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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Systematic Review and Proposal of a Field-Based Physical Fitness-Test Battery in Preschool Children: The PREFIT Battery.
Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Physical fitness is a powerful health marker in childhood and adolescence, and it is reasonable to think that it might be just as important in younger children, i.e. preschoolers. At the moment, researchers, clinicians and sport practitioners do not have enough information about which fitness tests are more reliable, valid and informative from the health point of view to be implemented in preschool children.
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Reliability of the ALPHA environmental questionnaire and its association with physical activity in female fibromyalgia patients: the al-Ándalus project.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Abstract Physical activity attenuates the symptoms of fibromyalgia, and its level is oftentimes associated with the perceived environment of fibromyalgia patients. Within this context, we aimed to study the reliability of the Spanish version of the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) environmental questionnaire and the mode of commuting questionnaire. We also studied the association between the perceived environment and mode of commuting with physical activity levels among female fibromyalgia patients in Spain. Test-retest reliability was judged by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), weighted kappa statistic, Spearman correlations and the proportion of agreement. We calculated bivariate Pearson's correlations between environmental sum scores and physical activity measured by both International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and accelerometry. More than 70% of the scales and items showed a good reliability regarding the ICC, the weighted kappa, the Spearman correlation and the percentage of inter-agreement (higher than 50%). The perceived environment assessed with the ALPHA showed a low correlation with both IPAQ and accelerometry. The Spanish version of the ALPHA environmental questionnaire proved to be reliable and showed a weak degree of association with physical activity in female fibromyalgia patients.
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EMT and EGFR in CTCs cytokeratin negative non-metastatic breast cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are frequently associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).The objective of this study was to detect EMT phenotype through Vimentin (VIM) and Slug expression in cytokeratin (CK)-negative CTCs in non-metastatic breast cancer patients and to determine the importance of EGFR in the EMT phenomenon. In CK-negative CTCs samples, both VIM and Slug markers were co-expressed in the most of patients. Among patients EGFR+, half of them were positive for these EMT markers. Furthermore, after a systemic treatment 68% of patients switched from CK- to CK+ CTCs. In our experimental model we found that activation of EGFR signaling by its ligand on MCF-7 cells is sufficient to increase EMT phenotypes, to inhibit apoptotic events and to induce the loss of CK expression. The simultaneous detection of both EGFR and EMT markers in CTCs may improve prognostic or predictive information in patients with operable breast cancer.
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Titanosaur osteoderms from the Upper Cretaceous of Lo Hueco (Spain) and their implications on the armor of Laurasian titanosaurs.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Titanosaurs are the only sauropod dinosaurs known to bear a dermal armor. Their osteoderms are relatively rare finds, with few more than a hundred specimens recovered worldwide. Also, little is known about their intra-individual, intra-specific or inter-specific variability. The macrovertebrate site of Lo Hueco (Upper Cretaceous; Cuenca, Spain) has yielded several complete specimens of osteoderms, some associated with fairly articulated specimens. They are all variations of the morphotype known as bulb and root. The presence of only this morphotype in Europe, which is considered as the primitive condition among titanosaurs, seems to indicate that the known Upper Cretaceous Laurasian titanosaurs only bore these referred bulb and root osteoderms. An eliptic Fourier analysis on the outline of complete specimens from this morphotype reveals: i) that they truly are part of a morphological cline; and ii) the existence of a consistent correlation between the outline and the morphology of the bulb. Such variation along a cline is more consistent with intra-individual rather than inter-specific variation. The osteoderms associated with a single titanosaur individual from Lo Hueco reinforce this hypothesis.
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Adipose Tissue ?-Crystallin Is a Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein Associated With Systemic Insulin Sensitivity.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Circulating thyroid hormones have been described to be intrinsically associated with insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. ?-Crystallin is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent thyroid hormone-binding protein that has been shown to bind T3 in the cytoplasm. We aimed to study ?-Crystallin expression in adipose tissue and in muscle in association with insulin action and thyroid function.
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Cost-utility analysis of a telehealth programme for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with long-term oxygen therapy.
J Telemed Telecare
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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We conducted a cost-utility analysis of a telehealth programme for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with usual care. A randomized controlled trial was carried out over four months with 45 patients treated with long-term oxygen therapy, 24 in the telehealth group (TG) and 21 in the control group (CG). The analysis took into account whether the severity of comorbidity (defined as the presence of additional chronic diseases co-occurring with COPD) was associated with differences in costs and/or quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results of cost-utility analysis were expressed in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The average total cost was €2300 for the TG and €1103 for the CG, and the average QALY gain was 0.0059 for the TG and 0.0006 for the CG (resulting an ICER of 223,726 €/QALY). For patients without comorbidity, the average total cost was €855 for the TG and €1354 for the CG, and the average QALY gain was 0.0288 for the TG and 0.0082 for the CG (resulting in the telehealth programme being the dominant strategy). For patients with comorbidity, the average total cost was €2782 for the TG and €949 for the CG, and the average QALY gain was -0.0017 for the TG and -0.0041 for the CG (resulting an ICER of 754,592 €/QALY). The telehealth programme may not have been cost-effective compared to usual care, although it could be considered cost-effective for patients without comorbidity.
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Physical activity, hydration and health.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.
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[An overview of the variations surrounding the concept of medicalization between 1950 and 2010].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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This article examines the pertinence of the concept of medicalization for socio-cultural analysis. The study is based on the criticism which emerged in the international literature between 2000 and 2010. The criticism stressed the excessive generality of the expression that encompasses different situations and thereby loses its analytical precision. The main meanings of the term medicalization are examined, namely 1) the major strategies of hygienization of the population; 2) the transformation of behavior considered deviant into disorders; 3) control strategies and the medical imperative; 4) the participation of non-medical actors. Based on the different meanings of the notion of medicalization, the transient nature of the concept needs to be stressed, i.e. the need to specify the different meanings attributed to the notion depending on the different contexts in which it is used. If this is not done, the concept will lose its theoretical accuracy and will possibly no longer be useful for social analysis.
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Adsorption of polyelectrolytes and polyelectrolytes-surfactant mixtures at surfaces: a physico-chemical approach to a cosmetic challenge.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The use of polymer and polymer - surfactant mixtures for designing and developing textile and personal care cosmetic formulations is associated with various physico-chemical aspects, e.g. detergency and conditioning in the case of hair or wool, that determine their correct performances in preserving and improving the appearance and properties of the surface where they are applied. In this work, special attention is paid to the systems combining polycations and negatively charged surfactants. The paper introduces the hair surface and presents a comprehensive review of the adsorption properties of these systems at solid-water interfaces mimicking the negative charge and surface energy of hair. These model surfaces include mixtures of thiols that confer various charge densities to the surface. The kinetics and factors that govern the adsorption are discussed from the angle of those used in shampoos and conditioners developed by the cosmetic industry. Finally, systems able to adsorb onto negatively charged surfaces regardless of the anionic character are presented, opening new ways of depositing conditioning polymers onto keratin substrates such as hair.
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Transducin-like enhancer of split 3 (TLE3) in adipose tissue is increased in situations characterized by decreased PPAR? gene expression.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Transgenic overexpression of adipose tissue (AT) transducin-like enhancer of split 3 (TLE3) mimicked peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists, improving insulin resistance in mice. This study aimed to investigate TLE3 gene expression (qRT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) in subjects with a wide spectrum of obesity and insulin sensitivity and in an independent cohort of obese subjects following surgery-induced weight loss. TLE3 was analyzed in human adipocytes and after treatment with rosiglitazone. Given the findings in humans, TLE3 was also investigated in mice after a high-fat diet (HFD) and in PPAR? knockout mice. Subcutaneous (SC) AT TLE3 was increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In fact, SC TLE3 was associated with increased fasting glucose (r?=?0.25, p?=?0.015) and S6K1 activity (r?=?0.671, p?=?0.003), and with decreased Glut4 (r?=?-0.426, p?=?0.006) and IRS-1 expression (-31 %, p?=?0.007) and activation (P-IRS-1/IRS-1, -17 %, p?=?0.024). TLE3 was preferentially expressed in mature adipocytes and increased during in vitro differentiation in parallel to PPAR?. Weight loss led to improved insulin sensitivity, increased AT PPAR? and decreased TLE3 (-24 %, p?=?0.0002), while rosiglitazone administration downregulated TLE3 gene expression in fully differentiated adipocytes (-45 %, p?
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Breastfeeding attenuates the effect of low birthweight on abdominal adiposity in adolescents: the HELENA study.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine whether breastfeeding may reduce the programming effect of birthweight on abdominal adiposity. Abdominal (in three regions: R1, R2 and R3) adiposity was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 314 adolescents. Breastfeeding duration, birthweight, duration of gestation and maternal educational level were obtained from questionnaire. Physical activity was objectively measured. We detected significant interactions between breastfeeding and birthweight on abdominal adiposity (Ps?=?0.02-0.07). We observed that birthweight was associated with abdominal adiposity in the group who had never been breastfed (??=?-0.19 to -0.23; Ps?
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Fine-tuned iron availability is essential to achieve optimal adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Adipose tissue from obese and insulin-resistant individuals showed altered expression of several iron-related genes in a recent study, suggesting that iron might have an important role in adipogenesis. To investigate this possible role, we aimed to characterise the effects of iron on adipocyte differentiation.
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Health inequalities in urban adolescents: role of physical activity, diet, and genetics.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Coordinated European projects relying on standardized methods are needed to identify health inequalities across Europe. This study aimed to compare fitness, fatness, and cardiometabolic risk between urban adolescents from the south and center-north of Europe and to explore whether physical activity (PA) and other factors might explain these differences.
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Physical activity, sedentary time, and liver enzymes in adolescents: the HELENA study.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and liver enzyme levels in adolescents from nine European countries.
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Lactoferrin gene knockdown leads to similar effects to iron chelation in human adipocytes.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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In human and mice adipose tissue, lactoferrin (LTF) has been found to be associated with increased adipogenesis and decreased inflammatory markers. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of LTF knockdown (KD) in human adipocyte differentiation. In addition, the effects of exogenous LTF administration and iron chelation [using deferoxamine (DFO, 10 ?M)] were tested. In both subcutaneous and visceral pre-adipocytes, LTF KD led to decrease significantly adipogenic, lipogenic and insulin signalling-related gene expression and a significant increase in the gene expression of inflammatory mediators. Human lactoferrin (hLf, 1 ?M) administration led to recover adipocyte differentiation in LTF KD pre-adipocytes. Interestingly, iron chelation triggered similar effects to LTF KD, decreasing significantly adipogenic gene expressions. Of note, DFO (10 ?M) and hLf (1 and 10 ?M) co-administration led to a dose-dependent recovery of adipocyte differentiation. These new data reveal that endogenous LTF biosynthesis during human adipocyte differentiation is essential to achieve this process, possibly, modulating adipocyte iron homoeostasis. hLf administration might be a useful therapeutic target in obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction.
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Insulin resistance modulates iron-related proteins in adipose tissue.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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OBJECTIVE Circulating markers of iron overload are associated with insulin resistance. Less is known about the impact of iron overload on adipose tissue (AT). We hypothesized that gene expression markers of iron metabolism in AT could be associated with insulin action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The AT expression of ferroportin (SLC40A1), transferrin (TF), TF receptor (TFRC), ferritin (FT) heavy polypeptide 1 (FTH1), and FT light polypeptide (FTL) was analyzed cross-sectionally in three independent cohorts and also after weight loss-induced changes in insulin sensitivity (clamp M value) in an independent fourth cohort. RESULTS In human AT, TF mRNA and protein levels were decreased with obesity and insulin resistance in the three cohorts and were positively associated with adipogenic mRNAs and insulin action. Otherwise, FTL mRNA and protein and SLC40A1 transcripts were positively associated with BMI and negatively linked to adipogenic genes and insulin action. Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss led to increased TF and decreased TFRC, FTH1, FTL, and SLC40A1 in subcutaneous AT in parallel to improved insulin action. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that iron overload impacts on AT in association with insulin resistance.
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[Pharmacogenetics of tacrolimus: from bench to bedside?].
Nefrologia
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Tacrolimus (FK-506) is an immunosuppressant widely used to prevent kidney transplant rejection. Patients receive an initial standard dose and tacrolimus levels are measured in blood. If necessary, the dose is adjusted to reach a blood concentration within the accepted range. There is great interindividual variability in the dose required to achieve the target blood level, and many patients require multiple modifications of the dose to reach the range. One of the main determinants of these differences is a CYP3A5 gene polymorphism that determines that about 80% of Caucasians are poor metabolisers and require lower doses compared to the extensive metabolisers. It has been proposed that transplanted patients could receive an initial Tacrolimus dose based on the CYP3A5 genotype. This could reduce the time to achieve the optimal blood level, reducing the number of dose modifications. However, to be accepted by clinicians and translated to the clinical practice this adapted dose procedure should give additional advantages such as a significant reduction of the rates of nephrotoxicity and rejection, or a lower cost due to less dose modifications of Tacrolimus and less antibody induction therapy.
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Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and risk of new-onset diabetes among tacrolimus-treated renal transplanted patients.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Tacrolimus (Tac) is an immunosuppressive drug widely used to avoid organ rejection. New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a major complication among transplanted patients who receive Tac. The increased risk for NODAT could be partly mediated by the effect of Tac on mitochondria from pancreatic beta-cells. Common and rare mitochondrial DNA variants have been linked to the risk of diabetes. Our aim was to determine whether mtDNA polymorphisms/haplogroups were associated with NODAT in Tac-treated kidney transplanted.
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Circulating tryptase as a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in obese subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mast cells participate in atherogenesis by releasing cytokines to induce vascular cell protease expression. Tryptase is expressed highly in human atherosclerotic lesions and the inhibition of tryptase activity hampers its capacity to maintain cholesterol inside macrophague foam cells. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating tryptase levels and subclinical atherosclerosis through estimation of carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) as surrogate marker for increased cardiovascular risk in obese and non-obese subjects.
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Seasonal variation in physical activity and sedentary time in different European regions. The HELENA study.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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This report aims (1) to examine the association between seasonality and physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in European adolescents and (2) to investigate whether this association was influenced by geographical location (Central-North versus South of Europe), which implies more or less extreme weather and daylight hours. Valid data on PA, sedentary time and seasonality were obtained in 2173 adolescents (1175 females; 12.5-17.5 years) included in this study. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometers. ANCOVA was conducted to analyse the differences in PA and sedentary time across seasons. Results showed that girls had lower levels of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and average PA, and spent more time in sedentary activities in winter compared with spring (all P < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed differences in PA and sedentary time between winter and spring in European girls from Central-North of Europe (P < 0.05 for sedentary time). There were no differences between PA and sedentary time across seasonality in boys. In conclusion, winter is related with less time spent in MVPA, lower average PA and higher time spent in sedentary activities in European adolescent girls, compared with spring. These differences seem to mainly occur in Central-North Europe.
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Randomized controlled trial of exercise training in chronic respiratory failure due to kyphoscoliosis.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Research has provided evidence for the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about the impact of exercise training in patients with chronic respiratory failure due to kyphoscoliosis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise training program on exercise capacity, muscle strength, dyspnea and quality of life indices, in patients with chronic respiratory failure due to kyphoscoliosis. . METHODS:: Clinically stable patients with chronic respiratory failure due to kyphoscoliosis (n=34), receiving home mechanical ventilation during the night for the previous six months, were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 17) or control (n = 17) group. The exercise group trained three nonconsecutive days per week for 12 weeks, including cycle and strength exercises. The study outcomes were changes in pulmonary function, exercise capacity, peripheral muscle strength, dyspnea scores, and quality of life from baseline to post-intervention.
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Comparison of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) with a multi-sensor armband accelerometer in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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To compare levels of physical activity (PA) assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) with PA measured with the SenseWear Pro Armband (SWA) in women with fibromyalgia, and to assess the test-retest reliability of the IPAQ.
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Evaporation of droplets of surfactant solutions.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The simultaneous spreading and evaporation of droplets of aqueous trisiloxane (superspreader) solutions onto a hydrophobic substrate has been studied both experimentally, using a video-microscopy technique, and theoretically. The experiments have been carried out over a wide range of surfactant concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. Similar to pure liquids, four different stages have been observed: the initial one corresponds to spreading until the contact angle, ?, reaches the value of the static advancing contact angle, ?ad. Duration of this stage is rather short, and the evaporation during this stage can be neglected. The evaporation is essential during the next three stages. The next stage after the spreading, which is referred to herein as the first stage, takes place at constant perimeter and ends when ? reaches the static receding contact angle, ?r. During the next, second stage, the perimeter decreases at constant contact angle ? = ?r for surfactant concentration above the critical wetting concentration (CWC). The static receding contact angle decreases during the second stage for concentrations below CWC because the concentration increases due to the evaporation. During the final stage both the perimeter and the contact angle decrease. In what follows, we consider only the longest stages I and II. The developed theory predicts universal curves for the contact angle dependency on time during the first stage, and for the droplet perimeter on time during the second stage. A very good agreement between theory and experimental data has been found for the first stage of evaporation, and for the second stage for concentrations above CWC; however, some deviations were found for concentrations below CWC.
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Particle laden fluid interfaces: Dynamics and interfacial rheology.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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We review the dynamics of particle laden interfaces, both particle monolayers and particle+surfactant monolayers. We also discuss the use of the Brownian motion of microparticles trapped at fluid interfaces for measuring the shear rheology of surfactant and polymer monolayers. We describe the basic concepts of interfacial rheology and the different experimental methods for measuring both dilational and shear surface complex moduli over a broad range of frequencies, with emphasis in the micro-rheology methods. In the case of particles trapped at interfaces the calculation of the diffusion coefficient from the Brownian trajectories of the particles is calculated as a function of particle surface concentration. We describe in detail the calculation in the case of subdiffusive particle dynamics. A comprehensive review of dilational and shear rheology of particle monolayers and particle+surfactant monolayers is presented. Finally the advantages and current open problems of the use of the Brownian motion of microparticles for calculating the shear complex modulus of monolayers are described in detail.
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Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Abstract This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3±8.4 kg; stature 179.8±7.1 cm; body fat 24.0±3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3±2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1±0.7; 3.4±0.9; 3.1±0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.
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Effects on adolescents lipid profile of a fitness-enhancing intervention in the school setting; the EDUFIT study.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Observational studies have reported an association among physical activity, fitness and lipid profile in youth. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a school-based intervention focused on increasing the number and intensity of Physical Education (PE) sessions a week, on adolescents lipid profile.
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A search for new CYP3A4 variants as determinants of tacrolimus dose requirements in renal-transplanted patients.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1B alleles have been related with tacrolimus (Tac) dose requirements. The rare CYP3A4*22 variant has also been associated with a significantly lower Tac dose. We genotyped the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 206 kidney-transplanted patients who received Tac as the primary immunosuppressor. CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A4*1B allele carriers received a significantly higher Tac dose (P<0.01) compared with wild-type homozygotes. We did not find significant differences between the CYP3A4*22 genotypes, either nominally or according to the CYP3A5 genotype (expressers vs. nonexpressers). Sequencing of CYP3A4 coding exons in a total of 15 patients revealed only one nonreported missense change (p.P227>T) in one patient. We concluded that CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1B were the main determinants of the Tac dose-adjusted blood concentration in our cohort of renal-transplanted patients.
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Six-Year Trend in Active Commuting to School in Spanish Adolescents : The AVENA and AFINOS Studies.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Promoting daily routine activities, such as active commuting to school, may have important health implications for young people.
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Epigenetic modulation of the immune function: a potential target for tolerance.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Great efforts in the field of solid organ transplantation are being devoted to identifying biomarkers that allow a transplanted patients immune status to be established. Recently, it has been well documented that epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone modifications regulate the expression of immune system-related genes, modifying the development of the innate and adaptive immune responses. An in-depth knowledge of these epigenetic mechanisms could modulate the immune response after transplantation and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Epigenetic modifiers, such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have considerable potential as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents, but their effect on transplantation has not hitherto been known. Moreover, the detection of epigenetic marks in key immune genes could be useful as biomarkers of rejection and progression among transplanted patients. Here, we describe recent discoveries concerning the epigenetic regulation of the immune system, and how this knowledge could be translated to the field of transplantation.
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Impact of Bronchodilator Responsiveness on Quality of Life and Exercise Capacity in Patients With COPD.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Bronchial variability in COPD patients may be a phenotypic feature associated with clinical characteristics and differential treatment response. We analyzed whether symptoms, quality of life, and exercise capacity varied in COPD patients as a function of bronchodilator test results, and compared responses to an exercise program.
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High fat diets are associated with higher abdominal adiposity regardless of physical activity in adolescents; the HELENA study.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Failure to attain fat balance may contribute to obesity development even without excessive energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of dietary macronutrient distribution with abdominal adiposity in adolescents and to evaluate whether these relationships were attenuated by physical activity.
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[A nosology for supernatural phenomena and the construction of the possessed brain in the nineteenth century].
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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At the end of the twentieth century, supernatural phenomena such as so called trances and possession by spirits received a scientific classification, which includes the numerous diagnoses of the dominant psychiatry. At the end of the nineteenth century we can observe a process of scientific categorization of phenomena considered to have originated in superstition or popular imagination. In this work we show how trances and spiritual possession were studied by Franz Anton Mesmer and his followers when developing the concept of magnetism; by James Braid during the creation of his theory of hypnosis; and by Jean Martin Charcot, which marked the entry of hysteria into nosological classification. Despite the differences between these schools, we identify the use of the brain and cerebral metaphors as the foundation of theories of the mind.
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A CLCNKA polymorphism (rs10927887; p.Arg83Gly) previously linked to heart failure is associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate in the RENASTUR cohort.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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A total of 569 individuals aged 55-85 and Caucasian were genotyped for SNP rs10927887 in the Ka renal chloride channel gene (CLCNKA). The following variables were significantly associated with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of (eGFR) <60 ml/min./1.73 m(2): age, type 2 diabetes, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and the CLCNKA GG genotype (p=0.03; OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.04-2.62). This novel finding could partly explain the reported greater risk of heart failure linked to the CLCNKA SNP, but requires confirmation on other populations.
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Serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein as a marker of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Recently, serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) has been closely associated with coronary artery disease. Here, we aimed to investigate the possible relationship between serum LBP and markers of atherosclerosis.
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Association between chocolate consumption and fatness in European adolescents.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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There is a substantial interest in the potential role of chocolate in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It has been recently reported that a higher frequency of chocolate intake is linked to lower body mass index (BMI) in adults. The aim of the present study was to determine if higher chocolate consumption also is associated with lower BMI, as well as other markers of total and central body fat, in adolescents.
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A weight loss diet intervention has a similar beneficial effect on both metabolically abnormal obese and metabolically healthy but obese premenopausal women.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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We studied the effect of a 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention on cardiometabolic risk in two groups of nonmorbid obese premenopausal Caucasian women, i.e. a metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) and a metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) group.
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A Common APOE Polymorphism Is an Independent Risk Factor for Reduced Glomerular Filtration Rate in the Spanish RENASTUR Cohort.
Cardiorenal Med
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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APOE gene variants may contribute to the risk of chronic kidney disease. Our aim was to determine whether the common APOE-?2/?3/?4 polymorphism is associated with a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the RENASTUR population, a cohort of elderly individuals from the region Asturias (northern Spain).
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[Methylphenidate in Brazil: a decade of publications].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Methylphenidate is frequently associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), though this psychostimulant has been on the market in Switzerland, Germany and the US since the 1950s. After its association with ADHD, Ritalin has become the worlds most widely used psychostimulant. The scope of this article is to present the results of an analysis of publications concerning the use of Methylphenidate in Brazil over a decade. It seeks to understand how the information is presented or omitted in the different printed materials. For the analysis, the most important Brazilian psychiatric journals as well as major Brazilian newspapers and magazines for the general public for the 1998-2008 period were consulted. One important point that resulted from analysis of the empirical material was the participation of pharmaceutical laboratories in the funding of research groups on ADHD. The findings reveal several controversial issues in the publications, such as the combination of drugs and psychotherapy, as well as issues of addiction and over-prescription.
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Association between self-reported sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ? 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (? = 0.027, r 0.130, P< 0.001). Adolescents with insufficient (62.05 (sd 14.18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64.25 (sd 12.87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64.57 (sd 12.39)) (P< 0.001; P= 0.018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.
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Evaporation kinetics of sessile droplets of aqueous suspensions of inorganic nanoparticles.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Evaporation kinetics of sessile droplets of aqueous suspension of inorganic nanoparticles on solid substrates of various wettabilities is investigated from both experimental and theoretical points of view. Experimental results on evaporation of various kinds of inorganic nanosuspensions on solid surfaces of different hydrophobicities/hydrophilicities are compared with our theoretical predictions of diffusion limited evaporation of sessile droplets in the presence of contact angle hysteresis. The theory describes two main stages of evaporation process: (I) evaporation with a constant radius of the droplet base when the contact angle decreases from static advancing contact angle down to static receding contact angle and (II) evaporation with constant contact angle equal to the static receding contact angle when the radius of the droplet base decreases. Theoretically predicted universal dependences for both evaporation stages are compared with experimental data, and a very good agreement is found.
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[Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].
Endocrinol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels.
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Spirometry.
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Spirometry is the main pulmonary function test and is essential for the evaluation and monitoring of respiratory diseases. Its utility transcends the field of Respiratory Medicine, is becoming increasingly important in primary care and applications have even been described outside the field of respiratory diseases. This document is therefore intended to serve as support for all health professionals who use spirometry, providing recommendations based on the best scientific evidence available. An update of the indications and contraindications of the test is proposed. The document sets out recommendations on the requirements necessary for conventional spirometers and portable office equipment, as well as on spirometer hygiene and quality control measures. Spirometric parameters that must be considered, performance of manoeuvres, criteria for acceptability and repeatability of measurements and their quality control are defined. A proposal is also established for presentation of the results and an evaluation and interpretation is proposed according to information generated in recent years. Finally, lines of adaptation and integration of spirometry in the field of new technologies are considered.
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Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD). Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1); and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA) and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT) in 78 subjects (52 women) with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2). Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine) contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance.
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Targeting the circulating microRNA signature of obesity.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Genomic studies have yielded important insights into the pathogenesis of obesity. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarkers of systemic diseases and potential therapeutic targets. We sought to define the circulating pattern of miRNAs in obesity and examine changes after weight loss.
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Spanish adaptation and psychometric properties of the Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire for fibromyalgia patients: the al-Andalus study.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviours are considered as risk factors for global mortality and primary contributors to the obesity epidemic. We assessed the psychometric properties and transcultural adaptation into Spanish of the Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire in fibromyalgia patients.
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Salt effects on the air/solution interfacial properties of PEO-containing copolymers: equilibrium, adsorption kinetics and surface rheological behavior.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Lithium cations are known to form complexes with the oxygen atoms of poly(oxyethylene) chains. The effect of Li(+) on the surface properties of three block-copolymers containing poly(oxyethylene) (PEO) have been studied. Two types of copolymers have been studied, a water soluble one of the pluronic family, PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO, PPO being poly(propyleneoxyde), and two water insoluble ones: PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO, PS being polystyrene. In the case of the pluronic the adsorption kinetics, the equilibrium surface tension isotherm and the aqueous/air surface rheology have been measured, while for the two insoluble copolymers only the surface pressure and the surface rheology have been studied. In all the cases two different Li(+) concentrations have been used. As in the absence of lithium ions, the adsorption kinetics of pluronic solutions shows two processes, and becomes faster as [Li(+)] increases. The kinetics is not diffusion controlled. For a given pluronic concentration the equilibrium surface pressure increases with [Li(+)], and the isotherms show two surface phase transitions, though less marked than for [Li(+)]=0. A similar behavior was found for the equilibrium isotherms of PEO-b-PS and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO. The surface elasticity of these two copolymers was found to increase with [Li(+)] over the whole surface concentration and frequency ranges studied. A smaller effect was found in the case of the pluronic solutions. The results of the pluronic solutions were modeled using a recent theory that takes into account that the molecules can be adsorbed at the surface in two different states. The theory gives a good fit for the adsorption kinetics and a reasonably good prediction of the equilibrium isotherms for low and intermediate concentrations of pluronic. However, the theory is not able to reproduce the isotherm for [Li(+)]=0. Only a semi-quantitative prediction of the surface elasticity is obtained for [pluronic]?1×10(-3) mM.
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More physically active and leaner adolescents have higher energy intake.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To test whether youths who engage in vigorous physical activity are more likely to have lean bodies while ingesting relatively large amounts of energy. For this purpose, we studied the associations of both physical activity and adiposity with energy intake in adolescents.
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Physical activity and markers of insulin resistance in adolescents: role of cardiorespiratory fitness levels--the HELENA study.
Pediatr Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To analyze the association between objectively assessed physical activity (PA) and markers of insulin resistance (IR) in European adolescents and to examine whether the association of objectively assessed PA and markers of IR is modified by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).
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The MRC1/CD68 ratio is positively associated with adipose tissue lipogenesis and with muscle mitochondrial gene expression in humans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Alternative macrophages (M2) express the cluster differentiation (CD) 206 (MCR1) at high levels. Decreased M2 in adipose tissue is known to be associated with obesity and inflammation-related metabolic disturbances. Here we aimed to investigate MCR1 relative to CD68 (total macrophages) gene expression in association with adipogenic and mitochondrial genes, which were measured in human visceral [VWAT, n?=?147] and subcutaneous adipose tissue [SWAT, n?=?76] and in rectus abdominis muscle (n?=?23). The effects of surgery-induced weight loss were also longitudinally evaluated (n?=?6).
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Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To know how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time change across lifespan periods is needed for designing successful lifestyle interventions. We aimed to study changes in objectively measured (accelerometry) MVPA and sedentary time from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to young adulthood.
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Relationship of weight status with mental and physical health in female fibromyalgia patients.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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To analyze the association of weight status with anxiety, depression, quality of life and physical fitness in fibromyalgia (FM) patients.
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Contribution of bone turnover markers to bone mass in pubertal boys and girls.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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The association between bone turnover markers and bone mass in adolescence is not clear. We aimed to evaluate the associations between bone turnover markers and bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and area (BMA).
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Cyclooxygenase-2 -765G>C polymorphism is associated with C-reactive protein levels in resistant smokers but not in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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We sought to investigate whether the serum concentrations of several inflammatory biomarkers are related to the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) -765G>C polymorphism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a control group of non-COPD smokers. Serum inflammatory markers (CRP, SAA, CXCL8, and sICAM-1) were measured by ELISA in 144 patients with COPD and in 55 control subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the COX2 -765G>C (rs20417) polymorphism was genotyped. After adjustment for age and active smoking, CRP and SAA concentrations were associated with the COX2 polymorphism in controls (p=0.041 and 0.014, respectively) but not in COPD patients. The CXCL8 and sICAM-1 concentrations were not associated with the COX2 polymorphism for either cases or controls. The results of the present study indicate that there is a relationship between the COX2 -765G>C polymorphism and the concentrations of CRP and SAA in non-COPD smokers and that this relationship does not exist in COPD patients.
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Influence of the percentage of acetylation on the assembly of LbL multilayers of poly(acrylic acid) and chitosan.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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The Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self-assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) formed by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and chitosan (CHI) of two different percentages of acetylation (AC) has been studied by dissipative quartz crystal microbalance (D-QCM) and ellipsometry. The results point out that the non-linear growth (exponential growth) of the films is not modified by the percentage of acetylation of the CHI (AC). The comparison of the thickness obtained by D-QCM and by ellipsometry has allowed us to calculate the water content of the films showing that the multilayers are highly hydrated. This agrees with the values of the complex shear modulus obtained from the analysis of D-QCM data that are in the MPa range, and show a transition from a viscous to mainly elastic behavior depending on the charge density of the CHI chains. The monomer surface density in each layer (obtained from the combination of ellipsometry and differential refractive index measurements) indicated that the mechanism of charge compensation depends on the percentage of acetylation of the CHI. It was found that the adsorption kinetics is a bimodal process with characteristic times that depend on the number and nature of each layer. The load capacity of the multilayers for a ?-blocker, propranolol, was found to be higher for the lowest acetylation degree.
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Body size at birth modifies the effect of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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The present study was intended to examine whether ponderal index (PI) at birth modifies the effect of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in European adolescents. A total of 628 adolescents aged 14·4 (se 1·3) years (56·8 % female) were recruited. PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length (kg/m³), and the BMI (kg/m²), body fat percentage and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m²) were calculated. The rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped and physical activity assessed by accelerometry. Sex, duration of pregnancy, pubertal status, centre and physical activity were used as confounders in all the analyses. The minor A allele of the FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) but not with PI. Significant interactions between PI and the rs9939609 polymorphism in terms of body fat percentage (P = 0·002) and FMI (P = 0·017) were detected. However, this polymorphism was only significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) in adolescents in the lower PI tertile. Indeed, both body fat percentage and FMI were higher in those adolescents in the lower PI tertile carrying the A allele of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism than in those with the TT genotype (25·0 (se 0·8) v. 22·1 (se 1·0) %, adjusted P = 0·030 and 5·6 (se 0·3) v. 4·6 (se 0·4) kg/m2, P = 0·031, respectively). Our findings suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the A risk allele of the FTO polymorphism on total adiposity content.
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European adolescents level of perceived stress and its relationship with body adiposity--the HELENA Study.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2011
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Since stress is hypothesized to be involved in the aetiology of obesity, the present study examined the current perception of stress in European adolescents and the association between adolescent perceived stress and their adiposity.
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Reliability and intermethod agreement for body fat assessment among two field and two laboratory methods in adolescents.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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To increase knowledge about reliability and intermethods agreement for body fat (BF) is of interest for assessment, interpretation, and comparison purposes. It was aimed to examine intra- and inter-rater reliability, interday variability, and degree of agreement for BF using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod-Pod), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements in European adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents (25 females) from Zaragoza and 30 (14 females) from Stockholm, aged 13-17 years participated in this study. Two trained raters in each center assessed BF with Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry (DXA only in Zaragoza). Intermethod agreement and reliability were studied using a 4-way ANOVA for the same rater on the first day and two additional measurements on a second day, one each rater. Technical error of measurement (TEM) and percentage coefficient of reliability (%R) were also reported. No significant intrarater, inter-rater, or interday effect was observed for %BF for any method in either of the cities. In Zaragoza, %BF was significantly different when measured by Bod-Pod and BIA in comparison with anthropometry and DXA (all P < 0.001). The same result was observed in Stockholm (P < 0.001), except that DXA was not measured. Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry are reliable for %BF repeated assessment within the same day by the same or different raters or in consecutive days by the same rater. Bod-Pod showed close agreement with BIA as did DXA with anthropometry; however, Bod-Pod and BIA presented higher values of %BF than anthropometry and DXA.
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Decreased STAMP2 expression in association with visceral adipose tissue dysfunction.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Six-transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2) is a counter-regulator of inflammation and insulin resistance according to findings in mice. However, there have been contradictory reports in humans.
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Influence of the molecular architecture on the adsorption onto solid surfaces: comb-like polymers.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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The processes of adsorption of grafted copolymers onto negatively charged surfaces were studied using a dissipative quartz crystal microbalance (D-QCM) and ellipsometry. The control parameters in the study of the adsorption are the existence or absence on the molecular architecture of grafted polyethyleneglycol (PEG) chains with different lengths and the chemical nature of the main chain, poly(allylamine) (PAH) or poly(L-lysine) (PLL). It was found out that the adsorption kinetics of the polymers showed a complex behavior. The total adsorbed amount depends on the architecture of the polymer chains (length of the PEG chains), on the polymer concentration and on the chemical nature of the main chain. The comparison of the thicknesses of the adsorbed layers obtained from D-QCM and from ellipsometry allowed calculation of the water content of the layers that is intimately related to the grafting length. The analysis of D-QCM results also provides information about the shear modulus of the layers, whose values have been found to be typical of a rubber-like polymer system. It is shown that the adsorption of polymers with a charged backbone is not driven exclusively by the electrostatic interactions, but the entropic contributions as a result of the trapping of water in the layer structure are of fundamental importance.
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Physical activity, fitness, and serum leptin concentrations in adolescents.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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To examine the association of physical activity and fitness with leptin concentrations in European adolescents, after taking into account several potential confounders including total body fat (TBF).
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Cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness are associated with health complaints and health risk behaviors in youth.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness with health complaints and health risk behaviors in 691 (323 girls) Spanish children aged 6 to 17.9.
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Stability of the factorial structure of metabolic syndrome from childhood to adolescence: a 6-year follow-up study.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors that is considered a predictor of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. There is no consistent evidence on whether the MS construct works in the same way in different populations and at different stages in life.
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Adsorption of conditioning polymers on solid substrates with different charge density.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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The adsorption processes of polymers that belong to two different families (neutral hydrophilic polymers and cationic polysaccharide polymers) onto solid surfaces with different charge density have been studied using dissipative quartz crystal microbalance (D-QCM) and ellipsometry. The polymers studied are very frequently used in the cosmetic industry as conditioning agents. The adsorption kinetics of the polymers involves at least two steps. The total adsorbed amount depends on the charge density of the surface for both types of polymers. The comparison of the adsorbed mass on each layer obtained from D-QCM and from ellipsometry has allowed calculating the water content of the layers that reaches high values for the polymers studied. The analysis of D-QCM results also provided information about the shear modulus of the layers, whose values have been found to be typical of a rubber-like polymer system. The main driving force of the adsorption was found to be the energy of the interactions between chains and surface.
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