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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Automatic temporal lobe atrophy assessment in prodromal AD: Data from the DESCRIPA study.
Alzheimers Dement
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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In the framework of the clinical validation of research tools, this investigation presents a validation study of an automatic medial temporal lobe atrophy measure that is applied to a naturalistic population sampled from memory clinic patients across Europe.
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Visual Versus Semi-Quantitative Analysis of 18F-FDG-PET in Amnestic MCI: An European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) Project.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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We aimed to investigate the accuracy of FDG-PET to detect the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain glucose hypometabolic pattern in 142 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 109 healthy controls. aMCI patients were followed for at least two years or until conversion to dementia. Images were evaluated by means of visual read by either moderately-skilled or expert readers, and by means of a summary metric of AD-like hypometabolism (PALZ score). Seventy-seven patients converted to AD-dementia after 28.6 ± 19.3 months of follow-up. Expert reading was the most accurate tool to detect these MCI converters from healthy controls (sensitivity 89.6%, specificity 89.0%, accuracy 89.2%) while two moderately-skilled readers were less (p < 0.05) specific (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 79.8%, accuracy 82.3%) and PALZ score was less (p < 0.001) sensitive (sensitivity 62.3%, specificity 91.7%, accuracy 79.6%). Among the remaining 67 aMCI patients, 50 were confirmed as aMCI after an average of 42.3 months, 12 developed other dementia, and 3 reverted to normalcy. In 30/50 persistent MCI patients, the expert recognized the AD hypometabolic pattern. In 13/50 aMCI, both the expert and PALZ score were negative while in 7/50, only the PALZ score was positive due to sparse hypometabolic clusters mainly in frontal lobes. Visual FDG-PET reads by an expert is the most accurate method but an automated, validated system may be particularly helpful to moderately-skilled readers because of high specificity, and should be mandatory when even a moderately-skilled reader is unavailable.
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Metabolic correlates of Rey auditory verbal learning test in elderly subjects with memory complaints.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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We evaluated the brain metabolic correlates of main indexes of a widely used word list learning test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Memory Test (RAVLT), in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints. Fifty-four subjects (age: 72.02 ± 7.45; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: 28.9 ± 1.24) presenting at a memory clinic complaining of memory deficit, but not demented, and thirty controls (age: 71.87 ± 7.08; MMSE score: 29.1 ± 1.1) were included. Subjects with memory complaints included both patients with (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) and without (subjective memory complaints, SMC) impairment on memory tests. All subjects underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), analyzed with statistical parametric. Patients with aMCI but not those with SMC showed the expected posterior cingulate-precuneus and parietal hypometabolism as compared to controls. Correlation was determined for between four indexes of the RAVLT and brain metabolism. The results show a significant correlation between the delayed recall score and metabolism in posterior cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres and in left precuneus, as well as between a score of long-term percent retention and metabolism in left posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and orbitofrontal areas. These correlations survived correction for age, education, and MMSE score. No correlation was found between immediate or total recall scores and glucose metabolism. These data show the relevant role of posterior cingulate-precuneus and orbitofrontal cortices in retention and retrieval of de-contextualized verbal memory material in a group of elderly subjects with memory complaints and shed light on the topography of synaptic dysfunction in these subjects, overlapping that found in the earliest stages of Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration.
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The use of biomarkers for the etiologic diagnosis of MCI in Europe: An EADC survey.
Alzheimers Dement
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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We investigated the use of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers in European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium centers and assessed their perceived usefulness for the etiologic diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We surveyed availability, frequency of use, and confidence in diagnostic usefulness of markers of brain amyloidosis (amyloid positron emission tomography [PET], cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] A?42) and neurodegeneration (medial temporal atrophy [MTA] on MR, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [FDG-PET], CSF tau). The most frequently used biomarker is visually rated MTA (75% of the 37 responders reported using it "always/frequently") followed by CSF markers (22%), FDG-PET (16%), and amyloid-PET (3%). Only 45% of responders perceive MTA as contributing to diagnostic confidence, where the contribution was rated as "moderate". Seventy-nine percent of responders felt "very/extremely" comfortable delivering a diagnosis of MCI due to AD when both amyloid and neuronal injury biomarkers were abnormal (P < .02 versus any individual biomarker). Responders largely agreed that a combination of amyloidosis and neuronal injury biomarkers was a strongly indicative AD signature.
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Neuroimaging features in C9orf72 and TARDBP double mutation with FTD phenotype.
Neurocase
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Increasing evidence has shown that morphological and functional neuroimaging may help to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to behavioral disturbances in patients with genetic or sporadic frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The C9orf72 expansion was found in association with the N267S TARDBP mutation in two siblings with behavioral-variant FTD (bvFTD). In one of them with very mild dementia, MRI showed symmetric atrophy of temporal, inferolateral and orbital frontal cortex, while [18F]FDG-PET disclosed more extended hypometabolism in dorsolateral and inferolateral frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and caudate nucleus. Hypometabolism in right lateral and orbital frontal cortex was confirmed also in comparison with a group of sporadic bvFTD patients. These findings appear as the neuroimaging hallmark of double C9orf72 and TARDBP gene mutation with a bvFTD phenotype.
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Functional pattern of brain FDG-PET in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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We investigated a large sample of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at rest in order to assess the value of (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET as a biomarker to discriminate patients from controls.
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Extrastriatal binding of [¹²³I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [(123)I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls.
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Association of central serotonin transporter availability and body mass index in healthy Europeans.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Serotonin-mediated mechanisms, in particular via the serotonin transporter (SERT), are thought to have an effect on food intake and play an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, imaging studies that examined the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and SERT are sparse and provided contradictory results. The aim of this study was to further test the association between SERT and BMI in a large cohort of healthy subjects.
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Multisite longitudinal reliability of tract-based spatial statistics in diffusion tensor imaging of healthy elderly subjects.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies with diffusion imaging techniques are necessary to test and validate models of white matter neurophysiological processes that change in time, both in healthy and diseased brains. The predictive power of such longitudinal models will always be limited by the reproducibility of repeated measures acquired during different sessions. At present, there is limited quantitative knowledge about the across-session reproducibility of standard diffusion metrics in 3T multi-centric studies on subjects in stable conditions, in particular when using tract based spatial statistics and with elderly people. In this study we implemented a multi-site brain diffusion protocol in 10 clinical 3T MRI sites distributed across 4 countries in Europe (Italy, Germany, France and Greece) using vendor provided sequences from Siemens (Allegra, Trio Tim, Verio, Skyra, Biograph mMR), Philips (Achieva) and GE (HDxt) scanners. We acquired DTI data (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3), b = 700 s/mm(2), 5 b0 and 30 diffusion weighted volumes) of a group of healthy stable elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) in two separate sessions at least a week apart. For each subject and session four scalar diffusion metrics were considered: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity. The diffusion metrics from multiple subjects and sessions at each site were aligned to their common white matter skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics. The reproducibility at each MRI site was examined by looking at group averages of absolute changes relative to the mean (%) on various parameters: i) reproducibility of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the b0 images in centrum semiovale, ii) full brain test-retest differences of the diffusion metric maps on the white matter skeleton, iii) reproducibility of the diffusion metrics on atlas-based white matter ROIs on the white matter skeleton. Despite the differences of MRI scanner configurations across sites (vendors, models, RF coils and acquisition sequences) we found good and consistent test-retest reproducibility. White matter b0 SNR reproducibility was on average 7 ± 1% with no significant MRI site effects. Whole brain analysis resulted in no significant test-retest differences at any of the sites with any of the DTI metrics. The atlas-based ROI analysis showed that the mean reproducibility errors largely remained in the 2-4% range for FA and AD and 2-6% for MD and RD, averaged across ROIs. Our results show reproducibility values comparable to those reported in studies using a smaller number of MRI scanners, slightly different DTI protocols and mostly younger populations. We therefore show that the acquisition and analysis protocols used are appropriate for multi-site experimental scenarios.
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A survey of FDG- and amyloid-PET imaging in dementia and GRADE analysis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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PET based tools can improve the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and differential diagnosis of dementia. The importance of identifying individuals at risk of developing dementia among people with subjective cognitive complaints or mild cognitive impairment has clinical, social, and therapeutic implications. Within the two major classes of AD biomarkers currently identified, that is, markers of pathology and neurodegeneration, amyloid- and FDG-PET imaging represent decisive tools for their measurement. As a consequence, the PET tools have been recognized to be of crucial value in the recent guidelines for the early diagnosis of AD and other dementia conditions. The references based recommendations, however, include large PET imaging literature based on visual methods that greatly reduces sensitivity and specificity and lacks a clear cut-off between normal and pathological findings. PET imaging can be assessed using parametric or voxel-wise analyses by comparing the subject's scan with a normative data set, significantly increasing the diagnostic accuracy. This paper is a survey of the relevant literature on FDG and amyloid-PET imaging aimed at providing the value of quantification for the early and differential diagnosis of AD. This allowed a meta-analysis and GRADE analysis revealing high values for PET imaging that might be useful in considering recommendations.
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The metabolic signature of C9ORF72-related ALS: FDG PET comparison with nonmutated patients.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Recently, a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene, located on chromosome 9p21 has been demonstrated to be the commonest cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to account for 5 to 10 % of apparently sporadic ALS. Relatively little is known about the brain metabolism profile of patients carrying the expansion. Our aim was to identify the [(18)F]FDG PET profile in ALS patients with the C9ORF72 expansion (C9ORF72-ALS).
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Validation of an optimized SPM procedure for FDG-PET in dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diagnostic accuracy in FDG-PET imaging highly depends on the operating procedures. In this clinical study on dementia, we compared the diagnostic accuracy at a single-subject level of a) Clinical Scenarios, b) Standard FDG Images and c) Statistical Parametrical (SPM) Maps generated via a new optimized SPM procedure. We evaluated the added value of FDG-PET, either Standard FDG Images or SPM Maps, to Clinical Scenarios. In 88 patients with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's Disease-AD, Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration-FTLD, Dementia with Lewy bodies-DLB and Mild Cognitive Impairment-MCI), 9 neuroimaging experts made a forced diagnostic decision on the basis of the evaluation of the three types of information. There was also the possibility of a decision of normality on the FDG-PET images. The clinical diagnosis confirmed at a long-term follow-up was used as the gold standard. SPM Maps showed higher sensitivity and specificity (96% and 84%), and better diagnostic positive (6.8) and negative (0.05) likelihood ratios compared to Clinical Scenarios and Standard FDG Images. SPM Maps increased diagnostic accuracy for differential diagnosis (AD vs. FTD; beta 1.414, p = 0.019). The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.67 for SPM Maps, 0.57 for Clinical Scenarios and 0.50 for Standard FDG Images. In the MCI group, SPM Maps showed the highest predictive prognostic value (mean LOC = 2.46), by identifying either normal brain metabolism (exclusionary role) or hypometabolic patterns typical of different neurodegenerative conditions.
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Cognitive reserve and clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease: evidence and implications for brain PET imaging.
Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to the hypothesized capacity of an adult brain to cope with brain damage in order to minimize symptomatology. The present review is focused on the contribution of brain PET in the understanding of the influence of CR on the disassociation between cognition and degree of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Theories for the explanation CR-related mechanism as well as PET imaging evidence for the existence of CR are described. Moreover functional imaging studies investigating specific networks for CR both in healthy subjects and AD patients are discussed. Finally implications for amyloid PET imaging are presented.
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Plasma antioxidants and brain glucose metabolism in elderly subjects with cognitive complaints.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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The role of oxidative stress is increasingly recognized in cognitive disorders of the elderly, notably Alzheimers disease (AD). In these subjects brain(18)F-FDG PET is regarded as a reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that oxidative stress could play a role in impairing brain glucose utilization in elderly subjects with increasing severity of cognitive disturbance.
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Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic alpha rhythms deteriorate across time in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are abnormal in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we tested the hypothesis that these sources in amnesic MCI subjects further deteriorate over 1 year. To this aim, the resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 54 MCI subjects at baseline (Mini Mental State Examination I = 26.9; standard error [SE], 0.2) and at approximately 1-year follow-up (13.8 months; SE, 0.5; Mini Mental State Examination II = 25.8; SE, 0.2). As a control, EEG recordings were also performed in 45 normal elderly and in 50 mild Alzheimers disease subjects. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Compared with the normal elderly and mild Alzheimers disease subjects, the MCI subjects were characterized by an intermediate power of posterior alpha1 sources. In the MCI subjects, the follow-up EEG recordings showed a decreased power of posterior alpha1 and alpha2 sources. These results suggest that the resting state EEG alpha sources were sensitive-at least at the group level-to the cognitive decline occurring in the amnesic MCI group over 1 year, and might represent cost-effective, noninvasive and widely available markers to follow amnesic MCI populations in large clinical trials.
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Metabolic networks underlying cognitive reserve in prodromal Alzheimer disease: a European Alzheimer disease consortium project.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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This project aimed to investigate the metabolic basis for resilience to neurodegeneration (cognitive reserve) in highly educated patients with prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD).
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Brain morphometry reproducibility in multi-center 3T MRI studies: a comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal segmentations.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Large-scale longitudinal multi-site MRI brain morphometry studies are becoming increasingly crucial to characterize both normal and clinical population groups using fully automated segmentation tools. The test-retest reproducibility of morphometry data acquired across multiple scanning sessions, and for different MR vendors, is an important reliability indicator since it defines the sensitivity of a protocol to detect longitudinal effects in a consortium. There is very limited knowledge about how across-session reliability of morphometry estimates might be affected by different 3T MRI systems. Moreover, there is a need for optimal acquisition and analysis protocols in order to reduce sample sizes. A recent study has shown that the longitudinal FreeSurfer segmentation offers improved within session test-retest reproducibility relative to the cross-sectional segmentation at one 3T site using a nonstandard multi-echo MPRAGE sequence. In this study we implement a multi-site 3T MRI morphometry protocol based on vendor provided T1 structural sequences from different vendors (3D MPRAGE on Siemens and Philips, 3D IR-SPGR on GE) implemented in 8 sites located in 4 European countries. The protocols used mild acceleration factors (1.5-2) when possible. We acquired across-session test-retest structural data of a group of healthy elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) and compared the across-session reproducibility of two full-brain automated segmentation methods based on either longitudinal or cross-sectional FreeSurfer processing. The segmentations include cortical thickness, intracranial, ventricle and subcortical volumes. Reproducibility is evaluated as absolute changes relative to the mean (%), Dice coefficient for volume overlap and intraclass correlation coefficients across two sessions. We found that this acquisition and analysis protocol gives comparable reproducibility results to previous studies that used longer acquisitions without acceleration. We also show that the longitudinal processing is systematically more reliable across sites regardless of MRI system differences. The reproducibility errors of the longitudinal segmentations are on average approximately half of those obtained with the cross sectional analysis for all volume segmentations and for entorhinal cortical thickness. No significant differences in reliability are found between the segmentation methods for the other cortical thickness estimates. The average of two MPRAGE volumes acquired within each test-retest session did not systematically improve the across-session reproducibility of morphometry estimates. Our results extend those from previous studies that showed improved reliability of the longitudinal analysis at single sites and/or with non-standard acquisition methods. The multi-site acquisition and analysis protocol presented here is promising for clinical applications since it allows for smaller sample sizes per MRI site or shorter trials in studies evaluating the role of potential biomarkers to predict disease progression or treatment effects.
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No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using [123I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT.
EJNMMI Res
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways play important roles in both the rewarding and conditioning effects of drugs. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is of central importance in regulating dopaminergic neurotransmission and in particular in activating the striatal D2-like receptors. Molecular imaging studies of the relationship between DAT availability/dopamine synthesis capacity and active cigarette smoking have shown conflicting results. Through the collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10 different European countries, a database of FP-CIT-binding in healthy controls was established. We used the database to test the hypothesis that striatal DAT availability is changed in active smokers compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers.
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Value of semiquantitative analysis for clinical reporting of 123I-2-?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane SPECT studies.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Clinical (123)I-2-?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) SPECT studies are commonly performed and reported using visual evaluation of tracer binding, an inherently subjective method. Increased objectivity can potentially be obtained using semiquantitative analysis. In this study, we assessed whether semiquantitative analysis of (123)I-FP-CIT tracer binding created more reproducible clinical reporting. A secondary aim was to determine in what form semiquantitative data should be provided to the reporter.
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Prediction of Alzheimer disease in subjects with amnestic and nonamnestic MCI.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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To compare the predictive accuracy of ?-amyloid (A?)1-42 and total tau in CSF, hippocampal volume (HCV), and APOE genotype for Alzheimer disease (AD)-type dementia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI).
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Measurements of medial temporal lobe atrophy for prediction of Alzheimers disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Our aim was to compare the predictive accuracy of 4 different medial temporal lobe measurements for Alzheimers disease (AD) in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Manual hippocampal measurement, automated atlas-based hippocampal measurement, a visual rating scale (MTA-score), and lateral ventricle measurement were compared. Predictive accuracy for AD 2 years after baseline was assessed by receiver operating characteristics analyses with area under the curve as outcome. Annual cognitive decline was assessed by slope analyses up to 5 years after baseline. Correlations with biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated. Subjects with MCI were selected from the Development of Screening Guidelines and Clinical Criteria for Predementia AD (DESCRIPA) multicenter study (n = 156) and the single-center VU medical center (n = 172). At follow-up, area under the curve was highest for automated atlas-based hippocampal measurement (0.71) and manual hippocampal measurement (0.71), and lower for MTA-score (0.65) and lateral ventricle (0.60). Slope analysis yielded similar results. Hippocampal measurements correlated with CSF total tau and phosphorylated tau, not with beta-amyloid 1-42. MTA-score and lateral ventricle volume correlated with CSF beta-amyloid 1-42. We can conclude that volumetric hippocampal measurements are the best predictors of AD conversion in subjects with MCI.
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Brain hypermetabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a FDG PET study in ALS of spinal and bulbar onset.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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To identify the neurobiological traits of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to elucidate functional differences between ALS of spinal and bulbar onset. We hypothesized that glucose metabolism distribution might vary between groups.
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Correlation between Doppler velocities and duplex ultrasound carotid cross-sectional percent stenosis.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Cross-sectional imaging is being increasingly proposed as a suitable tool to characterize carotid plaques. The aim of this work was to correlate the Doppler velocity parameters with the cross-sectional percent stenosis (CPoS) of internal carotid artery (ICA) and to identify the cutoff values of these parameters in five progressive classes of stenosis area severity (ie, 40%-49%, 50%-59%, 60%-69%, 70%-79%, 80%-90%).
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Brain perfusion correlates of cognitive and nigrostriatal functions in de novo Parkinsons disease.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Subtle cognitive impairment is recognized in the first stages of Parkinsons disease (PD), including executive, memory and visuospatial dysfunction, but its pathophysiological basis is still debated.
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Radionuclide brain imaging correlates of cognitive impairment in Parkinsons disease (PD).
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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A subtle cognitive impairment can be detected early in the course of Parkinsons disease (PD). Executive, memory and visuospatial functions are specifically affected, but the underlying pathophysiological basis is not well elucidated yet and may be heterogeneous. The recent identification of a PD-related cognitive metabolic pattern (PDCP), including hypometabolism in associative frontal, parietal and posterior limbic structures, has integrated the classical notion of a striato-frontal syndrome at the basis of cognitive dys-function. Recent evidence suggests that whilst executive dys-function is seen in virtually all PD patients, visuospatial and memory impairment may share a higher risk for the subsequent development of dementia. By means of perfusion SPECT and [18F]FDG-PET, cortical dys-function may be highlighted since the early stages, it is more evident in PD patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and reaches the maximum in PD dementia (PDD). Posterior temporo-parieto-occipital dys-function in associative and limbic cortex, closely resembling that found in Alzheimers disease patients, is found in PDD, with a more severe occipital hypometabolism and a relatively milder hypometabolism in medial temporal lobe structures. Furthermore, deficit of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) can be found by means of [11C]MP4A-PET already in early stage of PD, especially in posterior regions, then becoming more severe in PDD and in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Administration of AchE inhibitors to PDD patients increased brain metabolism in bilateral frontal and left parietal regions, and left posterior cingulate. Finally, the recent availability of radiopharmaceuticals able to disclose amyloid brain deposition has allowed to demonstrate amyloid load in a part of patients with PDD, possibly due to diffuse rather than neuritic plaques. Brain PET and SPECT have strongly contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in PD and may serve as probes to monitor the effects of therapeutic interventions.
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Local MRI analysis approach in the diagnosis of early and prodromal Alzheimers disease.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy is one of the key biomarkers to detect early neurodegenerative changes in the course of Alzheimers disease (AD). There is active research aimed at identifying automated methodologies able to extract accurate classification indexes from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI). Such indexes should be fit for identifying AD patients as early as possible.
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Association between white matter hyperintensities and executive decline in mild cognitive impairment is network dependent.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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White matter hyperintensities (WMH) in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) have been associated with impaired executive functioning, although contradictory findings have been reported. The aim of this study was to examine whether WMH location influenced the relation between WMH and executive functioning in MCI participants (55-90 years) in the European multicenter memory-clinic-based DESCRIPA study, who underwent MRI scanning at baseline (N = 337). Linear mixed model analysis was performed to test the association between WMH damage in three networks (frontal-parietal, frontal-subcortical and frontal-parietal-subcortical network) and change in executive functioning over a 3-year period. WMH in the frontal-parietal and in the frontal-parietal-subcortical network were associated with decline in executive functioning. However, the frontal-subcortical network was not associated with change in executive functioning. Our results suggest that parietal WMH are a significant contributor to executive decline in MCI and that investigation of WMH in the cerebral networks supporting cognitive functions provide a new way to differentiate stable from cognitive declining MCI individuals.
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Assessment of dementia in ethnic minority patients in Europe: a European Alzheimers Disease Consortium survey.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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In most European countries the ethnic minority migrant populations are currently reaching an age where dementia becomes an increasingly important issue. There is no European consensus on good clinical practice with these patient groups, who often have special needs and expectations with regard to dementia services.
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Whole body and cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine kinetics in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy: implications for the diagnostic role of imaging.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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This study investigates whether combined analysis of I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) kinetics in the heart and in the whole body can improve the accuracy of differential diagnosis between idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) and a Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P).
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Stability of clinical condition in mild cognitive impairment is related to cortical sources of alpha rhythms: an electroencephalographic study.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2010
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Previous evidence has shown that resting eyes-closed cortical alpha rhythms are higher in amplitude in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) than Alzheimers disease (AD) subjects (Babiloni et al. [2006a]: Human Brain Mapp 27:162-172; [2006b]: Clin Neurophysiol 117:252-268; [2006c]: Neuroimage 29:948-964; [2006d]: Ann Neurol 59:323-334; [2006e]: Clin Neurophysiol 117:1113-1129; [2006f]: Neuroimage 31:1650-1665). This study tested the hypothesis that, in amnesic MCI subjects, high amplitude of baseline cortical alpha rhythms is related to long-term stability of global cognition on clinical follow-up. Resting electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 100 amnesic MCI subjects during eyes-closed condition. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Global cognition was indexed by mini mental state evaluation (MMSE) score at the time of EEG recordings (baseline) and about after 1 year. Based on the MMSE percentage difference between baseline and 1-year follow-up (MMSEvar), the MCI subjects were retrospectively divided into three arbitrary groups: DECREASED (MMSEvar ? -4%; N = 43), STABLE (MMSEvar ? 0; N = 27), and INCREASED (MMSEvar ? +4%; N = 30). Subjects age, education, individual alpha frequency, gender, and MMSE scores were used as covariates for statistical analysis. Baseline posterior cortical sources of alpha 1 rhythms were higher in amplitude in the STABLE than in the DECREASED and INCREASED groups. These results suggest that preserved resting cortical neural synchronization at alpha frequency is related to a long-term (1 year) stable cognitive function in MCI subjects. Future studies should use serial MMSE measurements to confirm and refine the present results.
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Cognitive-nigrostriatal relationships in de novo, drug-naïve Parkinsons disease patients: a [I-123]FP-CIT SPECT study.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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To unveil cognitive-nigrostriatal correlations in Parkinsons disease (PD), 30 de novo, drug-naïve PD patients and 15 patients with essential tremor (Controls, CTR) underwent a neuropsychological (NPS) battery and brain SPECT with [I-123]Ioflupane, as a biomarker of nigrostriatal function. Automatic extraction of uptake at caudate and putamen level was conducted through the BasGan software, also allowing partial volume effect correction. Because of the multicollinearity among neuropsychological tests and among SPECT variables, factor analysis was applied to 16 neuropsychological scores; moreover, the four SPECT variables were merged into a mean SPECT value (mSPECT). Factor analysis identified four NPS factors: a dys-executive (NPS-EX), a visuospatial (NPS-VS), a verbal memory (NPS-VM), and a "mixed" (NPD-MIX) factor. In PD group, there were inverse correlations between UPDRS-III score and both NPS-VS (P < 0.01) and mSPECT (P < 0.05), and a direct correlation between mSPECT and NPS-EX (P < 0.05). Post hoc analysis showed a direct correlation between NPS-EX and caudate uptake in both hemispheres (P < 0.05). Moreover, inverse correlations were found between UPDRS-III and, respectively, putamen uptake in the less affected hemisphere (P < 0.01), and putamen and caudate uptake in the more affected hemisphere (P < 0.05). In CTR, no correlation was found between mSPECT and either NPS or GDS values. Nigro-caudate function affects executive capabilities in PD but not in CTR, which appears to be unrelated to the disease motor severity at its onset. Instead, PD motor severity is related to nigro-putaminal impairment and visuospatial dysfunction. The role of these data as predictive features of cognitive decline and eventually dementia remains to be established in longitudinal studies.
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EANM procedure guidelines for PET brain imaging using [18F]FDG, version 2.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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These guidelines summarize the current views of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging Committee (ENC). The purpose of the guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in making recommendations, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) PET imaging of the brain. The aim is to help achieve a high standard of FDG imaging, which will increase the diagnostic impact of this technique in neurological and psychiatric practice. The present document replaces a former version of the guidelines that were published in 2002 [1] and includes an update in the light of advances in PET technology, the introduction of hybrid PET/CT systems and the broadening clinical indications for FDG brain imaging. These guidelines are intended to present information specifically adapted for European practice. The information provided should be taken in the context of local conditions and regulations.
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EANM procedure guideline for brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, version 2.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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These guidelines summarize the current views of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging Committee (ENC). The purpose of the guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners when making recommendations, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies using (99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. The aim is to achieve a high quality standard for brain perfusion SPECT imaging, which will increase the diagnostic impact of this technique in clinical practice. The present document replaces a former version of the guideline published in 2001 which was inspired by the Society of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guideline for Brain Perfusion SPECT [1], the views of the Society of Nuclear Medicine Brain Imaging Council [2], and the individual experience of experts in European countries. The guidelines are intended to present information specifically adapted to European practice. The information provided should be taken in the context of local conditions and regulations.
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Automatic analysis of medial temporal lobe atrophy from structural MRIs for the early assessment of Alzheimer disease.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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The purpose of this study is to develop a software for the extraction of the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images with no interactive input from the user, to introduce a novel statistical indicator, computed on the intensities in the automatically extracted MTL regions, which measures atrophy, and to evaluate the accuracy of the newly developed intensity-based measure of MTL atrophy to (a) distinguish between patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and elderly controls by using established criteria for patients with AD and aMCI as the reference standard and (b) infer about the clinical outcome of aMCI patients. For the development of the software, the study included 61 patients with mild AD (17 men, 44 women; mean age +/- standard deviation (SD), 75.8 years +/- 7.8; Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, 24.1 +/- 3.1), 42 patients with aMCI (11 men, 31 women; mean age +/- SD, 75.2 years +/- 4.9; MMSE score, 27.9 +/- 1.9), and 30 elderly healthy controls (10 men, 20 women; mean age +/- SD, 74.7 years +/- 5.2; MMSE score, 29.1 +/- 0.8). For the evaluation of the statistical indicator, 150 patients with mild AD (62 men, 88 women; mean age +/- SD, 76.3 years +/- 5.8; MMSE score, 23.2 +/- 4.1), 247 patients with aMCI (143 men, 104 women; mean age +/- SD, 75.3 years +/- 6.7; MMSE score, 27.0 +/- 1.8), and 135 elderly healthy controls (61 men, 74 women; mean age +/- SD, 76.4 years +/- 6.1). Fifty aMCI patients were evaluated every 6 months over a 3 year period to assess conversion to AD. For each participant, two subimages of the MTL regions were automatically extracted from T1-weighted MR images with high spatial resolution. An intensity-based MTL atrophy measure was found to separate control, MCI, and AD cohorts. Group differences were assessed by using two-sample t test. Individual classification was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Compared to controls, significant differences in the intensity-based MTL atrophy measure were detected in both groups of patients (AD vs controls, 0.28 +/- 0.03 vs 0.34 +/- 0.03, P < 0.001; aMCI vs controls, 0.31 +/- 0.03 vs 0.34 +/- 0.03, P < 0.001). Moreover, the subgroup of aMCI converters was significantly different from controls (0.27 +/- 0.034 vs 0.34 +/- 0.03, P < 0.001). Regarding the ROC curve for intergroup discrimination, the area under the curve was 0.863 for AD patients vs controls, 0.746 for all aMCI patients vs controls, and 0.880 for aMCI converters vs controls. With specificity set at 85%, the sensitivity was 74% for AD vs controls, 45% for aMCI vs controls, and 83% for aMCI converters vs controls. The automated analysis of MTL atrophy in the segmented volume is applied to the early assessment of AD, leading to the discrimination of aMCI converters with an average 3 year follow-up. This procedure can provide additional useful information in the early diagnosis of AD.
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Principal component analysis in mild and moderate Alzheimers disease--a novel approach to clinical diagnosis.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Principal component analysis (PCA) provides a method to explore functional brain connectivity. The aim of this study was to identify regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution differences between Alzheimers disease (AD) patients and controls (CTR) by means of volume of interest (VOI) analysis and PCA. Thirty-seven CTR, 30 mild AD (mildAD) and 27 moderate AD (modAD) subjects were investigated using single photon emission computed tomography with (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), PCA, and discriminant analysis (DA) were performed on 54 VOIs. VOI analysis identified in both mildAD and modAD subjects a decreased rCBF in six regions. PCA in mildAD subjects identified four principal components (PCs) in which the correlated VOIs showed a decreased level of rCBF, including regions that are typically affected early in the disease. In five PCs, including parietal-temporal-limbic cortex, and hippocampus, a significantly lower rCBF in correlated VOIs was found in modAD subjects. DA significantly discriminated the groups. The percentage of subjects correctly classified was 95, 70, and 81 for CTR, mildAD and modAD groups, respectively. PCA highlighted, in mildAD and modAD, relationships not evident when brain regions are considered as independent of each other, and it was effective in discriminating groups. These findings may allow neurophysiological inferences to be drawn regarding brain functional connectivity in AD that might not be possible with univariate analysis.
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Impaired access to semantic memory for the cognition of geographic space in Alzheimers disease.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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This study explores the possibility to capitalize from a widely used semantic fluency test, in order to investigate aspects of topographical space representation, still poorly studied in neurodegenerative diseases. Twenty-six patients with mild Alzheimers disease (AD) and 13 healthy control (CTR) subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline (T0) and about 2 years later (T1). The cities named during category verbal fluency test ("names of cities") were marked on a map, and the polygon perimeter obtained by joining the external points was computed. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score, number of cities named and perimeter length were compared between T0 and T1, both within-group and between groups. MMSE score and number of cities significantly differed between AD and CTR both at T0 and at T1; perimeter length differed significantly only at T1. Between T0 and T1, all the three parameters significantly decreased in AD, while they were substantially unchanged in CTR. Besides a reduction of semantic verbal fluency, there seems to be a restriction of mental geographic space representation already in mild AD. These findings should be confirmed and exploited by further ad hoc investigations.
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Amnestic mild cognitive impairment in Parkinsons disease: a brain perfusion SPECT study.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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The purpose of this study was to investigate cortical dysfunction in Parkinsons disease (PD) patients with amnestic deficit (PD-MCI). Perfusion single photon emission computed tomography was performed in 15 PD-MCI patients and compared (statistical parametric mapping [SPM2]) with three groups, i.e., healthy subjects (CTR), cognitively intact PD patients (PD), and common amnestic MCI patients (aMCI). Age, depression, and UPDRS-III scores were considered as confounding variables. PD-MCI group (P < 0.05, false discovery rate-corrected for multiple comparisons) showed relative hypoperfusion in bilateral posterior parietal lobe and in right occipital lobe in comparison to CTR. As compared to aMCI, MCI-PD demonstrated hypoperfusion in bilateral posterior parietal and occipital areas, mainly right cuneus and angular gyrus, and left precuneus and middle occipital gyrus. With a less conservative threshold (uncorrected P < 0.01), MCI-PD showed hypoperfusion in a left parietal region, mainly including precuneus and inferior parietal lobule, and in a right temporal-parietal-occipital region, including middle occipital and superior temporal gyri, and cuneus-precuneus, as compared to PD. aMCI versus PD-MCI showed hypoperfusion in bilateral medial temporal lobe, anterior cingulate, and left orbitofrontal cortex. PD-MCI patients with amnestic deficit showed cortical dysfunction in bilateral posterior parietal and occipital lobes, a pattern that can be especially recognized versus both controls and common aMCI patients, and to a lesser extent versus cognitively intact PD. The relevance of this pattern in predicting dementia should be evaluated in longitudinal studies.
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Directionality of EEG synchronization in Alzheimers disease subjects.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Is directionality of electroencephalographic (EEG) synchronization abnormal in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimers disease (AD)? EEG data were recorded in 64 normal elderly (Nold), 69 amnesic MCI, and 73 mild AD subjects at rest condition (closed eyes). Direction of information flux within EEG functional coupling at electrode pairs was performed by directed transfer function (DTF) at delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10 Hz), alpha 2 (10-12 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). Parietal to frontal direction of the information flux within EEG functional coupling was stronger in Nold than in MCI and/or AD subjects, namely for alpha and beta rhythms. In contrast, the directional flow within inter-hemispheric EEG functional coupling did not discriminate among the three groups. These results suggest that directionality of parieto-to-frontal EEG synchronization is abnormal not only in AD but also in amnesic MCI.
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European multicentre database of healthy controls for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
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Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [(123)I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls.
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A repository based on a dynamically extensible data model supporting multidisciplinary research in neuroscience.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
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Robust, extensible and distributed databases integrating clinical, imaging and molecular data represent a substantial challenge for modern neuroscience. It is even more difficult to provide extensible software environments able to effectively target the rapidly changing data requirements and structures of research experiments. There is an increasing request from the neuroscience community for software tools addressing technical challenges about: (i) supporting researchers in the medical field to carry out data analysis using integrated bioinformatics services and tools; (ii) handling multimodal/multiscale data and metadata, enabling the injection of several different data types according to structured schemas; (iii) providing high extensibility, in order to address different requirements deriving from a large variety of applications simply through a user runtime configuration.
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No association between striatal dopamine transporter binding and body mass index: a multi-center European study in healthy volunteers.
Neuroimage
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Dopamine is one among several neurotransmitters that regulate food intake and overeating. Thus, it has been linked to the pathophysiology of obesity and high body mass index (BMI). Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor availability is lower in obesity and there are indications that striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability is also decreased. In this study, we tested whether BMI and striatal DAT availability are associated.
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The short cognitive evaluation battery in cognitive disorders of the elderly--Italian version.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
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To validate the Italian version of the Short Cognitive Evaluation Battery (SCEB), consisting of 4 tests (temporal orientation, five words, clock drawing and verbal fluency) in healthy controls (CONT), patients with mild Alzheimers disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and major depressive disorder (DEP).
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Cognitive impairment in degenerative parkinsonisms: role of radionuclide brain imaging.
Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
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Cognitive impairment in Parkinsons disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian syndromes is gaining increased clinical significance. The neurochemical and neuropathological basis in the various parkinsonian forms and even in an individual patient are not fully elucidated yet and could be heterogeneous. Loss of dopaminergic, cholinergic and noradrenergic innervation has been suggested to be the underlying neurochemical deficits for cognitive impairment and dementia in PD, but the onset of cognitive impairment and the progression to dementia may not share the same underlying neurochemical basis. Similarly, pathological evidence is also heterogeneous, ranging from subcortical pathology, limbic or cortical Lewy body type degeneration, and Alzheimers type pathology that can be found even in the same patient with PD dementia (PDD). Typically, the prototype of early cognitive deficit in PD is a dysexecutive syndrome, but other cognitive domains are more involved when dementia develops, mainly including visuospatial, language and memory dysfunction. Functional radionuclide neuroimaging, by means of single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography, are contributing to characterize the topographic cortical pattern of cognitive impairment, as well as to define the underlying neurochemical deficit. Lastly, the advent of amyloid PET may help clarifying the meaning of amyloid load in diffuse Lewy body disease and PDD. Knowing the neurochemical and pathophysiological substrate of cognitive deficit in patients with PD or other degenerative Parkinsonisms may help the clinician in understanding the clinical condition of an individual patient in order to plan pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention. The introduction of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for therapy of PDD is an example of information integration between clinical-neuropsychological and pathophysiological-neurochemical aspects obtained also with the key contribution of functional neuroimaging.
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Resting metabolic connectivity in prodromal Alzheimers disease. A European Alzheimer Disease Consortium (EADC) project.
Neurobiol. Aging
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We explored resting-state metabolic connectivity in prodromal Alzheimers disease (pAD) patients and in healthy controls (CTR), through a voxel-wise interregional correlation analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) by means of statistical parametric mapping. Baseline 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography of 36 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment who converted to Alzheimers disease (AD) dementia after an average time of 2 years (pAD) and of 105 CTR were processed. The area of hypometabolism in pAD showed less metabolic connectivity in patients than in CTR (autocorrelation and correlation with large temporal and frontal areas, respectively). pAD patients showed limited correlation even in selected nonhypometabolic areas, including the hippocampi and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFC). On the contrary, in CTR group correlation was highlighted between hippocampi and precuneus/posterior cingulate and frontal cortex, and between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nuclei and parietal cortex. The reduced metabolic connections both in hypometabolic and nonhypometabolic areas in pAD patients suggest that metabolic disconnection (reflecting early diaschisis) may antedate remote hypometabolism (early sign of synaptic degeneration).
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Summary metrics to assess Alzheimer disease-related hypometabolic pattern with 18F-FDG PET: head-to-head comparison.
J. Nucl. Med.
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In the recently revised diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD), the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer Association suggested that confidence in diagnosing dementia due to AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD could be improved by the use of certain biomarkers, such as (18)F-FDG PET evidence of hypometabolism in AD-affected brain regions. Three groups have developed automated data analysis techniques to characterize the AD-related pattern of hypometabolism in a single measurement. In this study, we sought to directly compare the ability of these three (18)F-FDG PET data analysis techniques--the PMOD Alzheimer discrimination analysis tool, the hypometabolic convergence index, and a set of meta-analytically derived regions of interest reflecting AD hypometabolism pattern (metaROI)--to distinguish moderate or mild AD dementia patients and MCI patients who subsequently converted to AD dementia from cognitively normal older adults.
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What predicts cognitive decline in de novo Parkinsons disease?
Neurobiol. Aging
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Subtle cognitive impairment can be detected in early Parkinsons disease (PD). In a consecutive series of de novo, drug-naive PD patients, we applied stepwise regression analysis to assess which clinical, neuropsychological, and functional neuroimaging (dopamine transporter [DAT] and perfusion single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]) characteristics at baseline was predictive of cognitive decline during an average follow-up time of about 4 years. Decline both in executive (R(2) = 0.54; p = 0.0001) and visuospatial (R(2) = 0.56; p = 0.0001) functions was predicted by the couple of Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-III score and caudate dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake in the less affected hemisphere (LAH). Verbal memory and language decline was predicted instead by caudate DAT uptake and brain perfusion in a posterior parieto-temporal area of the less affected hemisphere (R(2) = 0.42; p = 0.0005). No significant effect was shown for age, baseline neuropsychological scores, and levodopa equivalent dose at follow-up. The combined use of clinical structured examination and brain functional assessment by means of dual single photon emission computed tomography imaging appears as a powerful approach to predict cognitive decline in de novo PD patients.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.