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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Erythropoietin therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a prospective, randomized trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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We conducted a prospective randomized trial to assess hemoglobin (Hb) response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients (N = 131) were randomized (1:1) between no treatment (control arm) or erythropoietin at 500 U/kg per week (EPO arm). Patients were also stratified into 3 cohorts: patients undergoing myeloablative HCT with rhEPO to start on day (D)28, patients given nonmyeloablative HCT (NMHCT) with rhEPO to start on D28, and patients also given NMHCT but with rhEPO to start on D0. The proportion of complete correctors (ie, Hb ?13 g/dL) before D126 posttransplant was 8.1% in the control arm (median not reached) and 63.1% in the EPO arm (median, 90 days) (P < .001). Hb levels were higher and transfusion requirements decreased (P < .001) in the EPO arm, but not during the first month in the nonmyeloablative cohort starting rhEPO on D0. There was no difference in rates of thromboembolic events or other complications between the 2 arms. This is the first randomized trial to demonstrate that rhEPO therapy hastens erythroid recovery and decreases transfusion requirements when started one month after allogeneic HCT. There was no benefit to start rhEPO earlier after NMHCT.
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Impact of cotransplantation of mesenchymal stem cells on lung function after unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following non-myeloablative conditioning.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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In the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used to promote engraftment and prevent graft-versus-host disease. However, in animal models, MSC were shown to cause pulmonary alterations after systemic administration. The impact of MSC infusion on lung function has not been studied in humans. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of MSC co-infusion on lung function and airway inflammation as well as on the incidence of pulmonary infections and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation after HSCT.
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Comprehensive plasma profiling for the characterization of graft-versus-host disease biomarkers.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) therefore limiting its application. To optimize the management of aGVHD and reduce therapy-related toxicity, early specific markers are needed. The main objective of this study was to uncover diagnostic biomarkers by comparing plasma protein profiles of patients at the time of acute GVHD diagnosis with those of patients undergoing HSCT without aGVHD. Additional analysis of samples taken 15 days before aGVHD diagnosis was also performed to evaluate the potential of our newly discovered biomarkers for early diagnosis. To get complementary information from plasma samples, we used three different proteomic approaches, namely 2D-DIGE, SELDI-TOF-MS and 2D-LC-MS(E). We identified and confirmed by the means of independent techniques, the differential expression of several proteins indicating significantly increased inflammation response and disturbance in the coagulation cascade. The variation of these proteins was already observed 15 days before GVHD diagnosis, suggesting the potential early detection of the disease before symptoms appearance. Finally, logistic regression analysis determined a composite biomarker panel comprising fibrinogen, fragment of fibrinogen beta chain, SAA, prothrombin fragments, apolipoprotein A1 and hepcidin that optimally discriminated patients with and without GVHD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve distinguishing these 2 groups was 0.95.
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Thinking out of the box--new approaches to controlling GVHD.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major limitation of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Despite major advances in the understanding of GVHD pathogenesis, standard GVHD prophylaxis regimens continue to be based on the combination of a calcineurin inhibitor with an antimetabolite, while first line treatments still rely on high-dose corticosteroids. Further, no second line treatment has emerged thus far in acute or chronic GVHD patients who failed to respond with corticosteroid treatment. After briefly reviewing current standards of GVHD prevention and treatment, this article will discuss recent approaches that might change GVHD prophylaxis/treatment for decades to come, with a special focus on recently developed immunoregulatory strategies based on infusion of mesenchymal stromal or regulatory T-cells, or injection of low-dose interleukin-2.
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Effect of Postremission Therapy before Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The impact of pretransplant (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT]) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post-HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received a reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT from an HLA-identical sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor, or umbilical cord blood donor from 2000 to 2010. We compared transplant outcomes based on exposure to cytarabine postremission consolidation. Three-year survival rates were 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29% to 43%) in the no consolidation arm and 42% (95% CI, 37% to 47%) in the cytarabine consolidation arm (P = .16). Disease-free survival was 34% (95% CI, 27% to 41%) and 41% (95% CI, 35% to 46%; P = .15), respectively. Three-year cumulative incidences of relapse were 37% (95% CI, 30% to 44%) and 38% (95% CI, 33% to 43%), respectively (P = .80). Multivariate regression confirmed no effect of consolidation on relapse, disease-free survival, and survival. Before reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT, these data suggest pre-HCT consolidation cytarabine does not significantly alter outcomes and support prompt transition to transplant as soon as morphologic CR1 is attained. If HCT is delayed while identifying a donor, our data suggest that consolidation does not increase transplant treatment-related mortality and is reasonable if required.
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Emerging drugs for prevention of graft failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the treatment of choice for many patients suffering from hematological malignancies, severe hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failures or severe primary immunodeficiencies. Graft rejection/failure (GF) is a life-threatening complication following allo-HSCT that is most commonly caused by the reactivity of recipient T cells, natural killer (NK) cells or antibodies against donor grafted hematopoietic cells. The increasing use of allo-HSCT following reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and the increasing use of alternative donors (unrelated cord blood and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched donor) have resulted in higher frequency of GF.
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Darbepoetin-alfa and intravenous iron administration after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A prospective multicenter randomized trial.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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We conducted a randomized study analyzing the impact of darbepoetin alfa (DA) administration with or without intravenous (i.v.) iron on erythroid recovery after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients were randomized between no DA (Arm 1), DA 300 ?g every 2 weeks starting on Day 28 after HCT (Arm 2), or DA plus i.v. iron 200 mg on Days 28, 42, and 56 (Arm 3). The proportion achieving complete hemoglobin (Hb) response within 18 weeks (primary end point) was 21% in Arm 1 (n?=?24), 79% in Arm 2 (n?=?25), and 100% in Arm 3 (n?=?23; P?
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Infusion of clinical-grade enriched regulatory T cells delays experimental xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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BACKGROUND: We investigated the ability of clinical-grade enriched human regulatory T cells (Treg) to attenuate experimental xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs; autologous to Treg) infusion in NSG mice, as well as verified their inability to induce xenogeneic GVHD when infused alone. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Human Treg were isolated from peripheral blood apheresis products with a cell separation system (CliniMACS, Miltenyi Biotec GmbH) using a two-step procedure (simultaneous CD8 and CD19 depletion followed by CD25-positive selection) in six independent experiments with six different healthy volunteer donors. Sublethally (2.5?Gy) irradiated NSG mice were given 2?×?10(6) cytapheresis (PBMNC) product cells intravenously (IV) without (PBMNC group) or with 1?×?10(6) Treg (PBMNC?+?Treg group), while other NSG mice received 2?×?10(6) enriched Treg alone (also in IV; Treg group). RESULTS: The first five procedures were successful at obtaining a relatively pure Treg population (defined as >50%), while the sixth procedure, due to a technical problem, was not (Treg purity, 42%). Treg cotransfusion significantly delayed death from xenogeneic GVHD in the first five experiments, (p?
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Kinetics of IL-7 and IL-15 levels after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation following nonmyeloablative conditioning.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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We analysed kinetics of IL-7 and IL-15 levels in 70 patients given peripheral blood stem cells after nonmyeloablative conditioning.
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Value of infliximab (Remicade®) in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: final results of a randomized phase II trial (EORTC trial 06023) of the EORTC Leukemia Group.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Tumor-necrosis factor alpha activity has been correlated to ineffective erythropoiesis in lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Infliximab (Remicade(®)) is an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha chimeric antibody that is used in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or Crohns disease. Forty-six patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and a relatively low risk of developing acute leukemia were included in a randomized phase II study assessing the therapeutic activity of two dosages of infliximab administration (3 mg/kg vs. 5 mg/kg). The primary end point was the response rate. Responses were observed in 3 of 22 patients (13.1%) randomized to the 3 mg/kg arm, versus 0 of 21 patients randomized in the 5 mg/kg arm. According to the statistical design of the current study, neither of the two infliximab dose schedules tested showed sufficient activity as a single agent in this cohort of unselected patients with early myelodysplastic syndrome.
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Mesenchymal stromal cells: a new tool against graft-versus-host disease?
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous subset of multipotent cells that can be isolated from several tissues including bone marrow and fat. MSCs exhibit immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that prompted their clinical use as prevention and/or treatment for severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Although a number of phase I-II studies have suggested that MSC infusion was safe and might be effective for preventing or treating acute GVHD, definitive proof of their efficacy remains lacking thus far. Multicenter randomized studies are ongoing to more precisely assess the impact of MSC infusion on GVHD prevention/treatment, whereas further research is performed in vitro and in animal models with the aims of determining the best way to expand MSCs ex vivo as well as the most efficient dose and schedule of MSCs administration. After introducing GVHD, MSC biology, and results of MSC infusion in animal models of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, this article reviews the results of the first clinical trials investigating the use of MSC infusion as prevention or treatment of GVHD.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after reduced intensity conditioning.
Transfus. Apher. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following myeloablative (conventional) conditioning regimen is associated with a high incidence of transplant-related morbidity and mortality, limiting its use to younger patients without medical co-morbidities. Over the past few years, it has become more evident that the alloreactivity of transplanted donor immunocompetent cells against host tumor cells (graft-versus-tumor effects, GVT effects) plays a major role in eradicating malignancies after allogeneic HSCT. Based on these observations, several groups of investigators have developed reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens allowing patients who are ineligible for conventional HSCT to benefit from the potentially curative GVT effects of allogeneic transplantation. Retrospective studies have suggested that, in comparison with myeloablative allogeneic HSCT, in patients aged 40-60 years, RIC HSCT was associated with a higher risk of relapse but a lower incidence of transplant-related mortality leading to similar progression-free and overall survivals. Prospective studies are ongoing to define which patients might most benefit from RIC HSCT, and to increase the anti-tumoral activity of the procedure while reducing the incidence and the severity of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In this article, we review the current status and perspectives of RIC HSCT.
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Thymic recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with non-myeloablative conditioning is limited to patients younger than 60 years of age.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Long-term immune recovery in older patients given hematopoietic cell transplantation after non-myeloablative conditioning remains poorly understood. This prompted us to investigate long-term lymphocyte reconstitution and thymic function in 80 patients given allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells after non-myeloablative conditioning.
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Cotransplantation of mesenchymal stem cells might prevent death from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) without abrogating graft-versus-tumor effects after HLA-mismatched allogeneic transplantation following nonmyeloablative conditioning.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Recent studies have suggested that coinfusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) the day of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) might promote engraftment and prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. This prompted us to investigate in a pilot study whether MSC infusion before HCT could allow nonmyeloablative (NMA) HCT (a transplant strategy based nearly exclusively on graft-versus-tumor effects for tumor eradication) from HLA-mismatched donors to be performed safely. Twenty patients with hematologic malignancies were given MSCs from third party unrelated donors 30-120 minutes before peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) from HLA-mismatched unrelated donors, after conditioning with 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) and fludarabine. The primary endpoint was safety, defined as a 100-day incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) <35%. One patient had primary graft rejection, whereas the remaining 19 patients had sustained engraftment. The 100-day cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) was 35%, whereas 65% of the patients experienced moderate/severe chronic GVHD (cGVHD). One-year NRM (10%), relapse (30%), overall survival (OS) (80%) and progression-free survival (PFS) (60%), and 1-year incidence of death from GVHD or infection with GVHD (10%) were encouraging. These figures compare favorably with those observed in a historic group of 16 patients given HLA-mismatched PBSCs (but no MSCs) after NMA conditioning, which had a 1-year incidence of NRM of 37% (P = .02), a 1-year incidence of relapse of 25% (NS), a 1-year OS and PFS of 44% (P = .02), and 38% (P = .1), respectively, and a 1-year rate of death from GVHD or infection with GVHD of 31% (P = .04). In conclusion, our data suggest that HLA-mismatched NMA HCT with MSC coinfusion appeared to be safe.
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Impact of growth hormone (GH) deficiency and GH replacement upon thymus function in adult patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Despite age-related adipose involution, T cell generation in the thymus (thymopoiesis) is maintained beyond puberty in adults. In rodents, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and GH secretagogues reverse age-related changes in thymus cytoarchitecture and increase thymopoiesis. GH administration also enhances thymic mass and function in HIV-infected patients. Until now, thymic function has not been investigated in adult GH deficiency (AGHD). The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate thymic function in AGHD, as well as the repercussion upon thymopoiesis of GH treatment for restoration of GH/IGF-1 physiological levels.
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What is the role for donor natural killer cells after nonmyeloablative conditioning?
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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We investigated the impacts of the tempo of early (days 14, 28, and 42) donor T cell and natural killer (NK) cell engraftment, missing recipient killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands, and numbers of donor inhibitory and activating KIR genes on hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes in 282 patients with hematologic malignancies given nonmyeloablative conditioning. Modeling chimerism levels as a continuous linear variable, we found that high early donor T cell chimerism was significantly associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (P = .01), whereas high donor NK cell chimerism levels had no such association (P = .38). Conversely, high donor NK cell chimerism levels were significantly associated with low relapse risk (P = .0009), whereas no significant association was seen with high donor T cell chimerism (P = .10). The qualitative associations between donor T cell and NK cell chimerism levels and GVHD and relapse did not change after adjustment for the presence of recipient KIR ligands or numbers of donor inhibitory or activating KIR genes. Our data indicate that prompt engraftment of donor NK cells correlated with lessened risks of relapse, but not with GVHD, whereas the converse was true for T cells.
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Imatinib and nilotinib inhibit hematopoietic progenitor cell growth, but do not prevent adhesion, migration and engraftment of human cord blood CD34+ cells.
PLoS ONE
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The availability of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has considerably changed the management of Philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia. The BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib is also known to inhibit the tyrosine kinase of the stem cell factor receptor, c-Kit. Nilotinib is 30 times more potent than imatinib towards BCR-ABL in vitro. Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or gastrointestinal stromal tumors have shown that therapeutic doses of nilotinib deliver drug levels similar to those of imatinib. The aim of this study was to compare the inhibitory effects of imatinib and nilotinib on proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and engraftment capacities of human cord blood CD34(+) cells.
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Impact of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on experimental xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease.
Cytotherapy
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation caused by donor T cells reacting against host tissues. Previous studies have suggested that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) could exert potent immunosuppressive effects.
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Neutrophil extracellular traps entrap and kill Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto spirochetes and are not affected by Ixodes ricinus tick saliva.
J. Immunol.
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Lyme disease is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus ticks. After a few hours of infestation, neutrophils massively infiltrate the bite site. They can kill Borrelia via phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and hydrolytic enzymes. However, factors in tick saliva promote propagation of the bacteria in the host even in the presence of a large number of neutrophils. The neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) consists in the extrusion of the neutrophils own DNA, forming traps that can retain and kill bacteria. The production of reactive oxygen species is apparently associated with the onset of NETs (NETosis). In this article, we describe NET formation at the tick bite site in vivo in mice. We show that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto spirochetes become trapped and killed by NETs in humans and that the bacteria do not seem to release significant nucleases to evade this process. Saliva from I. ricinus did not affect NET formation by human neutrophils or its stability. However, it greatly decreased neutrophil reactive oxygen species production, suggesting that a strong decrease of hydrogen peroxide does not affect NET formation. Finally, round bodies trapped in NETs were observed, some of them staining as live bacteria. This observation could help contribute to a better understanding of the early steps of Borrelia invasion and erythema migrans formation after tick bite.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.