Cerebral Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor (CDNF) and Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic factor (MANF) are members of a recently discovered family of neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Here we used intranigral or intrastriatal lentiviral vector-mediated expression to evaluate their efficacy at protecting dopaminergic function in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to the well-studied Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF), no beneficial effects were demonstrated by striatal overexpression of either protein. Interestingly, nigral overexpression of CDNF decreased amphetamine-induced rotations and increased tyroxine hydroxylase (TH) striatal fibre density but had no effect on numbers of TH(+) cells in the SN. Nigral MANF overexpression had no effect on amphetamine-induced rotations or TH striatal fibre density but resulted in a significant preservation of TH(+) cells. Combined nigral overexpression of both factors led to a robust reduction in amphetamine-induced rotations, greater increase in striatal TH-fibre density and significant protection of TH(+) cells in the SN. We conclude that nigral CDNF and MANF delivery is more efficacious than striatal delivery. This is also the first study to demonstrate that combined NTF can have synergistic effects that result in enhanced neuroprotection, suggesting that multiple NTF delivery may be more efficacious for the treatment of PD than the single NTF approaches attempted so far.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.206.
Humic substance (HS) in sediment can affect hydrophobic organic compound distribution, transportation, bioavailability, and toxicity. This study investigated the HS (BKHS) extracted from sediment and separated it into low molecular humic (LMHS, <1kDa) and high molecular humic substances (HMHS, 1kDa-0.45?m). Nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA) have a significant sorption capacity for HMHS and BKHS solutions. They are xenoestrogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds that are widely produced and discharged to the environment. The log KHS values of the BKHS and HMHS solutions were between 4.74-5.09Lkg-C(-1) and 4.57-5.09Lkg-C(-1), respectively. However, the three compounds were not sorbed by the LMHS solution. The average values of SUVA254 for HMHS and LMHS were 4.29 and 1.31Lm(-1)mg-C(-1) and the average values of A250-400 for HMHS and LMHS were 18.1 and 4.51nmcm(-1), respectively. The HMHS peak position in the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix at longer wavelengths corresponded to the peak position of LMHS, which indicates that the HMHS had a higher degree of humification than the LMHS. The results suggested that the KHS value's dominant factor was the degree of HS humification.
Andrographolide is a diterpenoid compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata that exhibits anticancer activity. We previously reported that andrographolide suppressed v-Src-mediated cellular transformation by promoting the degradation of Src. In the present study, we demonstrated the involvement of Hsp90 in the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of Src oncogenic activity. Using a proteomics approach, a cleavage fragment of Hsp90? was identified in andrographolide-treated cells. The concentration- and time-dependent induction of Hsp90 cleavage that accompanied the reduction in Src was validated in RK3E cells transformed with either v-Src or a human truncated c-Src variant and treated with andrographolide. In cancer cells, the induction of Hsp90 cleavage by andrographolide and its structural derivatives correlated well with decreased Src levels, the suppression of transformation, and the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the andrographolide-induced Hsp90 cleavage, Src degradation, inhibition of transformation, and induction of apoptosis were abolished by a ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-cysteine. Notably, Hsp90 cleavage, decreased levels of Bcr-Abl (another known Hsp90 client protein), and the induction of apoptosis were also observed in human K562 leukemia cells treated with andrographolide or its active derivatives. Together, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which andrographolide suppressed cancer malignancy that involved inhibiting Hsp90 function and reducing the levels of Hsp90 client proteins. Our results broaden the molecular basis of andrographolide-mediated anticancer activity.
Following injury, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons undergo transcriptional changes so as to adopt phenotypic changes that promote cell survival and axonal regeneration. Here we used a microarray approach to profile changes in a population of small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) in the L4 and L5 DRG following sciatic nerve transection. Results showed that 20 miRNA transcripts displayed a significant change in expression levels, with 8 miRNAs transcripts being altered by more than 1.5-fold. Using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we demonstrated that one of these miRNAs, miR-21, was upregulated by 7-fold in the DRG at 7 days post-axotomy. In dissociated adult rat DRG neurons lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of miR-21 promoted neurite outgrowth on a reduced laminin substrate. miR-21 directly downregulated expression of Sprouty2 protein, as confirmed by Western blot analysis and 3 untranslated region (UTR) luciferase assays. Our data show that miR-21 is an axotomy-induced miRNA that enhances axon growth, and suggest that miRNAs are important players in regulating growth pathways following peripheral nerve injury.
ProSavin is an equine infectious anemia virus vector-based gene therapy for Parkinsons disease for which inducible HEK293T-based producer cell lines (PCLs) have been developed. These cell lines demonstrate stringent tetracycline-regulated expression of the packaging components and yield titers comparable to the established transient production system. A prerequisite for the use of PCL-derived lentiviral vectors (LVs) in clinical applications is the thorough characterization of both the LV and respective PCL with regard to identity and genetic stability. We describe the detailed characterization of two ProSavin PCLs (PS5.8 and PS46.2) and resultant ProSavin vector. The two cell lines demonstrate stable production of vector over a time period sufficient to allow generation of master and working cell banks, and subsequent large-scale vector production. ProSavin generated from the PCLs performs comparably in vivo to that produced by the standard transient transfection process with respect to transduction efficiency and immunogenicity. The development of ProSavin PCLs, and the detailed characterization described here, will aid the advancement of ProSavin for clinical application.
Gap junction communication has been shown in glial and neuronal cells and it is thought they mediate inter- and intra-cellular communication. Connexin 36 (Cx36) is expressed extensively in the developing brain, with levels peaking at P14 after which its levels fall and its expression becomes entirely neuronal. These and other data have led to the hypothesis that Cx36 may direct neuronal coupling and neurogenesis during development.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage may be associated with age-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The present study was designed to test whether the frequency of mtDNA damage, heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations, and repair capacity correlate with progression of AMD.
Following trauma of the adult brain or spinal cord the injured axons of central neurons fail to regenerate or if intact display only limited anatomical plasticity through sprouting. Adult cortical neurons forming the corticospinal tract (CST) normally have low levels of the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS1) protein. In primary cultured adult cortical neurons, the lentivector-induced overexpression of NCS1 induces neurite sprouting associated with increased phospho-Akt levels. When the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway was pharmacologically inhibited the NCS1-induced neurite sprouting was abolished. The overexpression of NCS1 in uninjured corticospinal neurons exhibited axonal sprouting across the midline into the CST-denervated side of the spinal cord following unilateral pyramidotomy. Improved forelimb function was demonstrated behaviourally and electrophysiologically. In injured corticospinal neurons, overexpression of NCS1 induced axonal sprouting and regeneration and also neuroprotection. These findings demonstrate that increasing the levels of intracellular NCS1 in injured and uninjured central neurons enhances their intrinsic anatomical plasticity within the injured adult central nervous system.
The interest in integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) stems from their potential advantage of large cloning capacity and broad cell tropism while avoiding the possibility of insertional mutagenesis. Here, we directly compared the transducing potential of IDLVs based on the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) to the more commonly described HIV-1 IDLVs. IDLVs were constructed by introducing equivalent single/triple mutations into the integrase catalytic triad. We show that both the single and the triple mutant HIV-1 IDLVs transduce the PC12 cells, but not the C2C12 cells, with similar efficiency to their parental HIV-1 vector. In contrast, the single and triple EIAV IDLVs did not efficiently transduce either differentiated cell line. Moreover, this HIV-1 IDLV-mediated expression was independent of any residual integration activity because reporter expression was lost when cell cycling was restored. Four weeks following stereotactic administration into adult rat brains, only the single HIV-1 IDLV mutant displayed a comparable transduction profile to the parental HIV-1 vector. In contrast, neither EIAV IDLV mutants showed significant reporter gene expression. This work indicates that the transducing potential of IDLVs appears to depend not only on the choice of integrase mutation and type of target cell, but also on the nature of the lentiviral vector.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e60; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.53; published online 11 December 2012.
Evidence suggests that the acquisition of recognition memory depends upon CREB-dependent long-lasting changes in synaptic plasticity in the perirhinal cortex.The CREB-responsive microRNA miR-132 has been shown to regulate synaptic transmission and we set out to investigate a role for this microRNA in recognition memory and its underlying plasticity mechanisms. To this end we mediated the specific overexpression of miR-132 selectively in the rat perirhinal cortex and demonstrated impairment in short-term recognition memory. This functional deficit was associated with a reduction in both long-term depression and long-term potentiation. These results confirm that microRNAs are key coordinators of the intracellular pathways that mediate experience-dependent changes in the brain. In addition, these results demonstrate a role for miR-132 in the neuronal mechanisms underlying the formation of short-term recognition memory.
We show that a single gene locus gives rise to two fully processed and functional miRNAs, i.e. that due to imperfect base pairing, two distinct microRNAs (miRNAs) can be produced from the fully complementary DNA strands. The antisense strand encodes miR-214, which is transcribed by its own promoter, whereas a novel miRNA, miR-3120, is co-expressed with its host gene mRNA. We also found that miR-3120 regulates important aspects of cellular function that are similar to that of its host gene, dynamin-3. miR-3120 was found to be located in neuronal cell bodies and to target Hsc70 and auxilin, and its lentivirus-mediated expression inhibited the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles. Finally, mirror miRNAs are likely to represent a new group of miRNAs with complex roles in coordinating gene expression.
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