Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is involved in important metabolic reactions where the biological function is intrinsically related to changes in conformation. In the present work, FAD conformational changes were studied in solution and in gas phase by measuring the fluorescence decay time and ion-neutral collision cross sections (CCS, in a trapped ion mobility spectrometer, TIMS) as a function of the solvent conditions (i.e., organic content) and gas-phase collisional partner (i.e., N2 doped with organic molecules). Changes in the fluorescence decay suggest that FAD can exist in four conformations in solution, where the abundance of the extended conformations increases with the organic content. TIMS-MS experiments showed that FAD can exist in the gas phase as deprotonated (M = C27H31N9O15P2) and protonated forms (M = C27H33N9O15P2) and that multiple conformations (up to 12) can be observed as a function of the starting solution for the [M + H](+) and [M + Na](+)molecular ions. In addition, changes in the relative abundances of the gas-phase structures were observed from a "stack" to a "close" conformation when organic molecules were introduced in the TIMS cell as collision partners. Candidate structures optimized at the DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) were proposed for each IMS band, and results showed that the most abundant IMS band corresponds to the most stable candidate structure. Solution and gas-phase experiments suggest that the driving force that stabilizes the different conformations is based on the interaction of the adenine and isoalloxazine rings that can be tailored by the "solvation" effect created with the organic molecules.
The nitroderivative 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (NPE) was recently described as a compound possessing heme-dependent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulating properties in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we tested such pharmacological property of NPE in mice pancreatic acinar cells subjected to the bile salt taurocholate, a type of pathological stimulus that simulates pancreatitis. Here, isolated acinar cells were treated with NPE in order to assess the role of sGC on the detrimental effects induced by taurocholate. NPE reduced taurocholate-elicited Ca(2+) overload, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, necrosis, and exerted a protective effect against mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) dissipation. These NPE-induced effects were abolished by pretreatment with ODQ and KT 5823, and after the blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with l-NAME, inhibitors of key components of the sGC pathway. Contrarily to cGMP that alone increased ??m collapse and cell damage, the cytoprotective effect of NPE on ??m and cell necrosis was almost reproduced by 8-nitro-cGMP, a second messenger generated by sGC under oxidative stress conditions. In conclusion, putative sGC stimulation with NPE reveals its cytoprotective profile on pancreatic cells subjected to taurocholate. Moreover, ROS and NO conjunctly appear to drive sGC activity in pancreatic acinar cells to implement an adaptive mechanism in response to oxidative and Ca(2+) stress through 8-nitro-cGMPsynthesis.
This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein?×?Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, affects mitochondrial respiration and memory consolidation. Therefore, drugs that improve mitochondrial function may be appropriate cognitive treatments for cerebral hypoperfusion. Methylene blue (MB) crosses the blood-brain barrier and at low doses serves as an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Previous studies implicate MB in both memory enhancement and neuroprotection. We treated rats that underwent permanent bilateral carotid occlusion (2VO) or sham surgery with daily 4 mg/kg USP MB or saline for one month. Animals went through a battery of behavioral tests, including open field, visual water maze, and odor-recognition tasks. 2VO rats showed worse performance in the visual water task without showing differences in general motor activity, visually guided swimming ability or odor recognition. Daily MB attenuated the deficits in visual learning and memory that resulted from cerebrovascular insufficiency. During training on three different discrimination problems in the visual water task, all animals were able to reach a criterion of 8/10 correct trials, but 2VO animals took longer to learn each problem and showed lower performance in a challenging memory probe. However, animals that received daily post-session MB performed significantly better than saline-treated subjects both during training and during the memory probe. This is the first study to demonstrate that MB attenuates learning and memory deficits caused by carotid occlusion. The results suggest that MB may be beneficial for conditions involving chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, such as mild cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease.
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. This disease control has been widely made by praziquantel-reference drug, but resistance to this drug has already been found. There has been the finding of an imidazole alkaloid in jaborandi leaves-epiisopiloturine, which has known activity against adult, young and egg forms of Schistosoma mansoni. This alkaloid is an apolar molecule with difficult solubility; therefore, the liposomal structure of epiisopiloturine was proposed. Liposomes are carrying structures of drugs that may enhance solubility of compounds such as epiisopiloturine. In this work, we report in vitro epiisopiloturine-loaded liposomes effect formed by different concentrations of lipids 9:1 (weight ratio) dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine:cholesterol and 8:2 (weight ratio) dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine:cholesterol. Results have showed that epiisopiloturine extraction and isolation have been successful through high-performance liquid chromatography-HPLC and its purity confirmed through mass spectrometry has showed 287 Da molecular mass. Formulations from 9:1 DPPC:cholesterol and 8:2 DPPC:cholesterol with loaded EPI (300 microg/ml) have killed parasites at 100% after incubation 96 h and 120 h, respectively. Confocal microscopy employed to observe morphological alterations in the tegument of adult form of Schistosoma mansoni. Details from interaction, between epiisopiloturine and liposome, have been achieved by semi-empirical AM1 calculations, which have showed that epiisopiloturine inside is more stable than the outside form, at least 10 kcal. This is first time that schistosomicidal activity has been reported for epiisopiloturine-loaded into liposome.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are of great interest in nanomedicine due to their capability to act simultaneously as a contrast agent and as a targeted drug delivery system. At present, one of the biggest concerns about the use of SPIONs remains around its toxicity and, for this reason, it is important to establish the safe upper limit for each use. In the present study, SPION coated with cross-linked aminated dextran (CLIO-NH?) were synthesized and their toxicity to zebrafish brain was investigated. We have evaluated the effect of different CLIO-NH? doses (20, 50, 100, 140 and 200 mg/kg) as a function of time after exposure (one, 16, 24 and 48 h) on AChE activity and ache expression in zebrafish brain. The animals exposed to 200 mg/kg and tested 24 h after administration of the nanoparticles have shown decreased AChE activity, reduction in the exploratory performance, significantly higher level of ferric iron in the brains and induction of casp8, casp 9 and jun genes. Taken together, these findings suggest acute brain toxicity by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and induction of apoptosis.
Routine serological diagnoses for leishmaniases, except in visceral cases, are performed using whole-parasite antigens. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to evaluate the performance of Leishmania infantum rHsp83 compared with L. major-like total promastigote antigen in the diagnosis of cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML), and visceral leishmaniases (VL). ELISA-rHsp83 was significantly more sensitive than ELISA-L. major-like when considering either CL/ML (P = 0.041) or all leishmaniasis patients (P = 0.013). When samples from other infectious disease patients were evaluated for cross-reactivity, ELISA-rHsp83 was more specific than ELISA-L. major-like, specifically for Chagas disease samples (P < 0.001). We also evaluated the anti-rHsp83 antibody titers months after treatment and observed no significant difference in ML (P = 0.607) or CL (P = 0.205). We recommend ELISA-L. infantum-rHsp83 as a routine confirmatory serological assay for the diagnosis of Leishmania infection because of the high sensitivity, the specificity, and the insignificant cross-reactivity with other infectious diseases.
In the present paper, theoretical simulations and experimental observations are used to describe the ion dynamics in a trapped ion mobility spectrometer. In particular, the ion motion, ion transmission and mobility separation are discussed as a function of the bath gas velocity, radial confinement, analysis time and speed. Mobility analysis and calibration procedure are reported for the case of sphere-like molecules for positive and negative ion modes. Results showed that a maximal mobility resolution can be achieved by optimizing the gas velocity, radial confinement (RF amplitude) and ramp speed (voltage range and ramp time). The mobility resolution scales with the electric field and gas velocity and R = 100-250 can be routinely obtained at room temperature.
Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in host defense by upregulating both innate and acquired immune responses. Analysis of IL18 polymorphisms may be clinically important since their roles have been recognized in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. However, the role of this cytokine polymorphisms in kidney transplant still remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the associations between IL18 polymorphisms and graft function assessed by creatinine clearance in kidney transplant recipients. A total of 82 kidney transplant recipients and 183 healthy controls were enrolled, and frequencies of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes for IL18 polymorphisms were determined and compared with creatinine clearance. The -607C/A (rs1946518) and -137C/G (rs187238) variant alleles in the IL18 gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction. In our study, no significant association was found between the IL18 variants and creatinine clearance (p > 0.05). Nonetheless, polymorphism analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of the IL18 major haplotype -607C/-137G in kidney transplant patients (odds ratio 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.45-4.55, p = 0.0014). Finally, we found that IL18 polymorphisms did not influence the renal function and that IL18 haplotype -607C/-137G seems to be associated with kidney transplant recipients.
Methyl cinnamate (MC) is a safe flavoring agent useful to food industry. Although chemically analog to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, there is little information regarding its biological actions. Here, we aimed at assessing the MC effects on gastrointestinal contractility and the putative involvement of tyrosine kinase in the mediation of these effects. Isometric contractions were recorded in rat isolated strips from stomach, duodenum and colon segments. In gastric strips, MC (3-3000 µM) showed antispasmodic effects against carbachol-induced contractions, which remained unchanged by either l-NAME or tetraethylammonium pretreatment and occurred with potency similar to that obtained against contractions evoked by potassium or U-46619. In colon strips, MC was four times more potent than in gastric ones. MC and the positive control genistein inhibited phasic contractions induced by acetylcholine in Ca2+-free medium, an effect fully prevented by sodium orthovanadate. Both MC and genistein decreased the spontaneous contractions of duodenal strips and shortened the time necessary for gastric fundic tissues to reach 50% of maximal relaxation. In freshly isolated colon myocytes, MC decreased the basal levels of cytoplasmic Ca2+, but not the potassium-elicited cytoplasmic Ca2+ elevation. Colon strips obtained from rats subjected to intracolonic acetic acid instillation showed reduced contractility to potassium, which was partially recovered in MC-treated rats. Inhibitory effect of nifedipine against cholinergic contractions, blunted in acetic acid-induced colitis, was also recovered in MC-treated rats. In conclusion, MC inhibited the gastrointestinal contractility with a probable involvement of tyrosine kinase pathways. In vivo, it was effective to prevent the deleterious effects of colitis resulting from acetic acid injury.
Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28 to 42, while control animals were placed in empty clean cages. On postnatal day 45, they were tested for male sexual behavior in the presence of receptive female. Alternatively, they were tested for mate choice after placement at the base of a Y-maze containing a sexually receptive female in one tip of the maze and an ovariectomized one on the other. Social subjugation did not affect the capacity to mate with receptive females. Although control animals were fast to approach females and preferred ovariectomized individuals, subjugated animals stayed away from them and showed no preference. Cytochrome oxidase activity was reduced within the preoptic area and ventral tegmental area in subjugated hamsters. In addition, the correlation of metabolic activity of these areas with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anterior parietal cortex changed significantly from positive in controls to negative in subjugated animals. These data show that at mid-puberty, while male hamsters are capable of mating, their appetitive sexual behavior is not fully mature and this aspect of male sexual behavior is responsive to social subjugation. Furthermore, metabolic activity and coordination of activity in brain areas related to sexual behavior and motivation were altered by social subjugation.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the vascular effects of the E-isomer of methyl cinnamate (E-MC) in rat isolated aortic rings and the putative mechanisms underlying these effects. At 1-3000 ?mol/L, E-MC concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact aortic preparations that had been precontracted with phenylephrine (PHE; 1 ?mol/L), with an IC50 value (geometric mean) of 877.6 ?mol/L (95% confidence interval (CI) 784.1-982.2 ?mol/L). These vasorelaxant effects of E-MC remained unchanged after removal of the vascular endothelium (IC50 725.5 ?mol/L; 95% CI 546.4-963.6 ?mol/L) and pretreatment with 100 ?mol/L N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (IC50 749.0 ?mol/L; 95% CI 557.8-1005.7 ?mol/L) or 10 ?mol/L 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (IC50 837.2 ?mol/L; 95% CI 511.4-1370.5 ?mol/L). Over the concentration range 1-3000 ?mol/L, E-MC relaxed K(+) -induced contractions in mesenteric artery preparations (IC50 314.5 ?mol/L; 95% CI 141.9-697.0 ?mol/L) with greater potency than in aortic preparations (IC50 1144.7 ?mol/L; 95% CI 823.2-1591.9 ?mol/L). In the presence of a saturating contractile concentration of K(+) (150 mmol/L) in Ca(2+) -containing medium combined with 3 ?mol/L PHE, 1000 ?mol/L E-MC only partially reversed the contractile response. In contrast, under similar conditions, E-MC nearly fully relaxed PHE-induced contractions in aortic rings in a Ba(2+) -containing medium. In preparations that were maintained under Ca(2+) -free conditions, 600 and 1000 ?mol/L E-MC significantly reduced the contractions induced by exogenous Ca(2+) or Ba(2+) in KCl-precontracted preparations, but not in PHE-precontracted preparations (in the presence of 1 ?mol/L verapamil). In addition, E-MC (1-3000 ?mol/L) concentration-dependently relaxed the contractions induced by 2 mmol/L sodium orthovanadate. Based on these observations, E-MC-induced endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effects appear to be preferentially mediated by inhibition of plasmalemmal Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. However, the involvement of a myogenic mechanism in the effects of E-MC is also possible.
In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) and theoretical calculations have been used to study carotenoid geometrical motifs generated by photoisomerization from the all-trans geometry. Multiple geometric isomers of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin were separated using TIMS (R > 110) for [M](+), [M + H](+), and [M - 18](+) molecular species. Comparison of observed cross sections with those obtained from molecular dynamics calculations showed that the number of cis double bonds and s-cis single bonds in the polyene chain determine the topology space of the carotenoid. The intensities of IMS signals are correlated with the relative stability of these geometric isomers.1,2 The most stable isomer is the all-trans geometry regardless of the ionization state ([M - 18](+), [M](+), and [M + H](+)), and structural stability decreases with the increasing number of cis and/or s-cis bonds in the polyene chain.
In this study, we detected Leishmania spp. infection in R. sanguineus collected from dogs that were naturally infected with L. (L.) infantum. We examined 35 dogs of both sexes and unknown ages. The infected dogs were serologically positive by the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Quick Test-DPP (Dual Path Platform), as well as parasitological examination of a positive skin biopsy or sternal bone marrow aspiration. Ten negative dogs were included as controls. The ticks that infested these dogs were collected in pools of 10 adult females per animal. The PCR was performed with specific primers for Leishmania spp., which amplified a 720-bp fragment. Of the 35 analyzed samples, a product was observed in eight samples (8/35; 22.9%). We conclude that the presence of parasite DNA suggests that ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of canine visceral leishmaniasis, in the city of Teresina, Piauí.
High resolution imaging mass spectrometry could become a valuable tool for cell and developmental biology, but both, high spatial and mass spectral resolution are needed to enable this. In this report, we employed Bi3 bombardment time-of-flight (Bi3 ToF-SIMS) and C60 bombardment Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60 FTICR-SIMS) to image Dictyostelium discoideum aggregation streams. Nearly 300 lipid species were identified from the aggregation streams. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging (FTICR-SIMS) enabled the generation of multiple molecular ion maps at the nominal mass level and provided good coverage for fatty acyls, prenol lipids, and sterol lipids. The comparison of Bi3 ToF-SIMS and C60 FTICR-SIMS suggested that while the first provides fast, high spatial resolution molecular ion images, the chemical complexity of biological samples warrants the use of high resolution analyzers for accurate ion identification.
Wolfram syndrome 1 (WS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness (DIDMOAD syndrome). It is caused by a mutation in the WFS1 gene (chromosome 4p16.1, involved in regulation of intracellular calcium) that encodes wolframin, a transmembrane protein of pancreatic ? cells. WS1 is a rare disorder characterized by the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus at an average age of 6 years, followed by optic atrophy (figure) at an average age of 11 and partial central diabetes insipidus and deafness in adolescence. Additional neurologic manifestations include truncal ataxia, myoclonus, epilepsy, nystagmus, and hyposmia.(1,2.)
Sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. The prevalence of this condition has increased significantly in different parts of the world. Patients admitted to dermatology wards often have severe loss of skin barrier and use systemic corticosteroids, which favor the development of sepsis.
A 21-yr-old female jaguar (Panthera onca) died in a zoo in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil, following a history of abdominal distension, ascites, anorexia, and dyspnea. At necropsy, a dark red, watery, blood-tinged serous fluid was present in the abdominal cavity. The peritoneum was thick with firm, yellow, villous projections. Histologically, the tumors were composed of a biphasic population of cells, which reacted to anti-cytokeratin and anti-vimentin antibodies, consistent with a biphasic benign mesothelioma of peritoneal origin. This is the first reported case of mesothelioma in a captive jaguar.
To evaluate of postoperative adhesion prevention and inflammatory response to polypropylene mesh, coated with reabsorbable hydrogel of polyethylene glycol (Coseal®) in contact with small bowel in an experimental model in rabbits.
Nodular fasciitis is a benign, idiopathic, reactive proliferation of myofibroblasts found in the subcutaneous fascia; intraoral occurrence is very rare. An 18-year-old woman was referred to the oral diagnosis service with a 1-month history of a nodular mass in the gingiva. Clinical examination disclosed a well-circumscribed, mobile, pedunculated mass in the left mandibular gingiva. The clinical diagnoses included pyogenic granuloma. She underwent an excisional biopsy under local anesthesia through an intraoral approach. Microscopic examination showed a proliferation of spindle cells arranged in intersecting fascicles. The spindle cells exhibited plump, vesicular nuclei without significant pleomorphism. Scattered multinucleated giant cells also were present. Immunohistochemical stains showed that the lesional cells were positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin and negative for S-100 protein. The features were those of an inflammatory, benign myofibroblastic lesion, consistent with intraoral nodular fasciitis.
The present study tested the hypothesis that the Janus kinase 2, Src tyrosine kinases, and mitogen-activated protein kinase interact to regulate lordosis behavior induced by leptin in ovariectomized, estrogen-primed rats. The role of protein kinase A and protein kinase C in lordosis facilitation by leptin was also assessed. In experiment 1, the intracerebroventricular administration of leptin to ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats significantly stimulated lordosis behavior at 1, 2 and 4 h post-injection tests. In experiment 2, the Janus kinase 2 inhibitor AG490, the Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059 were administered into the right lateral ventricle before leptin. The lordosis quotient and the lordosis score induced by leptin were significantly decreased by each of these kinase inhibitors. In experiment 3, we examined the effects of RpcAMPS and bisindolylmaleimide, protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors on the lordosis elicited by leptin administration. Lordosis behavior induced by leptin was significantly decreased by both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors at 1 h post-leptin injection. The results confirm that multiple intracellular pathways participate in the expression of lordosis behavior in estrogen-primed rats elicited by leptin.
This study investigated the sero-conversion period in which dogs from endemic areas test positive for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as well as the early post-infection period in which renal alterations are observed. Dogs that were initially negative for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) were clinically evaluated every three months by serological, parasitological and biochemical tests until sero-conversion was confirmed, and six months later a subsequent evaluation was performed. Samples of kidney tissues were processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Massons trichrome stain and lesions were classified based on the WHO criteria. Of the 40 dogs that initially tested negative for VL, 25 (62.5%) exhibited positive serological tests during the study period. Of these 25 dogs, 15 (60%) tested positive within three months, five (20%) tested positive within six months and five (20%) tested positive within nine months. The dogs exhibited antibody titers between 1:40 and 1:80 and 72% of the dogs exhibited clinical symptoms. The Leishmania antigen was present in the kidneys of recently infected dogs. We found higher levels of total protein and globulin as well as lower levels of albumin in the infected dogs when compared to the control dogs. Additionally, infected dogs presented levels of urea and creatinine that were higher than those of the uninfected dogs. Glomerulonephritis was detected in some of the dogs examined in this study. These data suggest that in Teresina, the sero-conversion for VL occurs quickly and showed that the infected dogs presented abnormal serum proteins, as well as structural and functional alterations in the kidneys during the early post-infection period.
This paper describes the first detection of adenovirus in a Brazilian Desmodus rotundus bat, the common vampire bat. As part of a continuous rabies surveillance program, three bat specimens were captured in Southern Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from pooled organs and submitted to a nested PCR designed to amplify a 280 bp long portion of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. One positive sample was subjected to nucleotide sequencing, confirming that this DNA fragment belongs to a member of the genus Mastadenovirus. This sequence is approximately 25 % divergent at the nucleotide level from equine adenovirus 1 and two other recently characterized bat adenoviruses.
The mechanism of fetal gastric dilation in gastroschisis is controversial. This study was designed to characterize changes in the contractile profile of strips of stomach from rats following experimental gastroschisis.
Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinoideae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat anemia, kidney problems, sore throat and other dysfunctions of the respiratory system, such as bronchitis and asthma, although such properties are yet to be scientifically validated.
Dengue virus causes about 100 million cases of dengue disease per year in the world. Laboratory diagnosis is done mainly by serological techniques, which in many cases use crude virus extracts that may cause cross-reactions to other flaviviruses. These undesirable cross-reactions can be reduced or eliminated by using recombinant proteins based on restricted epitopes. Aiming to decrease flaviviral cross-reactions and non-specific interactions in dengue serological assays, a plant expression system was chosen for recombinant antigen production as a reliable and inexpensive dengue diagnostic tool. In the present report, the lettuce plastid transformation system was applied to achieve efficient and stable tetra-epitope peptide antigen production, and its reactivity was evaluated. For this purpose, one putative epitope at positions 34 to 57 of E protein within the junction site of domains I and II of dengue virus (DENV) 1 to 4 serotypes linked by glycine linkers was expressed in lettuce chloroplasts. The potential immunoreactivity for the four DENV serotypes was evaluated using sera from patients of positive and negative dengue cases. Results indicated an overall sensitivity of 71.7% and specificity of 100%. No cross-reactions with the sera of yellow fever-positive or healthy individuals vaccinated against yellow fever were observed. This novel approach may provide an alternative system for the large-scale production of dengue recombinant antigens useful for serodiagnosis.
A survey was carried out in search for bat coronaviruses in an urban maternity roost of about 500 specimens of two species of insectivorous bats, Molossus molossus and Tadarida brasiliensis, in Southern Brazil. Twenty-nine out of 150 pooled fecal samples tested positive by reverse transcription-PCR contained fragments of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of coronavirus-related viruses. The sequences clustered along with bat alphacoronaviruses, forming a subcluster within this group. Our findings point to the need for risk assessment and continued surveillance of coronavirus infections of bats in Brazil.
The present study deals with the pharmacological effects of the sesquiterpene alcohol (-)-?-bisabolol on various smooth-muscle preparations from rats. Under resting tonus, (-)-?-bisabolol (30-300 µmol/L) relaxed duodenal strips, whereas it showed biphasic effects in other preparations, contracting endothelium-intact aortic rings and urinary bladder strips, and relaxing these tissues at higher concentrations (600-1000 µmol/L). In preparations precontracted either electromechanically (by 60 mmol/L K(+)) or pharmacomechanically (by phenylephrine or carbachol), (-)-?-bisabolol showed only relaxing properties. The pharmacological potency of (-)-?-bisabolol was variable, being higher in mesenteric vessels, whereas it exerted relaxing activity with a lesser potency on tracheal or colonic tissues. In tissues possessing spontaneous activity, (-)-?-bisabolol completely decreased spontaneous contractions in duodenum, whereas it increased their amplitude in urinary bladder tissue. Administered in vivo, (-)-?-bisabolol attenuated the increased responses of carbachol in tracheal rings of ovalbumin-sensitized rats challenged with ovalbumin, but was without effect in the decreased responsiveness of urinary bladder strips in mice treated with ifosfamide. In summary, (-)-?-bisabolol is biologically active in smooth muscle. In some tissues, (-)-?-bisabolol preferentially relaxed contractions induced electromechanically, especially in tracheal smooth muscle. The findings from tracheal rings reveal that (-)-?-bisabolol may be an inhibitor of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels.
The development of a Brazilian National Surveillance System in 1975 led to a compulsory reporting of selected infectious diseases aiming to reduce the burden of these events in the country. However, shifts in the epidemiology of these diseases associated with modern life style, demand constant revision of surveillance activities. In this manuscript we present the epidemiology, trends and differential diagnosis of the following compulsory notifiable diseases in Brazil: Aids, dengue fever, hanseniasis, American tegumentary leishmaniasis, measles, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome and syphilis. Additionally, the current challenges for control and prevention of each disease are presented.
The trans-[Ru(NO)(NH(3))(4)(P(OH)(3))]Cl(3) complex was synthesized by reacting [Ru(H(2)O)(NH(3))(5)](2+) with H(3)PO(3) and characterized by spectroscopic ((31)P-NMR, ? = 68 ppm) and spectrophotometric techniques (? = 525 nm, ? = 20 L mol(-1) cm(-1); ? = 319 nm, ? = 773 L mol(-1) cm(-1); ? = 241 nm, ? = 1385 L mol(-1) cm(-1); ?(NO(+)) = 1879 cm(-1)). A pK(a) of 0.74 was determined from infrared measurements as a function of pH for the reaction: trans-[Ru(NO)(NH(3))(4)(P(OH)(3))](3+) + H(2)O ? trans-[Ru(NO)(NH(3))(4)(P(O(-))(OH)(2))](2+) + H(3)O(+). According to (31)P-NMR, IR, UV-vis, cyclic voltammetry and ab initio calculation data, upon deprotonation, trans-[Ru(NO)(NH(3))(4)(P(OH)(3))](3+) yields the O-bonded linkage isomer trans- [Ru(NO)(NH(3))(4)(OP(OH)(2))](2+), then the trans-[Ru(NO)(NH(3))(4)(OP(H)(OH)(2))](3+) decays to give the final products H(3)PO(3) and trans-[Ru(NO)(NH(3))(4)(H(2)O)](3+). The dissociation of phosphorous acid from the [Ru(NO)(NH(3))(4)](3+) moiety is pH dependent (k(obs) = 2.1 × 10(-4) s(-1) at pH 3.0, 25 °C).
In the present work, the advantages of a new, 100 kV platform equipped with a massive gold cluster source for the analysis of native biological surfaces are shown. Inspection of the molecular ion emission as a function of projectile size demonstrates a secondary ion yield increase of ~100× for 520 keV Au(400)(4+) as compared to 130 keV Au(3)(1+) and 43 keV C(60). In particular, yields of tens of percent of molecular ions per projectile impact for the most abundant components can be observed with the 520 keV Au(400)(4+) probe. A comparison between 520 keV Au(400)(4+) time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) data showed a similar pattern and similar relative intensities of lipid components across a rat brain sagittal section. The abundant secondary ion yield of analyte-specific ions makes 520 keV Au(400)(4+) projectiles an attractive probe for submicrometer molecular mapping of native surfaces.
In the present work we describe the principles of operation, versatility and applicability of a trapped ion mobility spectrometer (TIMS) analyzer for fast, gas-phase separation of molecular ions based on their size-to-charge ratio. Mobility-based separation using a TIMS device is shown for a series for isobar pairs. In a TIMS device, mobility resolution depends on the bath gas velocity and analysis scan speed, with the particularity that the mobility separation can be easily tuned from low to high resolution (R>50) in accordance with the analytical challenge. In contrast to traditional drift tube IMS analyzer, a TIMS device can be easily integrated in a mass spectrometer without a noticeable loss in ion transmission or sensitivity, thus providing a powerful separation platform prior to mass analysis.
Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of leptin facilitates lordosis behavior in ad libitum-fed, estrogen-primed rats. The cellular mechanism involved in this response is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that the nitric oxide-guanylyl cyclase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway is involved in the facilitation of lordosis behavior induced by the central administration of leptin. We tested the importance of the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway for lordosis stimulation by either icv infusion of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) or a nitric oxide-dependent, soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) 30 min before leptin administration (1 ?g). This dose of leptin reliably induced lordosis behavior in ovariectomized estradiol benzoate treated rats. The lordosis induced by leptin at 1 and 2h after infusion was significantly reduced by the previous injection of either L-NAME or by ODQ. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the PKG inhibitor (KT5823) 30 min before leptin infusion, also significantly inhibited the lordosis behavior induced by leptin at 1 and 2h after hormone administration. These data support the hypothesis that the nitric oxide/cGMP/PKG pathway is involved in the facilitation of lordosis by leptin in estrogen-primed female rats.
Rhinocerebral zygomycosis is the most frequent form of fungal infection caused by members of the Zygomycetes class. A fatal case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus (oryzae) arrhizus with histopathological and mycological diagnosis is reported in a diabetic patient.
This study presents a cross-sectional analysis of the hormonal alterations of patients with visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established by the bone marrow aspiration and polymerase chain reaction test. Primary adrenal insufficiency was observed in 45.8% of patients; low aldosterone/renin plasma ratio in 69.4%; low daily urinary aldosterone excretion in 61.1%; and low transtubular potassium gradient in 68.0%. All patients had normal plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentrations, hyponatremia, and high urinary osmolality. Plasma parathyroid hormone was low in 63%; hypomagnesemia was present in 46.4%, and increased Mg(++)(EF) in 100%. Primary thyroid insufficiency was observed in 24.6%, and secondary thyroid insufficiency in 14.1%. Normal follicle-stimulating hormone plasma levels were present in 81.4%; high luteinizing hormone and low testosterone plasma levels in 58.2% of men. There are evidences of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis abnormalities, inappropriate aldosterone and ADH secretions, and presence of hypoparathyroidism, magnesium depletion, thyroid and testicular insufficiencies.
Adverse events attributed to the treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin have been widely discussed. Lung disorders have been described, but the respiratory function of these patients during treatment has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of dyspnoea and possible changes in lung function associated with the use of PEG-IFN and ribavirin.
In the present paper we describe the diversity of phlebotomine sandflies collected in three sandstone caves in the municipality of Presidente Figueiredo, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The phlebotomines were captured during 2006 with CDC light traps. Guano samples from inside the Gruta Refúgio do Maruaga were collected to investigate the presence of immature specimens. A total of 2,160 adult phlebotomines representing 15 species were captured. Pintomyia pacae was the dominant species in Gruta dos Animais (1,723 specimens) and Gruta dos Lages (50 specimens) and Deanemyia maruaga new comb (280 specimens) was the dominant species in Gruta Refúgio do Maruaga. A total of 18 guano samples were collected and seven of these samples included immature specimens. A total of 507 immature specimens were captured; 495 of these specimens were larvae and 12 were pupae. The presence of paca (Agouti paca) footprints near Gruta dos Animais and Gruta dos Lages suggests the association of Pi. pacae with this rodent. This finding may explain the abundance of Pi. pacae in these locations, while the species is relatively rare in the forest. Deanemyia maruaga is a cave species that uses guano to breed during its immature stages. Adult specimens of this species are apparently parthenogenetic and autogenous and represent the second record of parthenogenesis for the subfamily Phlebotominae.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur in the state of Piauí since 1934. The typically rural disease began to appear in urban areas over time, being concentrated mainly in Teresina, the capital of Piauí. Teresina was also affected by the first urban epidemic of VL in Brazil. Over 1,000 cases of the disease were reported during urbanization (1981-1986). Human population growth and migration led to land occupation on the outskirts of Teresina. These factors have contributed to vector proliferation, increasing the incidence of VL. At present, the incidence of human and canine disease is quite high and uncontrolled in Piauí. It seems that some measures, such as the elimination of seropositive dogs, failed to significantly reduce the number of new VL cases in Teresina. Despite previously conducted studies, little is known about VL epidemiology in urban areas. The aim of this review is to reveal the situation of VL in Teresina during the last 40 years, focusing on the major factors that may contribute to the high incidence and persistence of VL infection.
?-D-Galactosidase (EC 22.214.171.124) has been detected in several plant species, and is characterized in different organs and tissues by its ability to hydrolyse terminal non-reducing ?-D-galactosyl residues from ?-D-galactoside polymers. In the present paper the cloning and the biochemical and molecular characterization of Coffea arabica ?-galactosidase expressed in the pericarp and the endosperm of coffee fruits in all phases of ripeness are described. It was found that coffee ?-galactosidase is not evenly transcribed throughout fruit ripening, oscillating with two distinct peaks: the first peak when immature fruits are at the active growing stage and the second when fully developed coffee fruits are completely ripe. Both in vitro enzymatic activity of coffee fruit protein extracts and in vivo histochemical assay of freshly harvested coffee fruits confirmed the uneven transcription of ?-galactosidase as fruit maturation advanced. Partial genomic DNA sequencing indicated a complex arrangement of nine putative exons. In silico translation of the cloned coding sequences clearly revealed the cloned gene as ?-galactosidase, with the presence of a signal peptide directing the enzyme to the apoplast. Two isoforms were distinguished by sequencing reverse transcription-PCR transcripts, one expressed in young and adult leaves and another in stems, petals, and coffee fruit endosperm and pericarp. Southern blot analysis indicates that there are at least two copies of this gene in the C. arabica genome that could explain the presence of two ?-galactosidase isoforms.
Epithelioid hemagioendothelioma (EH) is a rare vascular tumor with an intermediate biological behavior between hemangioma and angiosarcoma. Vertebral location is even more rare, and because the number of reported cases of EH is small and the follow-up periods short, the best surgical treatment, the role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as the definitive prognosis are still not established. The authors report a case of EH which presented as a vertebral fracture with neurological impairment, where a percutaneous biopsy was inconclusive. Treatment included vertebrectomy, with complete excision of the lesion, spinal canal decompression and vertebral stabilization. Anatomopathological study revealed an epithelioid vascular neoplasm with low mitotic index, and tumor cells reactive to vimentin, CD31 and CD34, leading to the diagnosis of Grade I Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma. Because of the wide resection achieved and the low aggressiveness of the lesion, no adjuvant radio or chemotherapy was undertaken, and at 6 years follow-up there are no signs of recurrence or metastasis.
Eucalyptol, also known as 1,8-cineole, is a monoterpene traditionally used to treat respiratory disorders due to its secretolytic properties. In addition to its myorelaxant effects, it also has anti-inflammatory actions in vitro. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of acute treatment with 1,8-cineole on reducing airway inflammatory parameters. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs were submitted to antigenic challenge (OVA) with or without pre-treatment with a single dose of 1,8-cineole administered by inhalation. Airway inflammatory parameters were reduced or absent in 1,8-cineole-treated animals as compared with untreated guinea pigs. Acute treatment with 1,8-cineole impaired the development of airway hyperresponsiveness to carbachol in isolated tracheal rings. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF? and IL-1? was lower in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 1,8-cineol-treated guinea pigs than in untreated animals. 1,8-Cineole impaired the OVA-induced increase of the myeloperoxidase activity in BALF. 1,8-Cineole also prevented the reduction of the mucociliary clearance induced by the antigen presentation. The present investigation provides evidence that inhaled 1,8-cineole prevents hyperresponsiveness and inhibits inflammation in airways of ovalbumin-challenged guinea pigs.
Dose response curves for leptin facilitation of estrous behavior (lordosis and proceptivity) were made by infusing the peptide into the lateral ventricle (icv) of ovariectomized (ovx), ad libitum-fed rats injected 40h previously with 5?g of estradiol benzoate. Leptin doses of 1 and 3?g produced significant lordosis quotient at 60min post-injection, with maximal lordosis being displayed at 120min. Yet the intensity of lordosis was weak, and a high incidence of rejection behaviors was found. Moreover, leptin did not induce significant proceptive behaviors at any dose. The leptin doses of 1 and 3?g were selected for determining whether antide, a GnRH-1 receptor antagonist, or the progestin receptor antagonist RU486 could modify the lordosis response to leptin. Icv injection of either antide or RU486 1h before leptin significantly depressed leptin facilitation of lordosis. The results suggest that leptin stimulates lordosis by releasing GnRH, which in turn activates GnRH-1 and progestin receptors. The physiological role of leptin in the control of estrous behavior remains to be determined.
The essential oil of Eucalyptus tereticornis (EOET) has pharmacological activities but their effects on the gastrointestinal tract are yet unknown. It possesses ?- and ?-pinene as minor constituents, isomers largely used as food or drink additives. In this work, we studied their actions on gut motility. After feeding with a liquid test meal, conscious rats received perorally EOET, ?-, or ?-pinene, and the fractional dye retention was determined. EOET and its constituents decreased the gastric retention. In anesthetized rats, pinenes increased gastric tonus, while enhancing the meal progression in the small intestine of conscious rats. Both ?- and ?-pinene contracted gastric strips IN VITRO but relaxed the duodenum. Conversely, EOET relaxed both the gastric and duodenal strips. In conclusion, EOET accelerates the gastric emptying of liquid, and part of its action is attributed to the contrasting effects induced by ?- and ?-pinene on the gut.
The serine/threonine Pim 1 kinase is an oncogene whose expression is deregulated in several human cancers. Overexpression of Pim 1 facilitates cell cycle progression and suppresses apoptosis. Hence pharmacologic inhibitors of Pim 1 are of therapeutic interest for cancer. ETP-45299 is a potent and selective inhibitor of Pim 1 that inhibits the phosphorylation of Bad and 4EBP1 in cells and suppresses the proliferation of several non-solid and solid human tumor cell lines. The combination of the PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 with ETP-45299 was strongly synergistic in MV-4-11 AML cells, indicating that the combination of selective Pim kinase inhibitors and PI3K inhibitor could have clinical benefit.
The aim of the present study was to assess the behavior of cardiovascular variables during an in-hospital cardiovascular rehabilitation program in patients following myocardial revascularization surgery.
There are few reports linking hyponatremia and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). This is a study of 55 consecutive kala-azar patients and 20 normal individuals as a control group. Hyponatremia and serum hypo-osmolality were detected in 100% of kala-azar patients. High first morning urine osmolality (750.0 ± 52.0 vs. 894.5 ± 30.0mOsm/kg H?O, p < 0.05), and high 24-hour urine osmolality (426.0 ± 167.0 vs. 514.6 ± 132.0 mOsm/kg H?O, p < 0.05) demonstrated persistent antidiuretic hormone secretion. Urinary sodium was high (82.3 ± 44.2 vs.110.3 ± 34.7 mEq/L, p < 0.05). Low seric uric acid occurred in 61.8% of patients and increased fractional urinary uric acid excretion was detected in 74.5% of them. Increased glomerular filtration rate was present in 25.4% of patients. There was no evidence of extracellular volume depletion. Normal plasma ADH levels were observed in kala-azar patients. No endocrine or renal dysfunction was detected. It is possible that most hyponatremic kala-azar patients present the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.
Here, we report ion-helium collision cross sections (CCS) for a number of peptide, small protein, and peptide/protein ionic complexes. The CCS values reported here are compared to previously reported results.[1, 2] We also compare values for low charge state species, i.e., [M + H](+) and [M + 2H](2+), formed by MALDI with values for high charge state species formed by ESI, and the measured CCSs are compared with predicted CCS for solid-state and solution phase structures and calculated structures obtained by using a protein-protein structure algorithm generator, based on a combined Biomolecular complex Generation with Global Evaluation and Ranking and Multi Dimensional Scaling.
Ploidy manipulation has been rarely used in the genetic improvement of cultured marine shrimps. Although polyploid induction has been proven to be successful in Penaeids, including the species Litopenaeus vannamei, the methodology still requires some improvements. In the present work, different thermal shock treatments on ploidy manipulation were tested and a protocol for detecting polyploid individuals was also established. Fertilized eggs were treated by cold (10°C) and heat (38°C) thermal shocks for 8, 12, 15, 18, 20, and 22 min to induce polyploidy. Nuclear measurements within distinct treatments revealed a significant deviation in relation to the mean diameter of nuclei in the control individuals. Triploid and tetraploid metaphases were observed within treated individuals, confirming the increase of interphasic nuclear diameter. The cold thermal shock was more efficient than the hot ones, besides leading to a higher and more homogeneous hatchery rate. A mean number of three nucleoli per nucleus were observed in diploid individuals, while treated samples usually presented up to five nucleoli per nucleus. The standardization of protocols to obtain and detect polyploid products allows further utilization of such methods on a commercial scale in order to evaluate the performance of polyploid individuals in the genetic improvement of L. vannamei.
The effects of the essential oil of Eucalyptus tereticornis (EOET), especially the effects of its constituents alpha- and beta-pinene, were studied on rat trachea in vitro. In tracheal rings, EOET, alpha- or beta-pinene potentiated the contractions induced by acetylcholine (ACh). Contractions induced by K(+) (60mM) were also potentiated by alpha- and beta-pinene, but were reduced by EOET. Our findings show that EOET has myorelaxant effects on rat airways, but potentiates ACh-induced contractions. Monoterpenes alpha- and beta-pinene are involved in its potentiating actions, but are not responsible for its myorelaxant effects. A putative inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme is involved.
This study tested the hypothesis that the Src/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the facilitation of the lordosis and proceptive behaviors induced by progesterone (P) and its ring A-reduced metabolites in ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats. Intraventricular (icv) infusion of PP2 (7.5, 15 and 30 microg), a Src kinase inhibitor, significantly depressed P-dependent estrous behavior (lordosis and proceptivity) in estradiol-primed rats. Icv infusion of 30 microg of PP2 also significantly attenuated estrous behavior induced by the ring A-reduced P metabolites 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5 alpha-DHP) and 5 alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (allopregnanolone). PP2 did not inhibit estrous behavior induced by administration of high doses of estradiol alone to ovariectomized rats. We also assessed if the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is one of the neural sites at which progestins activate Src signaling to facilitate estrous behavior. Bilateral administration of 15 microg of PP2 into the VMH inhibited the stimulation of both lordosis and proceptive behaviors elicited by subcutaneous P administration to estradiol-primed rats. These results suggest that progestins act through Src/Raf/MAPK signaling to initiate estrous behaviors in estrogen-primed rats. This event is one component of the cellular pathways leading to the display of estrous behaviors induced by P and its ring A-reduced metabolites in female rats.
Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and theoretical calculations [density functional theory (DFT)] were utilized to investigate the influence of cysteine side chain on Cu(+) binding to peptides and how Cu(+) ions competitively interact with cysteine (-SH/SO(3)H) versus arginine. Results from theoretical and experimental (fragmentation reactions) studies on [M + Cu](+) and [M + 2Cu - H](+) ions suggest that cysteine side chains (-SH) and cysteic acid (-SO(3)H) are important Cu(+) ligands. For example, we show that Cu(+) ions are competitively coordinated to the -SH or SO(3)H groups; however, we also present evidence that the proton of the SH/SO(3)H group is mobile and can be transferred to the arginine guanidine group. For [M + 2Cu - H](+) ions, deprotonation of the -SH/SO(3)H group is energetically more favorable than that of the carboxyl group, and the resulting thiolate/sulfonate group plays an important role in the coordination structure of [M + 2Cu - H](+) ions, as well as the fragmentation patterns.
Here, complementary ion mobility/mass spectrometry (IM/MS) and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS analyses of light, medium, and heavy petroleum crude oils yielded distributions of the heteroatom-containing hydrocarbons, as well as multiple conformational classes. The IM/MS technique provides unique fingerprints for fast identification of signature conformational/compositional patterns, whereas FTICR MS analysis provides comprehensive heteroatom class distributions. IM/MS and FTICR MS results reveal an increase in compositional complexity in proceeding from light to medium to heavy crude oils. Inspection of the mobility results shows a high structural diversity for the C(n)H(h)XY (XY = N(1), S(1), N(1), O(1), NS, SO(1-2), NO(1-2), etc.) series, as well as a shift from planar to more compact three-dimensional structures with increasing mass.
Peripheral arterial disease is diagnosed by measuring the ankle-brachial index. Values lower than 0.90 define the disease being usually related to its severity. Patients with peripheral arterial disease may show a hypercoagulability state. The aim of this study was to assess hemostatic variables and to correlate them with the presence of peripheral arterial disease and its severity as assessed by ankle-brachial index values. Plasma levels of D dimer, plasminogen, prothrombin fragment 1+2, plasminogen activator inhibitor and thrombomodulin were measured in 36 patients with peripheral arterial disease (group 1) and 30 without disease (group 2). Significant differences for D dimer, plasminogen, prothrombin fragment 1+2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 between the 2 groups were found (P<0.05). Significant and inverse correlations were also observed (Pearson correlation, P<0.05) between ankle-brachial index values and levels of both plasminogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1. Although there was no significant correlation between ankle-brachial index and levels of D dimer, higher D dimer values were observed in patients with lower ankle-brachial index values. The results confirm a trend to hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 seem to be associated with the severity of the disease, considering the inverse correlation between this inhibitor and ankle-brachial index.
A 19 year old female with pyoderma gangrenosum was referred to the oculoplastic clinic for evaluation of severe cicatricial ectropion of the right lower eyelid. Examination evidenced important scarring of lower eyelid and malar region with secondary ectropion. A full-thickness skin graft associated with a lateral tarsal strip procedure and scar tissue release was performed. The patients corticosteroid dose was raised for the procedure, and after surgery there was no healing problem or ulcer formation in the eyelid or in the graft donor site. As pyoderma gangrenosum is associated with a pathergy phenomenon in up to 25% of the cases, the onset of new lesions is a relevant concern when performing surgery in these patients. In this case, the surgery was safely performed under corticosteroid immunosuppression.
The Wnt signaling pathways play a key role in cell renewal, and there are two such pathways. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the synovial membrane expresses genes such as Wnt and Fz at higher levels than those observed in patients without RA. The Wnt proteins are glycoproteins that bind to receptors of the Fz family on the cell surface. The Wnt/Fz complex controls tissue formation during embryogenesis, as well as throughout the process of limb development and joint formation. Recent studies have suggested that this signaling pathway plays a role in the pathophysiology of RA. Greater knowledge of the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in RA could improve understanding of the differences in RA clinical presentation and prognosis. Further studies should also focus on Wnt family members as molecular targets in the treatment of RA.
Despite some initial research that reported a lack of activity of trans geometry, complexes with general formula trans-[PtCl2(L)(L)] exhibit an important cytotoxic activity in cisplatin-sensitive and resistant cell lines. Based on the proposed mechanism of action for the trans-platinum compounds, they might form DNA adducts initiating a DNA-damage response and ultimately ending in the activation of the p53 protein. In the present work, we have studied the biochemical properties of the trans-[PtCl2(isopropylamine)(L)] complexes (where L is 3- or 4-(hydroxymethyl)-pyridine) against several cell lines and the relationship between cytotoxicity and the protein p53. Both complexes showed different antitumoral properties depending on the presence or absence of protein p53 in isogenic colon carcinoma HCT116 cell lines. Cell cycle studies with the complexes in these cell lines were performed to investigate their antitumoral activity. Apoptosis was observed to be launched from G1 or G2/M accumulations. Confocal microscopy showed the different behaviour of isogenic tumoral cell lines treated with the trans-platinum complexes. Our data suggest that small differences in the carrier ligands could play an important role in the overall biological effects. The body of the research regarding structure-activity relationships such as the different position of groups in the carrier ligands will provide new rational basis for the design of new platinum antitumor drugs.
Progesterone and its ring A reduced metabolites regulate female sexual behavior through the direct or indirect activation of progesterone receptor (PR) which has two isoforms with different function and regulation: PR-A and PR-B. The contribution of each PR isoform to the regulation of lordosis in rats is unknown. We explored the role of PR isoforms in lordosis display induced by progesterone and two of its ring A reduced metabolites: 5alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (5alpha-DHP), and 5beta,3beta-pregnan-20-one (5beta,3beta-Pgl) in adult ovariectomized rats. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the animals were injected subcutaneously with 5 microg of estradiol benzoate (EB), and 40 h later, progestins were injected intracerebroventricularly. PR-B and total PR (PR-A + PR-B) sense or antisense oligonucleotides were administered intracerebroventricularly immediately before EB injection and 24 h later. Lordosis was evaluated 30, 120 and 240 min after progestin administration. Western blot analysis of both PR isoforms was performed in the hypothalamus and preoptic area 24 h after lordosis tests. All progestins induced maximal lordosis 120 min after administration, and antisense oligonucleotides against both PR isoforms inhibited lordosis in all animals. PR-B antisense oligonucleotides also inhibited lordosis induced by progesterone and 5alpha-DHP although with less efficacy than total PR antisense oligonucleotides, but the former inhibited lordosis induced by 5beta,3beta-Pgl in a similar manner as total PR antisense oligonucleotides. In the hypothalamus and preoptic area, the content of both PR isoforms or PR-B alone was diminished by the administration of total or PR-B antisense oligonucleotides, respectively. These results suggest that the PR-B isoform is essential for the display of the lordosis behavior in rats.
In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s), the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individuals behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for sex ratio and genotype ratio (wild type pups versus pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor alpha). In both males and females, the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks.
1. 1,8-Cineole is a terpenoid constituent of essential oils with anti-inflammatory properties. It reduces the neural excitability, functions as an antinociceptive agent and has myorelaxant actions in guinea-pig airways. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the myorelaxant effects of 1,8-cineole in guinea-pig isolated trachea from either naïve guinea-pigs or ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized animals subjected to antigenic challenge. 2. Isometric recordings were made of the tone of isolated tracheal rings. Rings with an intact epithelium relaxed beyond basal tone in the presence of 1,8-cineole (6.5 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-2) mol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.001, anova) with a pD(2) value of 2.23 (95% confidence interval 2.10-2.37). Removal of the epithelium or pretreatment of intact tissue for 15 min with 50 micromol/L N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, 5 mmol/L tetraethylammonium, 0.5 micromol/L tetrodotoxin or 5 micromol/L propranolol did not alter the potency (pD(2)) or the maximal myorelaxant effect (E(max)) of 1,8-cineole. 3. 1,8-Cineole also significantly decreased the Schultz-Dale contraction induced by OVA, mainly in preparations from OVA-sensitized animals submitted to antigen challenge. 1,8-Cineole decreased tracheal hyperresponsiveness to KCl and carbachol caused by antigen challenge and almost abolished the concentration-response curves to KCl, whereas it had little effect on the concentration-response curves to carbachol. Under Ca(2+)-free conditions and in the presence of 10(-4) mol/L acetylcholine, neither 1,8-cineole (6.5 x 10(-3) mol/L) nor verapamil (1 x 10(-5) mol/L) affected Ca(2+)-induced contractions, but they almost abolished Ba(2+)-induced contractions. 4. In conclusion, the findings of the present study show that 1,8-cineole is a tracheal myorelaxant that acts preferentially on contractile responses elicited electromechanically.
An ion mobility-mass spectrometer (IM-MS) interface is described that can be employed to perform collisional activation and/or collision-induced dissociation (CID) with good transmission of mobility separated ions to the MS analyzer. The IM-MS interface consists of a stacked-ring ion guide design, where the field strength and pressure ratio can be operated such that structural rearrangement reactions and/or CID are achieved as a function of the effective ion temperature. The ion dynamics and collisional activation processes in the IM-MS interface are described as a function of the ion-neutral collisions, ion kinetic energies, and effective ion temperature. The applicability of the IM-CID-MS methodology to studies of peptide ion fragmentation is illustrated using a series of model peptides.
The dinuclear copper complex (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) copper salt (CHCA)(4)Cu(2)), synthesized by reacting CHCA with copper oxide (CuO), yields increased abundances of [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) (x = 1-6) ions when used as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (355 nm Nd:YAG laser). The yield of [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) (x = 1 to approximately 6) ion is much greater than that obtained by mixing peptides with copper salts or directly depositing peptides onto oxidized copper surfaces. The increased ion yields for [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) facilitate studies of biologically important copper binding peptides. For example, using this matrix we have investigated site-specific copper binding of several peptides using fragmentation chemistry of [M + Cu](+) and [M + 2Cu - H](+) ions. The fragmentation studies reveal interesting insight on Cu binding preferences for basic amino acids. Most notable is the fact that the binding of a single Cu(+) ion and two Cu(+) ions are quite different, and these differences are explained in terms of intramolecular interactions of the peptide-Cu ionic complex.
Collision induced dissociation (CID) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-ion mobility-mass spectrometry (MALDI-IM-MS) is described. In this approach, peptide ions are separated on the basis of mobility in a 15 cm drift cell. Following mobility separation, the ions exit the drift cell and enter a 5 cm vacuum interface with a high field region (up to 1000 V/cm) to undergo collisional activation. Ion transmission and ion kinetic energies in the interface are theoretically evaluated accounting for the pressure gradient, interface dimensions, and electric fields. Using this CID technique, we have successfully fragmented and sequenced a number of model peptide ions as well as peptide ions obtained by a tryptic digest. This instrument configuration allows for the simultaneous determination of peptide mass, peptide-ion sequence, and collision-cross section of MALDI-generated ions, providing information critical to the identification of unknown components in complex proteomic samples.
A recombinant protein, rLdccys1, produced by expression of the gene encoding a 30kDa cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, was used to detect specific antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and to test for reactivity in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses of dogs from an endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. Amastigote or promastigote extracts were also assayed for comparison. The sensitivity for detection of specific antibodies to L. (L.) chagasi using rLdccys1, lysates from L. (L.) chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes was 96%, 68%, and 69%, respectively. No cross-reactivity between rLdccys1 and Chagas disease was observed, and little reactivity was found with sera from dogs with babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. Among 106 sera from symptomatic dogs and 22 from non-infected controls, no false negatives and only two false positive sera were found for rLdccys1. In contrast, amastigote lysates yielded 11 false positives and 13 false negatives, whereas the corresponding numbers for promastigote lysates were 17 and 16. DTH responses were determined after intradermal injection of rLdccys1 or amastigote extract and the induration area was measured at 24, 48 and 72h after injection. All asymptomatic dogs showed a positive intradermal response to rLdccys1 (>10mm) which peaked at 48h, whereas no significant reactivity to the recombinant antigen was found in the symptomatic group. Histological analysis of the intradermal induration showed a predominance of necrotic and hemorrhagic areas in sections from asymptomatic dogs injected with L. (L.) chagasi amastigote extract, whereas a typical granulomatous reaction mediated by mononuclear cells was observed in sections from asymptomatic animals injected with rLdccys1. Grouping data from ELISA and DTH assays with rLdccys1 and L. (L.) chagasi amastigote extracts showed that humoral and cellular responses were inversely correlated during the development of canine VL. Overall, these findings indicate that L. (L.) chagasi recombinant cysteine proteinase is potentially useful for diagnosis of canine VL, as well as for the discrimination of clinical and subclinical forms of the disease.
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