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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A quantitative Real Time PCR based method for the detection of Phytophthora infestans causing Late blight of potato, in infested soil.
Saudi J Biol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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A fast and simple polymerase chain reaction method has been developed for detection of Phytophthora infestans oospores, the causal agent of Late blight of Potato in soil. The method involves the disruption of oospores by grinding dry soil, using abrasive properties, in the presence of glass powder and skimmed milk powder within a short time. The latter prevents loss of DNA by adsorption to soil particles or by degradation and reduces the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors with the DNA. After phenol/chloroform extraction; the DNA is suitable for direct PCR amplification without a precipitation step. This amplification leads to detection of pathogen in infested soils before planting of crop. The real-time PCR assay we describe is highly sensitive and specific, and has several advantages over conventional PCR assays used for P. infestans detection to confirm positive inoculum level in potato seeds and elsewhere. With increasing amounts of standard DNA templates, the respective threshold cycle (Ct) values were determined and a linear relationship was established between these Ct values and the logarithm of initial template amounts. The method is rapid, cost efficient, and when combined with suitable internal controls can be applied to the detection and quantification of P. infestans oospores on a large-scale basis.
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Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of rabeprazole using wet granulation technique.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Rabeprazole, a member of substituted benzimidazoles, inhibits the final step in gastric acid secretions. This drug claims to cause fastest acid separation (due to higher pKa), and more rapidly converts to the active species to aid gastric mucin synthesis. The most significant pharmacological action of Rabeprazole is dose dependent suppression of gastric acid secretion; without anticholinergic or H2-blocking action. It completely abolishes the hydrochloric acid secretion as it is powerful inhibitor of gastric acid. Rabeprazole is acid labile and hence commonly formulated as an enteric coated tablet. The absorption of rabeprazole occurs rapidly as soon as tablet leaves the stomach.
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Antidiabetic potential of triterpenoid saponin isolated from Primula denticulate.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Primula denticulate Sm. (Primulaceae), commonly known as drumstick primula, is traditionally used to treat diabetes and urinary disorders. In the present study, a new triterpenoid saponin was isolated. Triterpenoids generally show antidiabetic activity. Considering its traditional use and chemical nature of the molecule, the present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic activity. Objective: Antidiabetic activity of triterpenoid saponin (TTS) isolated from P. denticulate.
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Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
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Antifungal effect of Gatifloxacin and copper ions combination.
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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It is a well-known fact that to bring a new molecule it may take more than a decade. The existing drugs, which are known for their adverse reaction or toxicity, if utilized and allowed in different formulation, the new effective formulation may be discovered and developed. This may help in reducing various side effects, time and costs. In this study, fungal infection was inoculated superficially over the skin of guinea pigs and treated with the broad-spectrum antimicrobial (gatifloxacin) in combination with non-toxic and effective amount of copper ions. MIC of copper (0.20%) was also determined. Concentration of gatifloxacin (100 ?g ml(-1)) with the combination of copper ions (MIC) at which it inhibits the visible growth of fungal strains was also evaluated. Hematological parameters, such as total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count, were evaluated. The results have shown increase in these parameters after fungal infection, which reaches its normal value after treatment with the combination of gatifloxacin and copper ions. Outcomes of the research concluded that gatifloxacin 100 ?g ml(-1) can be used by 0.20% of copper ions to prevent growth of some fungal strains (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger), which causes skin infections with more potency.
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Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.
Pharmacognosy Res
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties.
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Umbelliferone beta-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone beta-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat.
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Anticonvulsant activity of ethanol extracts of Vetiveria zizanioides roots in experimental mice.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Vetiveria zizanioides Linn. (Gramineae), an aromatic plant commonly known as vetiver, is traditionally used for various ailments. Ethanol and aqueous extract of this plant found extensive use in Indian folklore medicine and used in treatment of a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied.
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Ectopic pregnancy: a review.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Ectopic pregnancy (EP) presents a major health problem for women of child-bearing age. EP refers to the pregnancy occurring outside the uterine cavity that constitutes 1.2-1.4 % of all reported pregnancies. All identified risk factors are maternal: pelvic inflammatory disease, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, smoking, tubal surgery, induced conception cycle, and endometriosis. These developments have provided the atmosphere for trials using methotrexate as a non-surgical treatment for EP. The diagnosis measure of EP is serum human chorionic gonadotropin, urinary hCGRP/i-hCG, progesterone measurement, transvaginal ultrasound scan, computed tomography, vascular endothelial growth factor, CK, disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 and hysterosalpingography. The treatment option of EP involves surgical treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopy, medical treatment is usually systemic or through local route, or by expectant treatment.
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Footprint of APOBEC3 on the genome of human retroelements.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Almost half of the human genome is composed of transposable elements. The genomic structures and life cycles of some of these elements suggest they are a result of waves of retroviral infection and transposition over millions of years. The reduction of retrotransposition activity in primates compared to that in nonprimates, such as mice, has been attributed to the positive selection of several antiretroviral factors, such as apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzymes. Among these, APOBEC3G is known to mutate G to A within the context of GG in the genome of endogenous as well as several exogenous retroelements (the underlining marks the G that is mutated). On the other hand, APOBEC3F and to a lesser extent other APOBEC3 members induce G-to-A changes within the nucleotide GA. It is known that these enzymes can induce deleterious mutations in the genome of retroviral sequences, but the evolution and/or inactivation of retroelements as a result of mutation by these proteins is not clear. Here, we analyze the mutation signatures of these proteins on large populations of long interspersed nuclear element (LINE), short interspersed nuclear element (SINE), and endogenous retrovirus (ERV) families in the human genome to infer possible evolutionary pressure and/or hypermutation events. Sequence context dependency of mutation by APOBEC3 allows investigation of the changes in the genome of retroelements by inspecting the depletion of G and enrichment of A within the APOBEC3 target and product motifs, respectively. Analysis of approximately 22,000 LINE-1 (L1), 24,000 SINE Alu, and 3,000 ERV sequences showed a footprint of GG?AG mutation by APOBEC3G and GA?AA mutation by other members of the APOBEC3 family (e.g., APOBEC3F) on the genome of ERV-K and ERV-1 elements but not on those of ERV-L, LINE, or SINE.
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Therapeutic exploration of betulinic acid in chemically induced hypothyroidism.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Hypothyroidism is a chronic condition characterized by abnormally low thyroid hormone production. The decreased serum level (>5.1 mIU/l) of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in blood indicates hypothyroidism. The study was an attempt to access the effect of betulinic acid on chemically induced hypothyroidism in female albino rats. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid, which has antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as anticancer potential, by inhibiting topoisomerase. Hypothyroidism was induced in female albino rats using propylthiouracil (PTU) at a dose of 60 ?g/kg body weight orally for 1 month. Induction of hypothyroidism was confirmed by increased TSH level. At the end of second month, blood was collected, centrifuged and serum was analyzed for TSH, T3, and T4 level and protocol was terminated by killing of animals. The animals exposed to PTU were treated with pure standard drug thyroxine at a dose of 10 ?g/kg of body weight by oral route and the test drug betulinic acid 20 mg/kg by oral route through force feeding in their respective groups. Treatment was carried out for a period of 2 months. Group with PTU-induced hypothyroidism showed an elevation in serum TSH and reduction level, which was restored by the betulinic acid in treated female albino rats. Betulinic acid also reduced the damage caused in the thyroid tissues by PTU, thus minimizing the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Histopathological examinations of the thyroid tissue showed changes in the thyrocytes of PTU-treated group while thyroxine group showed normal thyroid follicles cell architecture and the group treated with betulinic acid also showed marked improvement in the follicles integrity which shows that betulinic acid has some protective activity. This study shows that the betulinic acid has thyroid-enhancing potential by lowering down the TSH levels and reducing the damage caused in the thyroid tissues, thus minimizing the symptoms of hypothyroidism when used anaphylactically in rats.
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Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Melastoma malabathricum (MM) Linn leaves traditionally use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract taken from Melastoma malabathricum Linn (Melastomaceae).
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Comparison of protective and curative potential of Daucus carota root extract on renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Daucus carota Linn (Apiaceae), a useful vegetable, is traditionally used in treating kidney and hepatic dysfunctions.
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Anxiolytic potential of ursolic acid derivative--a stearoyl glucoside isolated from Lantana camara L. (Verbanaceae).
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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To investigate the anxiolytic activity of newly isolated compound by our lab called ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) from the leaves of Lantana camara (L. camara).
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A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.
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Combination of sulfamethoxazole and selenium in anticancer therapy: a novel approach.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Sulfonamides have been reported to possess substantial antitumor activity as they act as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. In addition, selenium appears to have a protective effect at various stages of cancer due to its antioxidant property, enhanced carcinogen detoxification, inhibition of cell invasion, and by inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, in the present study we aimed to evaluate and synergize the cytotoxic activity of sulfonamide and selenium (SM+SE) as effective therapy in the treatment of DENA-induced HCC. Hepatocarcinogeneis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg) in phosphate buffer. 30 Male Wistar rats used in this study were divided randomly into five equal groups (n = 6). DENA-administered animals showed significant alteration (p < 0.001) in liver-specific enzymes-glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Alpha fetoproteins (AFP), and also induced severe histopathological changes in the hepatic tissues. Interestingly, treatment with (SE+SE) (SM 30 mg/kg + SE 3 mg/kg) significantly reduced (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001) the elevated AFP, SGOT, SGPT, and ALP levels, respectively, suggesting that combination therapy of SM+SE has a potential to treat DENA-induced liver damage.
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Anticancer effect of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside in chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of death in cancer and yet no drug has proven to be a successful candidate for its treatment in advanced stages. Ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) is a newly discovered triterpene in Lantana camara and there lies a possibility that it possess anti-hepatocellular carcinoma property. In the present study, we induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) and treated it with ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside. The ability to treat hepatocellular carcinoma was measured by comparing biochemical serum markers such as serum alanine aminotransferase, serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alkaline phosphatase, and the specific marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, alpha fetoprotein. The histological studies of the livers were also performed. The results have shown significant elevated levels of these parameters as compared to normal control and the drug receiving groups have shown significant reduction in these marker levels. Histopathological studies also indicated the reduced liver damage in drug-treated groups. It was noted that a significant and dose-dependent reversal of DENA-diminished activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, and the reduced DENA-elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) with a marked change. UASG significantly suppressed free radical formation by scavenging the hydroxyl radicals. It also modulates the levels of LPO and markedly increases the endogenous antioxidant enzymes level in DENA-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
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Antiobesity potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside by inhibiting pancreatic lipase.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The present study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Two in vivo experiments such as high-fat diet-induced obesity mice model and lipid emulsion tolerance test in normal rats were performed. In vitro inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity was further measured to substantiate the results. In high-fat diet-induced obesity mice model, female Swiss mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD; 40% fat) with or without 1 or 2% of UASG or 0.012% orlistat for nine weeks. In lipid emulsion tolerance test male Wister rats were orally administered, lipid emulsion with or without 500 or 1000 mg/kg of UASG and the plasma triglycerides were measured from 0.5 to 5 h. Consumption of HFD containing UASG to mice for nine weeks exhibited significant reduction in lipid parameters, body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, liver triglyceride (TG) and different organ weight compared to HFD fed control. Further it was noted the improvement in insulin resistance induced by the HFD alone group. Furthermore, consumption of an HFD containing 1 or 2% of UASG significantly increased the fecal content and fecal triglyceride compared with the HFD group. Pre-treatment with UASG inhibited the elevated plasma triglyceride level after the oral administration of the lipid emulsion to rats. Further, UASG significantly inhibits activity of pancreatic lipase at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml. Data obtained from the results indicated that UASG prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice possibly by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity.
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Hepatoprotective potential of new steroid against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of newly isolated stigmast-4, 20 (21), 23-trien-3-one (STO) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in Wistar albino rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CCl4 (0.5 mL/kg CCl4 in olive oil) in experimental rats. Three different doses (2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg, p.o) of STO was administered to the test groups during whole experimental protocol. Changes in the activity of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, and TP, anti-oxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and LPO were studied in CCl4-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis. The altered levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, and TP restored toward normalization significantly by STO in a dose dependant manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Meanwhile, it also produced a significant and dose-dependent reversal of CCl4-diminished activity of anti-oxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and the reduced CCl4-elevated level of LPO. STO significantly prevented the increased levels of serum markers, also suppressed the free radical processes by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. It also modulates the levels of LPO and markedly increases the endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes level in CCl4-induced hepatic injury.
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Enhanced glycemic control, pancreas protective, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects by umbelliferon-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2(I)???1(II))-?-D-glucopyranoside in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of umbelliferon-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2I???1II)-?-D-glucopyranoside (UFD) from Aegle marmelos Corr. on serum glucose, lipid profile and free radical scavenging activity in normal and STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rats.
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Anti-diabetic potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside: a new triterpenic gycosidic ester from Lantana camara.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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A new stearoyl glucoside of ursolic acid, urs-12-en-3?-ol-28-oic acid 3?-D-glucopyranosyl-4-octadecanoate and other compounds were isolated from the leaves of Lantana camara L. The structure of this new glycoside was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats it showed significant reduction in blood glucose level.
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APOBEC3 has not left an evolutionary footprint on the HIV-1 genome.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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It is known that the human immune proteins APOBEC3G and -F (hA3G/F) can inhibit Vif-deficient HIV by G-to-A mutation; however, the roles of these enzymes in the evolution of HIV are debated. We argue that if evolutionary pressure from hA3G/F exists there should be evidence of their imprint on the HIV genome in the form of (i) underrepresentation of hA3G/F target motifs (e.g., TGGG [targeted position is underlined]) and overrepresentation of product motifs (e.g., TAGG) and/or (ii) an increase in the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous (NS/S) G-to-A changes among hA3G/F target motifs and a decrease of NS/S A-to-G changes among hA3G/F product motifs. To test the first hypothesis, we studied the representation of hA3G/F target and product motifs in 1,932 complete HIV-1 genomes using Markov models. We found that the highly targeted motifs are not underrepresented and their product motifs are not overrepresented. To test the second hypothesis, we determined the NS/S G?A changes among the hA3G/F target and product motifs in 1,540 complete sets of nine HIV-1 genes. The NS/S changes did not show an increasing/decreasing trend within the target/product motifs, but the NS/S changes within the motif AG was exceptionally low. We observed the same pattern by analyzing 740 human genes. Given that hA3G/F do not act on the human genome, this suggests a small NS/S change within AG has arisen by other mechanisms. We therefore find no evidence of an evolutionary footprint of hA3G/F. We postulate several mechanisms to explain why the HIV-1 genome does not contain the hA3G/F footprint.
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An optimal protocol for in vitro regeneration, efficient rooting and stable transplantation of chickpea.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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A rapid, reproducible and efficient regeneration method was developed for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using single cotyledon with half embryonal axis as explants. MS medium supplemented with 4 ìM TDZ, 10 ìM 2-iP and 2 ìM kinetin induced 50-100 adventitious buds/shoots after 14 days of culture and elongated on MS medium supplemented with 5 ìM 2-iP and 2 ìM kinetin. Healthy, strong and 100 % rooting was achieved by exposing cut ends of the shoots to 10 sec pulse treatment with 100 ìmoles/ml IBA followed by their transfer to liquid MS basal medium within 10-14 d. 2-3 cm long shoots were most suitable for rooting. Potting-mixture with good aeration and lesser capacity to retain water was most suitable for achieving successful establishment of chickpea plantlets. Garden soil mixed with sand (gravel) and bio-manure in the ratio of 1:1:1 is most suitable for achieving cent percent transplantation success. Cent percent of plantlets got acclimatized, survived in the pots and showed normal growth, development, flowering followed by podding and seeds setting. Harvesting of seeds was done after the pods were fully matured and dry. In this communication, we have demonstrated for the first time that shoot length, pulse treatment of cut ends of shoots with 100 ìmoles/ml IBA and aeration of potting mixture are key factors for rapid micro-propagation and successful establishment of chickpea.
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Targeting prokaryotic choline oxidase into chloroplasts enhance the potential of photosynthetic machinery of plants to withstand oxidative damage.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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Chloroplasts from plants of transgenic lines expressing prokaryotic choline oxidase gene (the codA(ps) gene; GenBank accession number-AY589052) and wild-type of chickpea and Indian mustard were evaluated for their efficacy to withstand photoinhibitory damage, by exposing them to high light intensity ( approximately 1200micromolm(-2)s(-1) photon flux density) at 10 and 25 degrees C. Western analysis confirmed presence of choline oxidase in chloroplasts of only transgenic lines. The loss in PS II activity in chloroplasts of wild-type exposed to high light intensity was significantly higher than that in chloroplasts of transgenic chickpea as well as Indian mustard. Although, chloroplasts of both wild-type and transgenic chickpea as well as Indian mustard were more sensitive to photoinhibitory damage at 10 than at 25 degrees C, the damage recorded in chloroplasts harboring choline oxidase was significantly lower than those of wild-type. High light promotes H(2)O(2) production in chloroplasts more significantly at low temperature (10 degrees C) than at 25 degrees C. We compared low temperature accelerated photoinhibition of chloroplasts with that caused due to exogenously applied H(2)O(2). Although exogenous H(2)O(2) accelerated high light intensity induced loss in PS II activity of chloroplasts of wild-type, it caused only a little alteration in PS II activity of chloroplasts from transgenic lines of both chickpea and Indian mustard, demonstrating that the chloroplasts harboring choline oxidase are better equipped to resist photoinhibition. We hypothesize that H(2)O(2) produced by choline oxidase as a byproduct during synthesis of glycinebetaine is responsible for building stronger antioxidant system in chloroplasts of transgenic lines compared to that of wild-type.
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Preventive effect of Metformin against N-nitrosodiethylamine-initiated hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.
Saudi Pharm J
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Effect of Metformin in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis was assessed in Wistar rats. Intraperitoneal administration of chemical carcinogen diethyl nitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg) in single dose elevated the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and reduced high density lipoproteins (HDL), total proteins (TPR) and blood glucose level in tested animals. Histopathological examinations of the liver tissue showed marked carcinogenicity of the chemical carcinogen. Food and water intake, animal weights and serum albumin (ALB) were also assessed. The animals exposed to DENA showed a significant decrease in the body weights and, there were no significant alterations found in the total bilirubin (TBR) levels and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP), whereas the decreased levels of serum ALB were maintained by Metformin treatment. The elevated levels of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, AFP, TC and TG were restored by administration of Metformin in reduced dose (125 mg/kg) daily for 16 weeks p.o. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed the beneficial effects of Metformin in the animals exposed to DENA.
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Antiulcer and antioxidant activities of a new steroid from Morus alba.
Life Sci.
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Morus alba is a plant that is well known for its medicinal properties. In Asian countries, it is traditionally used for anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer and antioxidant activity of a new steroid from M. alba.
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APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F rarely co-mutate the same HIV genome.
Retrovirology
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The human immune proteins APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F (hA3G and hA3F) induce destructive G-to-A changes in the HIV genome, referred to as hypermutation. These two proteins co-express in human cells, co-localize to mRNA processing bodies and might co-package into HIV virions. Therefore they are expected to also co-mutate the HIV genome. Here we investigate the mutational footprints of hA3G and hA3F in a large population of full genome HIV-1 sequences from naturally infected patients to uniquely identify sequences hypermutated by either or both of these proteins. We develop a method of identification based on the representation of hA3G and hA3F target and product motifs that does not require an alignment to a parental/consensus sequence.
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Polypharmacy (herbal and synthetic drug combination): a novel approach in the treatment of type-2 diabetes and its complications in rats.
J Nat Med
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The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Annona squamosa with Glipizide in a high fat diet and streptozocin-induced type-2 diabetes. Nine groups (n = 6) of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study, with. Basal blood glucose, urine volume, and body weights were measured and the rate were kept on a high fat diet. After 15 days, streptozocin in sub-diabetic dose (35 mg/kg) was administered to the animals to induce diabetes. With 1 week of consistent hyperglycemia, treatment was initiated. Aqueous extract of Annona squamosa was administered orally at 350 mg/kg body weight alone and in combination with reduced and reducing dose combinations of Glipizide. Blood glucose, body weight, urine volume were measured every 10th day. The elevated blood-glucose level in diabetic rats was controlled better with combination therapy compared with the synthetic drug alone or the herbal stand-alone drug. All the results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). A combination of Annona squamosa along with Glipizide may be helpful in dose reduction of Glipizide up to 50%, reducing the risk of the onset of insulin therapy.
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Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of a novel steroidal derivative from Bryophyllum pinnatum.
Fitoterapia
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A new steroidal derivative, urs Stigmast-4, 20 (21), 23-trien-3-one and other four compounds were isolated from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. The structure of this new steroid was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. Carrageenan induced paw edema model was used for anti-inflammatory and acetic acid induced model used for analgesic activity. This new steroidal compound was found to be active in reducing inflammation (% inhibition 87.29 and 84.45 respectively) when compared with diclofenac. Further, it showed 75.72% protection in analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. In conclusion the % inhibition against carrageenan induced rat paw edema and % protection against acetic acid induced writhings showed by new compound revealed that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of aqueous extract B. pinnatum are mainly due to the presence of this steroidal compound.
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Classical to current approach for treatment of psoriasis: a review.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets
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Psoriasis is a genetic predisposition with T-cell mediated autoimmune inflammatory skin disorder, characterized by cutaneous inflammation, increased epidermal proliferation, hyperkeratosis, angiogenesis, and abnormal keratinization that affects up to 2 - 3% of the population worldwide. Common therapies that are used for the treatment of psoriasis include topical, systemic, phototherapy, combination, herbal therapy and novel molecules. Topically used agents include Vit D, calcipotriol, corticosteroids, dithranol and retinoids etc. Systemically used agents include methotrexate and cyclosporine etc. Phototherapy includes UV-B, Psoralen plus ultraviolet therapy and excimer laser etc. These therapies have a number of potential problems, such as limited in efficacy, inconvenience, organ toxicity, carcinogenic and broadband immunosuppression. In natural treatment a variety of natural agents such as methanolic extracts of duzhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis,) linseed oil, fish oil, and Indigo naturalis etc., that modulates T cell and cytokine action at various steps along with the pathogenic sequence have been developed. But till now there is no more in vivo, dose and its efficacy data has been established. Current therapy includes biologicals, small molecules inhibitor and enzyme inhibitors etc, which serve as novel therapeutic options for psoriasis treatment. All these avoid the side effects of the prebiologically developed systemic agents including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and bone marrow suppression. Currently, Denilukin diftitox, Efalizumab, Alefacept, Ustekinumab and Etanercept are approved by the FDA, and others molecules are at clinical stage. Patents issued by the US office are also included in current psoriasis treatment scenario. In the United States, biologicals are widely used for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. But because of the high cost of medication and their availability in injection form, it remains to be seen how widely these agents will be utilized worldwide. Still, developing countries prefer conventional drugs.
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Sedative, antiepileptic and antipsychotic effects of Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae) in mice and rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
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Viscum album L. is claimed in traditional medical practice, to be useful in the treatment of epilepsy and insomnia in Himachal Pradesh, India.
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Advancement in multifunctional nanoparticles for the effective treatment of cancer.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv
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Nanotechnology has gained wider importance for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. Multifunctional or theranostic agents are emerging as promising therapeutic paradigms, which provide attractive vehicles for both image and therapeutic agents. Nanosystems are capable of diagnosis, specific targeted drug therapy and monitoring therapeutic response. Due to their well-developed surface nature, nanomolecules are easy to anchor with multifunctional groups.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.