL) is the main outcome measure for patients with advanced cancer at the end of life. The McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire (MQOL) is designed specifically for palliative care patients and has been translated and validated in Hong Kong and Taiwan.
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In vitro/in vivo characterization of nanoemulsion formulation of metronidazole with improved skin targeting and anti-rosacea properties.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Topical skin treatment was limited due to the lack of suitable delivery system with significant cutaneous localization and systemic safety. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a nanoemulsion (NE) to enhance targeting localization of metronidazole (MTZ) in skin layers. In vitro studies were used to optimize NE formulations, and a series of experiments were carried in vitro and in vivo to validate the therapeutic efficacy of MTZ-loaded optimal NE. NE type selection and D-optimal design study were applied to optimize NE formulation with maximum skin retention and minimum skin penetration. Three formulation variables: Oil X1 (Labrafil), Smix X2 (a mixture of Cremophor EL/Tetraethylene glycol, 2:1 w/w) and water X3 were included in D-design. The system was assessed for skin retention Y1, cumulative MTZ amount after 24 h Y2 and droplet size Y3. Following optimization, the values of formulation components (X1, X2 and X3) were 4.13%, 16.42% and 79.45%, respectively. The optimized NE was assessed for viscosity, droplet size, morphological study and in vitro permeation in pig skin. Distributions of MTZ were validated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Active agent of NE transferred into deeper skin and localized in epidermal/dermal layers after 24 h, which showed significant advantages of the optimal NE over Gel. The skin targeting localization and minimal systemic escape of optimal NE was further proved by in vivo study on rat skin. Current in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) enabled the prediction of pharmacokinetic profile of MTZ from in vitro permeation results. Further, the in vivo anti-rosacea efficacy of optimal formulation was investigated by pharmacodynamics study on mice ear.
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A novel approach for enriching cancer stem cells from the human SW-13 adrenocortical carcinoma cell line.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The present study was undertaken to develop a new method for enriching cancer stem cells (CSCs) from the human adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) cell line SW-13. Given that the existence of CSCs in ACC causes resistance to conventional chemotherapies, treatment with cyclophosphamide was used for in vivo selection of CSCs in a BALB/c nude mouse tumor xenograft model established using the ACC cell line SW-13. The characteristics of CSCs in three generations of tumor xenografts were assessed for single-cell colony formation, flat colony formation, and cell sphere formation in serum-free suspension culture. The formation rates of single-cell colonies, flat colonies, and cell spheres were significantly higher for tumor xenograft cells treated with cyclophosphamide than for untreated engrafted tumor cells. Flow cytometry to examine expression of the CSC markers C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4 (CXCR4; CD184) and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member-2 (ABCG2; CDw338) revealed markedly higher levels of CXCR4 and ABCG2 in cyclophosphamide-treated xenograft tumor cells compared to untreated tumor cells. Together, these results indicate that cyclophosphamide treatment of tumor xenograft cells caused enrichment of CSCs with a strong capability for self-renewal and proliferation. In this method, the administration of cyclophosphamide selectively kills cancer cells without toxicity to CSCs and thereby provides a practical approach for achieving the enrichment of CSCs in ACC.
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Effect of hydrocarbon chain length in 1,2-alkanediols on percutaneous absorption of metronidazole: toward development of a general vehicle for controlled release.
AAPS PharmSciTech
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of hydrocarbon chain length in 1,2-alkanediols on percutaneous absorption of metronidazole (MTZ). Twelve formulations (1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, 1,2-pentanediol, 1,2-hexanediol in 4% concentration, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1,2-heptanediol in 1% concentration, in the absence and presence of 1,4-cyclohexanediol, respectively) were studied in an in vitro hairless mouse skin model using Franz diffusion cell. Based on the flux values and retardation ratios (RR), a penetration retardation effect on percutaneous absorption of MTZ was observed for the formulations containing 1,2-diols having six- to seven-carbon chain in the presence of 1,4-cyclohexanediol (1,2-hexanediol with chain length of six hydrocarbons, RRs are 0.69 and 0.76 in the concentration of 4% and 1%, respectively; 1,2-heptanediol with chain length of seven hydrocarbons, RR is 0.78 in the concentration of 1%). On the other hand, no retardation effect was observed in formulations containing short alkyl chains (RRs of 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, and 1,2-pentanediol are 0.99, 1.61, and 0.96, respectively). Instead, a penetration enhancement effect was observed for 1,2-diols having four and five carbons. In other words, effect of 1,2-alkanediols on percutaneous absorption of MTZ can be systematically modulated by simply varying number of -CH2 groups in the hydrocarbon chain-from being a penetration enhancer to retardant. These observations shed light on mechanism of the penetration enhancement and retardation effect and provide insight into rational design of penetration enhancers and retardants. Furthermore, the combination of 1,2-alkanediols and 1,4-cyclohexanediol could become a general vehicle for controlled release of pharmaceutical and cosmetic active ingredients.
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Topical skin targeting effect of penetration modifiers on hairless mouse skin, pig abdominal skin and pig ear skin.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Abstract Objective: This study was to investigate the topical skin targeting effects and mechanism of combination penetration modifiers of 1,2-hexanediol (or 1,2-heptanediol) and 1,4-cyclohexanediol on transdermal absorption of metronidazole (MTZ) in different skin models. Methods: Six formulations were applied to pig abdominal skin and pig ear skin models, respectively, and the results were compared with the previous data on hairless mouse skin worked out by our laboratory. Four parameters (flux, Tlag, Q24 and targeting ratio) were used to evaluate permeability and targeting effect in skin. Results: The combined penetration modifiers played a general role on decreasing permeability without reducing skin retention. The most significant skin permeability decrement to MTZ was pig abdominal skin (permeability decrement was ?20% for hairless mouse skin, 60% for pig abdominal skin and 40% for pig ear skin, respectively) while the strongest skin targeting effect appeared in hairless mouse skin (targeting ratios were 1.79 for hairless mouse skin, 1.24 for pig abdominal skin and 1.05 for pig ear skin, respectively) under the role of penetration modifiers. Conclusions: Thickness of stratum corneum (SC) was the major factor impact on skin targeting effect. Selection criteria of skin models also have been discussed in this study.
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Arc fusion splicing effects in large-mode-area single-mode ytterbium-doped fibers.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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For the first time the effects of arc fusion splicing on the residual stress and refractive index of large-mode-area single-mode ytterbium-doped fibers (YDFs) are investigated using a state-of-the-art three-dimensional concurrent stress-index measurement method. The results, based on a commercially available fiber, describe a host of perturbations that decrease the core/cladding refractive index difference by as much as 1.74 × 10(-3) over an axial length of many hundreds of wavelengths. Simulations indicate that these perturbations result in an expansion of the mode-field-diameter by 39.6% and, based on the measured sample, result in an extra splice loss of 20.8%. The results of this investigation will be useful in the design and optimization of high-power all-fiber YDF lasers and amplifiers.
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ABCB6, ABCB1 and ABCG1 genetic polymorphisms and antidepressant response of SSRIs in Chinese depressive patients.
Pharmacogenomics
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Major depressive disorder is a common psychiatric disorder with worldwide prevalence. The most widely prescribed antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). ATP-binding cassette proteins are responsible for the membrane transport of various molecules including antidepressive drugs. We investigated whether SNPs in ABCB6, ABCB1 and ABCG1 were associated with the treatment response of SSRIs.
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Bottom-up construction of POM-based macrostructures: coordination assembled paddle-wheel macroclusters and their vesicle-like supramolecular aggregation in solution.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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A bottom-up approach to obtain nanoclusters and large, uniform vesicle-like structures containing organic functionalized hexamolybdates in solution state were developed. Hexamolybdate functionalized carboxylic acid coordinated with two copper ions to form paddle-wheel tetrapolyoxometalate clusters with the features of macro-ions, which can spontaneously assemble into large, stable blackberry-type structures in suitable solvents, completing a hierarchical organization from small POM molecules to nanoscale complexes and then to supramolecular structures.
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Influence of SiO2 on the structure-controlled synthesis and magnetic properties of prismatic MnO2 nanorods.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Silicon dioxide-doped tetragonal MnO2 single crystalline prismatic nanorods have been successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal route at a temperature of 250 ° C with a reaction time as quick as 5 h. The synthesized MnO2 prismatic nanorods were characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental results show that single crystalline tetragonal MnO2 nanorods have been successfully synthesized at all doping concentrations and that nanorods with a prismatic surface morphology have been obtained at 20 mass% of SiO2. The diameter of as-prepared MnO2 nanorods increases from 125 to 250 nm on increasing the dopant concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirms the presence of valence Si (2p) of SiO2 in the as-prepared MnO2 nanostructures. The intensity of Raman modes clearly increases with increasing doping concentration, indicating an improvement in the structural aspects of the MnO2 nanorods. The magnetic properties of the products have been evaluated using a vibrating sample magnetometer, revealing that the as-prepared MnO2 nanorods exhibit weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The Néel temperature of the as-obtained products is calculated as 97 K. On the basis of the structural information, a growth mechanism is proposed for the formation of prismatic-like 1D MnO2 nanorods.
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Role of filamentous phage SW1 in regulating the lateral flagella of Shewanella piezotolerans strain WP3 at low temperatures.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Low-temperature ecosystems represent the largest biosphere on Earth, and yet our understanding of the roles of bacteriophages in these systems is limited. Here, the influence of the cold-active filamentous phage SW1 on the phenotype and gene transcription of its host, Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 (WP3), was investigated by construction of a phage-free strain (WP3?SW1), which was compared with the wild-type strain. The expression of 49 genes, including 16 lateral flagellar genes, was found to be significantly influenced by SW1 at 4°C, as demonstrated by comparative whole-genome microarray analysis. WP3?SW1 was shown to have a higher production of lateral flagella than WP3 and enhanced swarming motility when cultivated on solid agar plates. Besides, SW1 has a remarkable impact on the expression of a variety of host genes in liquid culture, particularly the genes related to the membrane and to the production of lateral flagella. These results suggest that the deep-sea bacterium WP3 might balance the high-energy demands of phage maintenance and swarming motility at low temperatures. The phage SW1 is shown to have a significant influence on the swarming ability of the host and thus may play an important role in adjusting the fitness of the cells in the deep-sea environment.
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Immunotherapy of cancer via mediation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by methionine enkephalin (MENK).
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological mechanisms by which synthetic methionine enkephalin (MENK) exerts therapeutic effects on tumor growth. Our findings in vivo or in vitro show that MENK treatment either in vivo or in vitro could up-regulate the percentages of CD8+T cells, induce markers of activated T cells, increased cytotoxic activity against mouse S180 tumor cells and increase secretion of IFN?. In addition, the adoptively transferred CD8+T cells, after either in vitro or in vivo treatment with MENK, result in significantly increased survival of S180 tumor-bearing mice and significant shrinkage in tumor growth. Opioid receptors are detected on normal CD8+T cells and exposure to MENK leads to increased expression of opioid receptors. Interaction between MENK and the opioid receptors on CD8+T cells appears to be essential for the activation of CTL, since the addition of naltrexone (NTX), an opioid receptor antagonist, significantly inhibits all of the effects of MENK. The evidence obtained indicates that the MENK-induced T cell signaling is associated with a significant up-regulation of Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm and the translocation of NFAT2 into nucleus, and these signaling effects are also inhibited by naltrexone.
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Enantioselective Palladium(II) Phosphate Catalyzed Three-Component Reactions of Pyrrole, Diazoesters, and Imines.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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Reaction trio: The title reaction delivers C?H functionalized pyrrole derivatives in moderate to good yields. This novel three-component reaction provides both syn- and anti-pyrrole derivatives having two contiguous stereocenters with good regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. This process represents the first highly enantioselective palladium-carbenoid-mediated reaction.
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Maturation inside and outside bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) modulated by interferon-? (IFN-?).
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Interferons are made by cells in response to appropriate stimuli such as viruses, bacteria, parasites or tumor cells and are released into the surrounding medium. They then bind to receptors on target cells to allow for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that eradicate pathogens or tumors. IFN-? is produced by leukocytes and is mainly involved in innate immune response against viral or bacterial infections and for tumor control. The aim of this work is to explore the detailed modulation of IFN-? on phenotypic and functional maturation inside and outside murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The maturity of BMDCs post treatment with IFN-? was evaluated with conventional light microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for morphology changes; flow cytometry (FCM) for changes of surface molecules on BMDCs; cytochemistry, acid phosphatase activity (ACP) test, and FITC-dextran bio-assay for biochemistry analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokine production by BMDCs. We have shown that IFN-? 1) up-regulates the expression of MHC II, CD40, CD83, CD80 and CD86 molecules on BMDCs; 2) down-regulates the rates of pinocytosis and phagocytosis by BMDCs as evidenced by the results of decreased ACP, and FITC-dextran bio-assay; 3) enhances the ability of BMDCs to drive T cell function; and 4) induces higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-? secreted by BMDCs. Therefore, we conclude that IFN-? can efficiently promote the maturation of BMDCs through detailed modulation inside and outside BMDCs. Our study has provided more detailed data on changes of BMDCs modulated by IFN-?, and rationale on future application of IFN-? for enhancing host immunity and potent adjuvant administration in the design of DC-based vaccines.
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Application of three-dimensional reconstruction and visible simulation technique in reoperation of hepatolithiasis.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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Hepatolithiasis often requires repeated operations in East Asia. This study aims to evaluate the clinical application of three-dimensional reconstruction and visible simulation techniques for repeated operation in patients with intrahepatic calculi.
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Synthesis, characterization and optical property of shrimps-like nanostructures of MnO2 by hydrothermal route.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Hexagonal MnO2 shrimps like nanostructures have been successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal route at a temperature of 175 degrees C. The synthesized MnO2 nanostructures were characterized by the X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Selected Area Electron Diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. UV-vis spectrophotometer was used to determine the absorption behaviour of shrimps like nanostructures. Direct optical band gap of 1.65 eV was acquired by using Davis-Mott model. The UV-visible spectrum exhibited the prominent absorption in visible region.
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Preparation, characterizations and optical property of single crystalline ZnMn2O4 nanoflowers via template-free hydrothermal synthesis.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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In this work, we have reported a template-free hydrothermal approach to fabricate highly pure single phase ZnMn2O4 pen-type nano needles assembled with flower type nanostructures. The X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Selected Area Electron Diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy techniques were used to study the structural and optical properties of Pen-type nanoneedles assembled with flower like nanostrucutres. Single crystalline hetaerolite ZnMn2O4 pen type nanoneedles of flower like nanostructures have an average diameter of 250 nm. Room temperature Raman spectroscopy reveals the four fundamental vibrational modes. Room temperature UV-vis spectrometer was used to determine the transmittance behaviour pen type nanoneedles of flower like nanostructures. Direct optical band gap of 2.19 eV was acquired by using Davis-Mott model. The UV-visible spectrum points out that the absorption is prominent in visible region and transparency is more than 80% in UV region.
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Effect of atomic percentage of Zn on the size and optical properties of porous ZnMn2O4 nanoparticles.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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The porous ZnMn2O4 nanostructures have been synthesized by hydrothermal method by using Mn3O4 and Zn powder as precursors. The morphology of the nanoparticles could be tuned by changing the molar ratio of Zn in the reaction system. The final products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy and the florescence spectrometer. Room temperature photoluminescence investigation indicates that the nanostructures have strong band-gap emission at yellow and orange bands. Absorption properties of ZnMn2O4 nanostructures indicated that the band gap energy varied with change in the atomic percentage of Zn in hetaerolite ZnMn2O4. The mechanism of this peculiar optical property was analyzed.
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Controlled synthesis, characterizations and structural-properties of micro-flowers, pine-cone, core-shell and liver-like micro-architecture of crystalline ZnMn2O4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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The conspicuous ZnMn2O4 micro-structures have been synthesized by hydrothermal method by using Mn3O4 and Zn powder as precursors. The micro-structures of the ZnMn2O4 could be tuned by changing the reaction time only in the reaction system. The final products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and the Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature Raman spectroscopy investigation indicates that the synthesized micro-structures have strong fundamental vibrational modes. The intensity of the vibrational modes varied with change in the reaction time in the synthesized products of ZnMn2O4. The mechanism of this peculiar Raman property was analyzed.
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Synthesis and electrochemical properties of stannous oxide clinopinacoid as anode material for lithium ion batteries.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Tin monoxide is a significant functional semiconductor material which employed to a wide area of applications especially optical and energy storage devices. Presently, template free hydrothermal technique has been employing to synthesize stannous oxide (SnO) clinopinacoid type controlled morphology using SnCl2 x 2H2O, NH3, and H2O as raw materials. The crystalline phase, morphology, particle size and component were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). FESEM results exhibited the large scale homogeneous growth of clinopinacoid architecture with the obvious size of 5 - 7 micrometers. The XRD results showed that the average crystallite size of the tetragonal phase romarchite SnO was about 29 nm calculated from the FWHM of X-ray diffraction pattern. The dominant Raman active modes A(1g) = 205 cm(-1), B(1g) = 105-107 cm(-1) and about 6 cm(-1) redshift were observed by the Raman spectroscopy, which further confirmed the existence of the nano tetragonal phase SnO. The electrochemical performance of as-synthesized SnO clinopinacoid structure as the anode material for lithium ion batteries was investigated. It was observed that the first discharge capacity of the two samples could reach a very high value of 1502 mA h g(-1) and 1422 mA h g(-1) respectively. The effect of nitrogen concentration on morphology as well as cyclic performance of Li-Ion-batteries was also discussed.
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A large-scale screen for coding variants predisposing to psoriasis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To explore the contribution of functional coding variants to psoriasis, we analyzed nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) across the genome by exome sequencing in 781 psoriasis cases and 676 controls and through follow-up validation in 1,326 candidate genes by targeted sequencing in 9,946 psoriasis cases and 9,906 controls from the Chinese population. We discovered two independent missense SNVs in IL23R and GJB2 of low frequency and five common missense SNVs in LCE3D, ERAP1, CARD14 and ZNF816A associated with psoriasis at genome-wide significance. Rare missense SNVs in FUT2 and TARBP1 were also observed with suggestive evidence of association. Single-variant and gene-based association analyses of nonsynonymous SNVs did not identify newly associated genes for psoriasis in the regions subjected to targeted resequencing. This suggests that coding variants in the 1,326 targeted genes contribute only a limited fraction of the overall genetic risk for psoriasis.
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Cationic core-shell nanoparticles with carmustine contained within O?-benzylguanine shell for glioma therapy.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The application of carmustine (BCNU) for glioma treatment is limited due to its poor selectivity for tumor and tumor resistance caused by O?-methylguanine-DNA-methyl transferase (MGMT). To improve the efficacy of BCNU, we constructed chitosan surface-modified poly (lactide-co-glycolides) nanoparticles (PLGA/CS NPs) for targeting glioma, loading BCNU along with O?-benzylguanine (BG), which could directly deplete MGMT. With core-shell structure, PLGA/CS NPs in the diameter around 177 nm showed positive zeta potential. In vitro plasma stability of BCNU in NPs was improved compared with free BCNU. The cellular uptake of NPs increased with surface modification of CS and decreasing particle size. The cytotoxicity of BCNU against glioblastoma cells was enhanced after being encapsulated into NPs; furthermore, with the co-encapsulation of BCNU and BG into NPs, BCNU + BG PLGA/CS NPs showed the strongest inhibiting ability. Compared to free drugs, PLGA/CS NPs could prolong circulation time and enhance accumulation in tumor and brain. Among all treatment groups, F98 glioma-bearing rats treated with BCNU + BG PLGA/CS NPs showed the longest survival time and the smallest tumor size. The studies suggested that the co-encapsulation of BCNU and BG into PLGA/CS NPs could remarkably enhance the efficacy of BCNU, accompanied with greater convenience for therapy.
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Effect of hepatitis B virus infection on apoptosis of a human choriocarcinoma cell line in vitro.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To investigate the effect and mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on the human choriocarcinoma cell line, JEG-3, in relation to apoptosis and intrauterine infection.
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Detailed modulation of phenotypes and functions of bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) by interferon-gamma (IFN-?).
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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IFN-? is a cytokine that plays crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular bacterial infections and for tumor control. IFN-? is also a key activator of macrophages [1,2]. In the present study, we studied detailed modulation of IFN-? on phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Phenotypic and functional maturation of BMDCs was evaluated by light microscope, flow cytometry(FCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytochemistry method, acid phosphatase activity(ACP), FITC-dextran bio-assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We elucidated that IFN-? up-regulated the expression of MHC II, CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 molecules on BMDCs, down-regulated the activity of pinocytosis and phagocytosis by BMDCs, and induced higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-? secreted by BMDCs. It is therefore confirmed that IFN-? can effectively promote the maturation of BMDCs. Our study provides more evidence and rationale on future application of IFN-? for enhancing host immunity.
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Investigation of the methanogen-related archaeal population structure in shallow sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, Southern China.
J. Basic Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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Few studies have specifically dealt so far with methanogen-related archaea in estuarine sediments. In this study, methanogen-related archaeal populations were investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone library, T-RFLP analysis, and methanogen enrichment in Pearl River estuarine sediments. The majority of obtained sequences in clone libraries and T-RF peaks from T-RFLP analysis were assigned mainly to Methanosaeta, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales/ANME. The fragments of Methanosarcinales/ANME were most dominant group (mean 47%) and composed largely of ANME-2a which are characterized as anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea in broad environments. Furthermore Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobiales accounted for 23 and 29% of fragments, respectively, for all depths. Therefore, the presence of Methanomicrobiales and Methanosaeta in Pearl River estuarine sediments was indicative of both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. In addition, the enrichments of methanogens also suggested the presence of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in Pearl River estuarine sediments. This study is a significant step toward understanding methane cycling association of representative archaea in estuarine environments.
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Mutation in the SYNJ1 gene associated with autosomal recessive, early-onset Parkinsonism.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Autosomal recessive, early-onset Parkinsonism is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Here, we report the identification, by homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, of a SYNJ1 homozygous mutation (p.Arg258Gln) segregating with disease in an Italian consanguineous family with Parkinsonism, dystonia, and cognitive deterioration. Response to levodopa was poor, and limited by side effects. Neuroimaging revealed brain atrophy, nigrostriatal dopaminergic defects, and cerebral hypometabolism. SYNJ1 encodes synaptojanin 1, a phosphoinositide phosphatase protein with essential roles in the postendocytic recycling of synaptic vesicles. The mutation is absent in variation databases and in ethnically matched controls, is damaging according to all prediction programs, and replaces an amino acid that is extremely conserved in the synaptojanin 1 homologues and in SAC1-like domains of other proteins. Sequencing the SYNJ1 ORF in unrelated patients revealed another heterozygous mutation (p.Ser1422Arg), predicted as damaging, in a patient who also carries a heterozygous PINK1 truncating mutation. The SYNJ1 gene is a compelling candidate for Parkinsonism; mutations in the functionally linked protein auxilin cause a similar early-onset phenotype, and other findings implicate endosomal dysfunctions in the pathogenesis. Our data delineate a novel form of human Mendelian Parkinsonism, and provide further evidence for abnormal synaptic vesicle recycling as a central theme in the pathogenesis.
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Class 1 integrons in urinary isolates of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Southern China during the past five years.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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We analyzed extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (226) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (53) collected from urine specimens during 2005-2009 for the presence of ESBL genes, class 1 integrons, and characterization of gene cassettes. TEM and CTX-M ?-lactamase genes were the most prevalent. One hundred and forty-four E. coli and 35 K. pneumoniae were positive for the class 1 integrase gene; among them, 99 E. coli and 14 K. pneumoniae detected gene cassettes. Gene cassette regions were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing analysis. Eleven distinct gene cassette arrays were found in E. coli isolates, and seven distinct gene cassette arrays were found in K. pneumoniae isolates. The cassette array aacA4-catB8-aadA1 was first found in E. coli and dfrA1-orfC was first reported in K. pneumoniae. Most of the gene cassettes found in this class 1 integrons were for aminoglycoside resistance. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction fingerprint patterns revealed the isolates carrying gene cassettes were genetically unrelated. In conclusion, we studied the class 1 integrons among urinary isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae in Southern China during the past 5 years and found that class 1 integrons were widely disseminated and played a major role in antibiotic resistance.
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Valproic acid upregulates NKG2D ligand expression and enhances susceptibility of human renal carcinoma cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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We aimed to investigate the effect of valproic acid (VPA) on NKG2D ligand expression in human renal carcinoma cell lines and to investigate the mechanisms.
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Genetic and functional properties of uncultivated MCG archaea assessed by metagenome and gene expression analyses.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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The Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota group (MCG) Archaea is one of the predominant archaeal groups in anoxic environments and may have significant roles in the global biogeochemical cycles. However, no isolate of MCG has been cultivated or characterized to date. In this study, we investigated the genetic organization, ecophysiological properties and evolutionary relationships of MCG archaea with other archaeal members using metagenome information and the result of gene expression experiments. A comparison of the gene organizations and similarities around the 16S rRNA genes from all available MCG fosmid and cosmid clones revealed no significant synteny among genomic fragments, demonstrating that there are large genetic variations within members of the MCG. Phylogenetic analyses of large-subunit+small-subunit rRNA, concatenated ribosomal protein genes and topoisomerases IB gene (TopoIB) all demonstrate that MCG constituted a sister lineage to the newly proposed archaeal phylum Aigarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Genes involved in protocatechuate degradation and chemotaxis were found in a MCG fosmid 75G8 genome fragment, suggesting that this MCG member may have a role in the degradation of aromatic compounds. Moreover, the expression of a putative 4-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase was observed when the sediment was supplemented with protocatechuate, further supporting the hypothesis that this MCG member degrades aromatic compounds.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 10 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.174.
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Piscivory in the feathered dinosaur Microraptor.
Evolution
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The largest specimen of the four-winged dromaeosaurid dinosaur Microraptor gui includes preserved gut contents. Previous reports of gut contents and considerations of functional morphology have indicated that Microraptor hunted in an arboreal environment. The new specimen demonstrates that this was not strictly the case, and offers unique insights into the ecology of nonavian dinosaurs early in the evolution of flight. The preserved gut contents are composed of teleost fish remains. Several morphological adaptations of Microraptor are identified as consistent with a partially piscivorous diet, including dentition with reduced serrations and forward projecting teeth on the anterior of the dentary. The feeding habits of Microraptor can now be understood better than that of any other carnivorous nonavian dinosaur, and Microraptor appears to have been an opportunistic and generalist feeder, able to exploit the most common prey in both the arboreal and aquatic microhabitats of the Early Cretaceous Jehol ecosystem.
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Synergistic effect of methionine encephalin (MENK) combined with pidotimod(PTD) on the maturation of murine dendritic cells (DCs).
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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To gain new insight into the functional interaction between dendritic cells and methionine encephalin (MENK) combined with pidotimod (PTD), we have analyzed the effect of MENK plus PTD on the morphology, phenotype and functions of murine bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro. The maturation of BMDCs cultured in the presence of either MENK or PTD alone, or MENK in combination with PTD, was detected. The cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt/phenazinemethosulphate (MTS/PMS). The changes of BMDCs morphology were confirmed with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The BMDCs treated with MENK combined with PTD displayed a higher expression of typical maturation markers of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and MHC-IIidentified by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), and stronger ability to drive T cells. The decrease of the endocytic ability was assayed by DAB kit, FITC-dextran and cellular immunohistochemistry. Finally upregulation of cytokines production of IL-12 and TNF-? was determined by ELISA. These data indicate that MENK combined with PTD could exert synergistic action on BMDC maturation.
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[Construction of digital three-dimensional models of renal stones and virtual surgery simulation].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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To construct three-dimensional (3D) models of renal stones and perform percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) virtual surgery simulation. Methods CT images were obtained from 8 patients with renal stones. Images segmentation and reconstruction were performed using MIMICS 10.0 software to construct the 3D model of the renal stones, which provided the anatomical relationships between the kidney and the adjacent organs. The optimal PCNL virtual surgery simulation for each individual case was performed using FreeForm Modeling System on the basis of the 3D model.
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Enantioselective trapping of phosphoramidate ammonium ylides with imino esters for synthesis of 2,3-diaminosuccinic acid derivatives.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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A highly enantioselective trapping of protic phosphoramidate ammonium ylides with ?-imino esters is reported. The intriguing Rh2(OAc)4 and chiral Brønsted acid co-catalyzed three-component Mannich-type reaction of a diazo compound, a phosphoramidate, and an ?-imino ester provides a rapid and efficient access to 2,3-diaminosuccinic acid derivatives with a high level control of diastereo- and enantioselectivity.
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Fine mapping of wheat stripe rust resistance gene Yr26 based on collinearity of wheat with Brachypodium distachyon and rice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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The Yr26 gene, conferring resistance to all currently important races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) in China, was previously mapped to wheat chromosome deletion bin C-1BL-6-0.32 with low-density markers. In this study, collinearity of wheat to Brachypodium distachyon and rice was used to develop markers to saturate the chromosomal region containing the Yr26 locus, and a total of 2,341 F2 plants and 551 F2?3 progenies derived from Avocet S×92R137 were used to develop a fine map of Yr26. Wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs) located in deletion bin C-1BL-6-0.32 were used to develop sequence tagged site (STS) markers. The EST-STS markers flanking Yr26 were used to identify collinear regions of the rice and B. distachyon genomes. Wheat ESTs with significant similarities in the two collinear regions were selected to develop conserved markers for fine mapping of Yr26. Thirty-one markers were mapped to the Yr26 region, and six of them cosegregated with the resistance gene. Marker orders were highly conserved between rice and B. distachyon, but some rearrangements were observed between rice and wheat. Two flanking markers (CON-4 and CON-12) further narrowed the genomic region containing Yr26 to a 1.92 Mb region in B. distachyon chromosome 3 and a 1.17 Mb region in rice chromosome 10, and two putative resistance gene analogs were identified in the collinear region of B. distachyon. The markers developed in this study provide a potential target site for further map-based cloning of Yr26 and should be useful in marker assisted selection for pyramiding the gene with other resistance genes.
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Diagnosis and surgical treatment of sporadic meningioangiomatosis.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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To discuss the clinical characteristics, radiological features, surgical treatment and prognosis of sporadic meningioangiomatosis (MA).
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Stratified communities of active archaea in shallow sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, Southern China.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Marine subsurface sediments represent a novel archaeal biosphere with unknown physiology. To get to know the composition and ecological roles of the archaeal communities within the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, Southern China, the diversity and vertical distribution of active archaea in a sediment core were characterized by 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of clone libraries derived from RNA. In this study, the archaeal diversity above, within, and beneath the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the Pearl River Estuary sediment core was described. The majority of the clones obtained from the metabolically active fraction of the archaeal community were most closely related to miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group and terrestrial miscellaneous euryarchaeotal group. Notably, although the Pearl River Estuary sediment belong to high methane and high organic carbon environment, sequences affiliated with methanotrophic and methanogenic archaea were detected as minor group in 16S rRNA clone libraries. No obvious evidence suggested that these unknown archaeal phylotypes related directly to anaerobic oxidation of methane in SMTZ. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of the metabolically active fraction of the archaeal community in the coastal sediment environments.
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Phenotypic and functional analysis of the modification of murine bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) induced by neutral Ginseng polysaccharides (NGP).
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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In this study, we reveal that a neutral polysaccharide isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb, named Ginseng (Panaxgiseng C.A. Meyer), promotes maturation of BMDCs via inducing changes both inside and outside BMDCs, as well as changes of functions. These affects of NGP on BMDCs were evaluated with use of conventional scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) for morphology of BMDCs, flow cytometry (FCM) for key surface markers of BMDCs, cytochemistry assay, FITC-dextran, bio-assay for their phagocytosis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokine production by BMDCs. Our results proved that NGP induced maturation of BMDCs as reflected by the downregulation of acid phosphatase (ACP) activity inside the BMDCs, which occurs when phagocytosis of BMDCs decreased, while antigen presentation increased upon maturation. These data also revealed higher expression of MHC II, CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40 and secretion of higher level of IL-12 and low level of TNF-?. Our approach suggests that NGP could therefore stimulate the maturation of murine BMDCs through a series of regulation to the BMDCs.
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TheTGFB1 Functional Polymorphism rs1800469 and Susceptibility to Atrial Fibrillation in Two Chinese Han Populations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) is related to the degree of atrial fibrosis and plays critical roles in the induction and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). To investigate the association of the common promoter polymorphism rs1800469 in the TGF-?1 gene (TGFB1) with the risk of AF in Chinese Han population, we carried out a case-control study of two hospital-based independent populations: Southeast Chinese population (581 patients with AF and 723 controls), and Northeast Chinese population (308 AF patients and 292 controls). Two hundred and seventy-eight cases of AF were lone AF and 334 cases of AF were diagnosed as paroxysmal AF. In both populations, AF patients had larger left atrial diameters than the controls did. The rs1800469 genotypes in the TGFB1 gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype and allele frequencies of rs1800469 were not different between AF patients and controls of the Southeast Chinese population, Northeast Chinese population, and total Study Population. After adjustment for age, sex, hypertension and LAD, there was no association between the rs1800469 polymorphism and the risk of AF under the dominant, recessive and additive genetic models. Similar results were obtained from subanalysis of the lone and paroxymal AF subgroups. Our results do not support the role of the TGFB1 rs1800469 functional gene variant in the development of AF in the Chinese Han population.
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