JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dectin-1 induces M1 macrophages and prominent expansion of CD8+IL-17+ cells in pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dectin-1, the innate immune receptor that recognizes ?-glucan, plays an important role in immunity against fungal pathogens. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has a sugar-rich cell wall mainly composed of mannans and glucans. This fact motivated us to use dectin-1-sufficient and -deficient mice to investigate the role of ?-glucan recognition in the immunity against pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. Initially, we verified that P. brasiliensis infection reinforced the tendency of dectin-1-deficient macrophages to express an M2 phenotype. This prevalent antiinflammatory activity of dectin-1(-/-) macrophages resulted in impaired fungicidal ability, low nitric oxide production, and elevated synthesis of interleukin 10 (IL-10). Compared with dectin-1-sufficient mice, the fungal infection of dectin-1(-/-) mice was more severe and resulted in enhanced tissue pathology and mortality rates. The absence of dectin-1 has also impaired the production of T-helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cytokines and the activation and migration of T cells to the site of infection. Remarkably, dectin-1 deficiency increased the expansion of regulatory T cells and reduced the differentiation of T cells to the IL-17(+) phenotype, impairing the migration of IL-17(+)CD8(+) T cells and polymorphonuclear cells to infected tissues. In conclusion, dectin-1 exerts an important protective role in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis by controlling the innate and adaptive phases of antifungal immunity.
Related JoVE Video
In pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis IL-10 deficiency leads to increased immunity and regressive infection without enhancing tissue pathology.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cellular immunity is the main defense mechanism in paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. Th1 immunity and IFN-? activated macrophages are fundamental to immunoprotection that is antagonized by IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Both in human and experimental PCM, several evidences indicate that the suppressive effect of IL-10 causes detrimental effects to infected hosts. Because direct studies have not been performed, this study was aimed to characterize the function of IL-10 in pulmonary PCM.
Related JoVE Video
Mannosyl-recognizing receptors induce an M1-like phenotype in macrophages of susceptible mice but an M2-like phenotype in mice resistant to a fungal infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In addition to alpha1,3 glucan, mannan and mannan-linked proteins are expressed in the outer layer of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeasts. The recognition of mannosyl residues by multiple pathogen recognition receptors, such as the mannose receptor (MR), complement receptor 3 (CR3) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on macrophage membranes can influence macrophage activation and the mechanisms of innate immunity against fungal pathogens. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of these receptors in the interaction between P. brasiliensis and macrophages from resistant (A/J) and susceptible (B10.A) mice. Therefore, the phagocytic, fungicidal and secretory abilities of macrophages were evaluated in the presence of mannan and antibodies against MR, CR3 and TLR4. We verified that mannan increased and anti-MR antibody decreased the killing ability and nitric oxide production of macrophages. The specific blockade of MR, CR3 and TLR4 by monoclonal antibodies impaired fungal recognition and modulated the production of cytokines. Mannan or P. brasiliensis induced decreased expression of MR and TLR2 on A/J macrophages, whereas CR3, TLR4 and TLR2 were reduced on B10.A cells. Importantly, both mannan and P. brasiliensis induced the production of IL-12 by B10.A macrophages, whereas TGF-?, TNF-? and IL-6 were produced by A/J cells. In addition, B10.A macrophages exhibited a prevalent expression of inducible NO-synthase and SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling-3), indicating a pro-inflammatory, "M1-like" differentiation. In contrast, the elevated expression of arginase-1, found in inflammatory zone-1 (FIZZ1), YM1 (CHI313, chitinase-like lectin), and SOCS1, typical markers of alternatively activated macrophages, indicates a prevalent "M2-like" differentiation of A/J macrophages. In conclusion, our data reveal that several mannosyl-recognizing receptors coordinate the apparently paradoxical innate response to paracoccidioidomycosis, in which resistance is initially mediated by alternatively activated phagocytes and tolerance to fungal growth, whereas susceptibility is linked to classically activated macrophages and the efficient control of fungal growth.
Related JoVE Video
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) of mice susceptible to paracoccidioidomycosis suppress T cell responses whereas myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs from resistant mice induce effector and regulatory T cells.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The protective adaptive immune response in paracoccidioidomycosis, a mycosis endemic among humans, is mediated by T cell immunity, whereas impaired T cell responses are associated with severe, progressive disease. The early host response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection is not known since the disease is diagnosed at later phases of infection. Our laboratory established a murine model of infection where susceptible mice reproduce the severe disease, while resistant mice develop a mild infection. This work aimed to characterize the influence of dendritic cells in the innate and adaptive immunity of susceptible and resistant mice. We verified that P. brasiliensis infection induced in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) of susceptible mice a prevalent proinflammatory myeloid phenotype that secreted high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-?, whereas in resistant mice, a mixed population of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs secreting proinflammatory cytokines and expressing elevated levels of secreted and membrane-bound transforming growth factor ? was observed. In proliferation assays, the proinflammatory DCs from B10.A mice induced anergy of naïve T cells, whereas the mixed DC subsets from resistant mice induced the concomitant proliferation of effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Equivalent results were observed during pulmonary infection. The susceptible mice displayed preferential expansion of proinflammatory myeloid DCs, resulting in impaired proliferation of effector T cells. Conversely, the resistant mice developed myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs that efficiently expanded gamma interferon-, IL-4-, and IL-17-positive effector T cells associated with increased development of Tregs. Our work highlights the deleterious effect of excessive innate proinflammatory reactions and provides new evidence for the importance of immunomodulation during pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis.
Related JoVE Video
MyD88 signaling is required for efficient innate and adaptive immune responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanisms that govern the initial interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a primary dimorphic fungal pathogen, and cells of the innate immunity need to be clarified. Our previous studies showed that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 regulate the initial interaction of fungal cells with macrophages and the pattern of adaptive immunity that further develops. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the role of MyD88, an adaptor molecule used by TLRs to activate genes of the inflammatory response in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. Studies were performed with normal and MyD88(-/-) C57BL/6 mice intratracheally infected with P. brasiliensis yeast cells. MyD88(-/-) macrophages displayed impaired interaction with fungal yeast cells and produced low levels of IL-12, MCP-1, and nitric oxide, thus allowing increased fungal growth. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, MyD88(-/-) mice developed a more severe infection of the lungs and had marked dissemination of fungal cells to the liver and spleen. MyD88(-/-) mice presented low levels of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines, suppressed lymphoproliferation, and impaired influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs, and this group of cells comprised lower numbers of neutrophils, activated macrophages, and T cells. Nonorganized, coalescent granulomas, which contained high numbers of fungal cells, characterized the severe lesions of MyD88(-/-) mice; the lesions replaced extensive areas of several organs. Therefore, MyD88(-/-) mice were unable to control fungal growth and showed a significantly decreased survival time. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that MyD88 signaling is important in the activation of fungicidal mechanisms and the induction of protective innate and adaptive immune responses against P. brasiliensis.
Related JoVE Video
CD28 exerts protective and detrimental effects in a pulmonary model of paracoccidioidomycosis.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
T-cell immunity has been claimed as the main immunoprotective mechanism against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection, the most important fungal infection in Latin America. As the initial events that control T-cell activation in paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are not well established, we decided to investigate the role of CD28, an important costimulatory molecule for the activation of effector and regulatory T cells, in the immunity against this pulmonary pathogen. Using CD28-deficient (CD28(-/-)) and normal wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, we were able to demonstrate that CD28 costimulation determines in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis an early immunoprotection but a late deleterious effect associated with impaired immunity and uncontrolled fungal growth. Up to week 10 postinfection, CD28(-/-) mice presented increased pulmonary and hepatic fungal loads allied with diminished production of antibodies and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines besides impaired activation and migration of effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells to the lungs. Unexpectedly, CD28-sufficient mice progressively lost the control of fungal growth, resulting in an increased mortality associated with persistent presence of Treg cells, deactivation of inflammatory macrophages and T cells, prevalent presence of anti-inflammatory cytokines, elevated fungal burdens, and extensive hepatic lesions. As a whole, our findings suggest that CD28 is required for the early protective T-cell responses to P. brasiliensis infection, but it also induces the expansion of regulatory circuits that lately impair adaptive immunity, allowing uncontrolled fungal growth and overwhelming infection, which leads to precocious mortality of mice.
Related JoVE Video
Toll-like receptor 4 signaling leads to severe fungal infection associated with enhanced proinflammatory immunity and impaired expansion of regulatory T cells.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) present in innate immune cells recognize pathogen molecular patterns and influence immunity to control the host-parasite interaction. The objective of this study was to characterize the involvement of TLR4 in the innate and adaptive immunity to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the most important primary fungal pathogen of Latin America. We compared the responses of C3H/HeJ mice, which are naturally defective in TLR4 signaling, with those of C3H/HePas mice, which express functional receptors, after in vitro and in vivo infection with P. brasiliensis. Unexpectedly, we verified that TLR4-defective macrophages infected in vitro with P. brasiliensis presented decreased fungal loads associated with impaired synthesis of nitric oxide, interleukin-12 (IL-12), and macrophage chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). After intratracheal infection with 1 million yeasts, TLR4-defective mice developed reduced fungal burdens and decreased levels of pulmonary nitric oxide, proinflammatory cytokines, and antibodies. TLR4-competent mice produced elevated levels of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), besides cytokines of the Th17 pattern, indicating a proinflammatory role for TLR4 signaling. The more severe infection of TLR4-normal mice resulted in increased influx of activated macrophages and T cells to the lungs and progressive control of fungal burdens but impaired expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). In contrast, TLR4-defective mice were not able to clear their diminished fungal burdens totally, a defect associated with deficient activation of T-cell immunity and enhanced development of Treg cells. These divergent patterns of immunity, however, resulted in equivalent mortality rates, indicating that control of elevated fungal growth mediated by vigorous inflammatory reactions is as deleterious to the hosts as low fungal loads inefficiently controlled by limited inflammatory reactions.
Related JoVE Video
TLR2 is a negative regulator of Th17 cells and tissue pathology in a pulmonary model of fungal infection.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the role of TLR2 in a experimental model of chronic pulmonary infection, TLR2-deficient and wild-type mice were intratracheally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a primary fungal pathogen. Compared with control, TLR2(-/-) mice developed a less severe pulmonary infection and decreased NO synthesis. Equivalent results were detected with in vitro-infected macrophages. Unexpectedly, despite the differences in fungal loads both mouse strains showed equivalent survival times and severe pulmonary inflammatory reactions. Studies on lung-infiltrating leukocytes of TLR2(-/-) mice demonstrated an increased presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils that control fungal loads but were associated with diminished numbers of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. TLR2 deficiency leads to minor differences in the levels of pulmonary type 1 and type 2 cytokines, but results in increased production of KC, a CXC chemokine involved in neutrophils chemotaxis, as well as TGF-beta, IL-6, IL-23, and IL-17 skewing T cell immunity to a Th17 pattern. In addition, the preferential Th17 immunity of TLR2(-/-) mice was associated with impaired expansion of regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells. This is the first study to show that TLR2 activation controls innate and adaptive immunity to P. brasiliensis infection. TLR2 deficiency results in increased Th17 immunity associated with diminished expansion of regulatory T cells and increased lung pathology due to unrestrained inflammatory reactions.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-CD25 treatment depletes Treg cells and decreases disease severity in susceptible and resistant mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are fundamental in the control of immunity and excessive tissue pathology. In paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic mycosis of Latin America, the immunoregulatory mechanisms that control the progressive and regressive forms of this infection are poorly known. Due to its modulatory activity on Treg cells, we investigated the effects of anti-CD25 treatment over the course of pulmonary infection in resistant (A/J) and susceptible (B10.A) mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We verified that the resistant A/J mice developed higher numbers and more potent Treg cells than susceptible B10.A mice. Compared to B10.A cells, the CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells of A/J mice expressed higher levels of CD25, CTLA4, GITR, Foxp3, LAP and intracellular IL-10 and TGF-?. In both resistant and susceptible mice, anti-CD25 treatment decreased the CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cell number, impaired indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression and resulted in decreased fungal loads in the lungs, liver and spleen. In A/J mice, anti-CD25 treatment led to an early increase in T cell immunity, demonstrated by the augmented influx of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells to the lungs. At a later phase, the mild infection was associated with decreased inflammatory reactions and increased Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine production. In B10.A mice, anti-CD25 treatment did not alter the inflammatory reactions but increased the fungicidal mechanisms and late secretion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines. Importantly, in both mouse strains, the early depletion of CD25(+) cells resulted in less severe tissue pathology and abolished the enhanced mortality observed in susceptible mice. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that anti-CD25 treatment is beneficial to the progressive and regressive forms of paracoccidioidomycosis, potentially due to the anti-CD25-mediated reduction of Treg cells, as these cells have suppressive effects on the early T cell response in resistant mice and the clearance mechanisms of fungal cells in susceptible mice.
Related JoVE Video
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis lipids modulate macrophage activity via Toll-dependent or independent mechanisms.
FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The macrophages are the first host cells that interact with the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, but the main mechanisms that regulate this interaction are not well understood. Because the role played by P. brasiliensis lipids in macrophage activation was not previously investigated, we aimed to assess the influence of diverse lipid fractions from P. brasiliensis yeasts in this process. The possible participation of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling was also evaluated using TLR2- and TLR4-defective macrophages. Four lipid-rich fractions were studied as follows: F1, composed by membrane phospholipids and neutral lipids, F2 by glycolipids of short chain, F3a by membrane glycoproteins anchored by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) groups, and F3b by glycolipids of long chain. All assayed lipid fractions were able to activate peritoneal macrophages and induce nitric oxide (NO) production. Importantly, the F1 and F3a fractions exerted opposite effects in the control of P. brasiliensis uptake and killing, but both fractions inhibited cytokines production. Furthermore, the increased NO production and expression of costimulatory molecules induced by F3a was shown to be TLR2 dependent although F1 used Toll-independent mechanisms. In conclusion, our work suggests that lipid components may play a role in the innate immunity against P. brasiliensis infection using Toll-dependent and independent mechanisms to control macrophage activation.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.