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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pleiotropic Effects of the Cell Wall Amidase LytA on Streptococcus pneumoniae Sensitivity to the Host Immune Response.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The complement system is a key component of the host immune response for the recognition and clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we have demonstrated that the amidase LytA, the main pneumococcal autolysin, inhibits complement-mediated immunity independent of effects on pneumolysin by a complex process of impaired complement activation, increased binding of complement regulators, and direct degradation of C3. The use of human sera depleted in either C1q or factor B confirmed that LytA prevented activation of both the classical and alternative pathways whereas pneumolysin only inhibited the classical pathway. LytA prevented binding of C1q and the acute phase protein CRP to S. pneumoniae, thereby reducing activation of the classical pathway on the bacterial surface. In addition, LytA increased recruitment of the complement down-regulators C4BP and factor H to the pneumococcal cell wall and directly cleaved C3b and iC3b to generate degradation products. As a consequence, C3b deposition and phagocytosis increased in the absence of LytA and were markedly enhanced for the double lytA ply mutant, confirming that a combination of LytA and Ply was essential for the establishment of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis in a murine model of infection. These data demonstrate LytA has pleiotropic effects on complement activation, which in combination with the effects of pneumolysin on complement to assist pneumococcal complement evasion confirm a major role of both proteins for the full virulence of the microorganism during septicemia.
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Influence of Picual olive ripening on the virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of the olive ripening on the virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2) and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased while linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOO through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042g/100g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato frying uses.
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Targeting of ?-glutamyl-cysteine ligase by miR-433 reduces glutathione biosynthesis and promotes TGF-?-dependent fibrogenesis.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Aims: Glutathione (GSH) is the main antioxidant against cell damage. Several pathological states course with reduced nucleophilic tone and perturbation of redox homeostasis due to changes in the 2GSH/GSSG ratio. Here we investigated the regulation of the rate limiting GSH biosynthetic heterodimeric enzyme ?-glutamate-cysteine- ligase (GCL) by microRNAs (miRNAs). Results: "In silico" analysis of the 3'-UTR regions of both catalytic (GCLc) and regulatory (GCLm) subunits of GCL, allowed to identify miR-433 as a strong candidate for the targeting of GCL. Transitory overexpression of miR-433 in HUVEC showed a downregulation of both GCLc and GCLm in a Nrf2-independent manner. Increases in pro-oxidant stimuli such as exposure to H2O2 or GSH depletion in endothelial and hepatic cells caused an expected increase in GCLc and GCLm protein expression and abrogation of miR-433 levels, thus supporting a cross-regulation of these pathways. Treatment of HUVEC with miR-433 resulted in reduced antioxidant and redox potentials, increased S-glutathionylation and reduced eNOS activation. In vivo models of renal and hepatic fibrosis were associated with transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1)-related reduction of GCLc and GCLm levels that were miR-433 dependent. Innovation and Conclusion: We describe for the first time a miRNA, miR-433, capable of directly targeting GCL and promoting functional consequences in endothelial physiology and fibrotic processes by decreasing GSH levels.
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Oral hygiene and dental status as factors related to asthma in high school and college students.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract Objective: Considering that oral microbiota might modulate immune responses, we explored if customary oral care procedures might influence immune-driven diseases such as asthma. Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of responses to a self-completion medical questionnaire applied to subjects entering into college and high school programs during 2006-2011. Results: Responses from 329?780 students aged 14-24 years (97.6% of the original population) were analyzed. The prevalence of lifetime asthma was 4.01%. Subjects with asthma were slightly older, taller and heavier than subjects without asthma, and these differences were equally present in males and females. Subjects currently having two or more decayed teeth had asthma less frequently than those with one or none decayed tooth, with an odds ratio (OR)?=?0.86 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.83-0.89. In contrast, asthma was reported more frequently among students having two or more missing or filled teeth [OR?=?1.1 (95% CI 1.04-1.17) and OR?=?1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.09), respectively]. From 2008 onwards, subjects also responded questions about oral hygiene incorporated into the core questionnaire. In these subjects, the use of toothpaste as well as the frequency and duration of toothbrushing were unrelated to asthma; regular use of mouthwash was associated with asthma in women [OR?=?1.16 (95% CI 1.07-1.25)], but not in men [OR?=?1.04 (95% CI 0.96-1.13)]. Results of multiple logistic regressions were in line with these findings. Conclusions: Our results suggested that oral hygiene and dental status could be novel factors influencing asthma development, and thus further studies to confirm and clarify this association are warranted.
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[cycEVA study: case control study measuring influenza vaccine effectiveness in Spain, 2008-2013].
Rev. Esp. Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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In Spain, influenza vaccine effectiveness (EV) is estimated since 2008-09 season through the cycEVA case-control study, the Spanish component of the European I-MOVE (Monitoring Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the EU/EEA) network. We aimed at describing cycEVA performance in its five consolidated editions 2008/09 -; 2012/13.
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Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in Laparoscopic Colon Surgery Training.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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To evaluate if application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to laparoscopy training can help surgeons acquire laparoscopy skills.
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Preliminary study of an in vitro development of new tissue applying mechanical stimulation with a bioreactor as an alternative for ligament reconstruction.
Rev. Invest. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Complete rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common problem in orthopedics. At present, there are many techniques to reconstruct ligaments, which include the use of autografts, allografts, and, in some cases, artificial ligaments. The latter have not provided good results in the short, medium, and long term. The purpose of present study was to engineer functional biological tissue that could potentially be used to replace the knee ligaments by applying tissue engineering techniques and mechanical stimulation with a bioreactor, promoting cellular differentiation and matrix synthesis. In this preliminary study, the new tissue was characterized with mechanical tests and biological tests (viability and immunochemistry), comparing their behavior with that of the native tissue. Mechanical and biological tests proved that mechanical stimulation administered with a bioreactor maintains the ligament fibroblast phenotype and promotes synthesis of the extracellular matrix.
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Seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Cytomegalovirus causes congenital infections all around the world. The seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women in Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico; and to determine seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women.
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Post-translational modifications of exosomal proteins.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Exosomes mediate intercellular communication and participate in many cell processes such as cancer progression, immune activation or evasion, and the spread of infection. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted to the extracellular environment through the release of intraluminal vesicles contained in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) upon the fusion of these MVBs with the plasma membrane. The composition of exosomes is not random, suggesting that the incorporation of cargo into them is a regulated process. However, the mechanisms that control the sorting of protein cargo into exosomes are currently elusive. Here, we review the post-translational modifications detected in exosomal proteins, and discuss their possible role in their specific sorting into exosomes.
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Prevention of neutrophil extravasation by ?2-adrenoceptor-mediated endothelial stabilization.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Adrenergic receptors are expressed on the surface of inflammation-mediating cells, but their potential role in the regulation of the inflammatory response is still poorly understood. The objectives of this work were to study the effects of ?2-adrenergic agonists on the inflammatory response in vivo and to determine their mechanism of action. In two mouse models of inflammation, zymosan air pouch and thioglycolate-induced peritonitis models, the i.m. treatment with xylazine or UK14304, two ?2-adrenergic agonists, reduced neutrophil migration by 60%. The ?2-adrenergic antagonist RX821002 abrogated this effect. In flow cytometry experiments, the basal surface expression of L-selectin and CD11b was modified neither in murine nor in human neutrophils upon ?2-agonist treatment. Similar experiments in HUVEC showed that UK14304 prevented the activation-dependent upregulation of ICAM-1. In contrast, UK14304 augmented electrical resistance and reduced macromolecular transport through a confluent HUVEC monolayer. In flow chamber experiments, under postcapillary venule-like flow conditions, the pretreatment of HUVECs, but not neutrophils, with ?2-agonists decreased transendothelial migration, without affecting neutrophil rolling. Interestingly, ?2-agonists prevented the TNF-?-mediated decrease in expression of the adherens junctional molecules, VE-cadherin, ?-catenin, and plakoglobin, and reduced the ICAM-1-mediated phosphorylation of VE-cadherin by immunofluorescence and confocal analysis and Western blot analysis, respectively. These findings indicate that ?2-adrenoceptors trigger signals that protect the integrity of endothelial adherens junctions during the inflammatory response, thus pointing at the vascular endothelium as a therapeutic target for the management of inflammatory processes in humans.
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Rapid modelling of cooperating genetic events in cancer through somatic genome editing.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Cancer is a multistep process that involves mutations and other alterations in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Genome sequencing studies have identified a large collection of genetic alterations that occur in human cancers. However, the determination of which mutations are causally related to tumorigenesis remains a major challenge. Here we describe a novel CRISPR/Cas9-based approach for rapid functional investigation of candidate genes in well-established autochthonous mouse models of cancer. Using a Kras(G12D)-driven lung cancer model, we performed functional characterization of a panel of tumour suppressor genes with known loss-of-function alterations in human lung cancer. Cre-dependent somatic activation of oncogenic Kras(G12D) combined with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of tumour suppressor genes resulted in lung adenocarcinomas with distinct histopathological and molecular features. This rapid somatic genome engineering approach enables functional characterization of putative cancer genes in the lung and other tissues using autochthonous mouse models. We anticipate that this approach can be used to systematically dissect the complex catalogue of mutations identified in cancer genome sequencing studies.
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Development and evaluation of a canine laparoscopic simulator for veterinary clinical training.
J Vet Med Educ
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Human laparoscopic simulators have been used in medical education for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the past years. Simulator-based laparoscopic training has attracted much interest because unique skills have to be learned not only by surgeons in training but also by surgeons in practice. MIS forces the surgeon to adapt to monocular vision and decreased tactile sensation and entails training and improving hand-eye and hand-hand coordination. Those skills require a learning curve that could be overcome gradually with use of simulators. The Canine Laparoscopic Simulator (CLS) for laparoscopic training was developed based on the working and optical space obtained from computed tomography (CT) scan images of three Beagle dogs. Thirty veterinarians (expert group, n=7; novice group, n=23) performed basic laparoscopic exercises in one training session on the CLS. During the performance of the exercises, an experienced laparoscopic veterinarian assessed all the tasks. Afterwards, participants were asked to complete an anonymous survey describing their experience. Most participants expressed positive opinions about the design and usability of the CLS. There were no significant differences between the two groups' opinions. The CLS showed good preliminary acceptance in the basic laparoscopy tasks by veterinarians. They perceived it to be a good training tool, and these results suggest that CLS is an engaging tool for education but still has some limitations inherent in training boxes. Further studies would be needed to establish the validity of training programs performed in the CLS.
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An EMMPRIN-?-catenin-Nm23 complex drives ATP production and actomyosin contractility at endothelial junctions.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Cell-cell adhesions are important sites through which cells experience and resist forces. In endothelial cells, these forces regulate junction dynamics and determine endothelial barrier strength. We identify the Ig superfamily member EMMPRIN (also known as basigin) as a coordinator of forces at endothelial junctions. EMMPRIN localization at junctions correlates with endothelial junction strength in different mouse vascular beds. Accordingly, EMMPRIN-deficient mice show altered junctions and increased junction permeability. Lack of EMMPRIN alters the localization and function of VE-cadherin (also known as cadherin-5) by decreasing both actomyosin contractility and tugging forces at endothelial cell junctions. EMMPRIN ensures proper actomyosin-driven maturation of competent endothelial junctions by forming a molecular complex with ?-catenin (also known as junction plakoglobin) and Nm23 (also known as NME1), a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, thereby locally providing ATP to fuel the actomyosin machinery. These results provide a novel mechanism for the regulation of actomyosin contractility at endothelial junctions and might have broader implications in biological contexts such as angiogenesis, collective migration and tissue morphogenesis by coupling compartmentalized energy production to junction assembly.
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Organic silicon protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide effects.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a toxic agent that induces oxidative stress and cell death. Silicon (Si) is a biological element involved in limiting aluminium (Al) absorption with possible preventive effects in Alzheimer's disease. However, Si has not yet been associated with other neuroprotective mechanisms.
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Validation of a realistic simulator for veterinary gastrointestinal endoscopy training.
J Vet Med Educ
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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This article reports on the face, content, and construct validity of a new realistic composite simulator (Simuldog) used to provide training in canine gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy. The basic endoscopic procedures performed on the simulator were esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), gastric biopsy (GB), and gastric foreign body removal (FBR). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the performance of novices (final-year veterinary students and recent graduates without endoscopic experience, n=30) versus experienced subjects (doctors in veterinary medicine who had performed more than 50 clinical upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures as a surgeon, n=15). Tasks were scored based on completion time, and specific rating scales were developed to assess performance. Internal consistency and inter-rater agreement were assessed. Face and content validity were determined using a 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire. The novices needed considerably more time than the experts to perform EGD, GB, and FBR, and their performance scores were significantly lower (p<.010). Inter-rater agreement and the internal validity of the rating scales were good. Face validity was excellent, and both groups agreed that the endoscopy scenarios were very realistic. The experts highly valued the usefulness of Simuldog for veterinary training and as a tool for assessing endoscopic skills. Simuldog is the first validated model specifically developed to be used as a training tool for endoscopy techniques in small animals.
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Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia.
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Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia.
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Application of a motion capture data glove for hand and wrist ergonomic analysis during laparoscopy.
Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Abstract Objectives: This study aims to analyze the surgeons' hand spatial configuration during the use of two different instrument handles for laparoscopy, by obtaining information from the data glove CyberGlove®, and establishing existing risk levels for wrist disorders.
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Seroepidemiology of hepatitis e virus infection in general population in rural durango, Mexico.
Hepat Mon
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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The seroepidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in rural areas in Mexico has been poorly studied.
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Toxocara infection in gardeners: a case control seroprevalence study.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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To determine the association of Toxocara infection and gardening occupation.
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Comparison of two preclinical myocardial infarct models: coronary coil deployment versus surgical ligation.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Despite recent advances, myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Pre-clinical animal models that closely mimic human MI are pivotal for a quick translation of research and swine have similarities in anatomy and physiology. Here, we compared coronary surgical ligation versus coil embolization MI models in swine.
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Nuclear envelope lamin-A couples actin dynamics with immunological synapse architecture and T cell activation.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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In many cell types, nuclear A-type lamins regulate multiple cellular functions, including higher-order genome organization, DNA replication and repair, gene transcription, and signal transduction; however, their role in specialized immune cells remains largely unexplored. We showed that the abundance of A-type lamins was almost negligible in resting naïve T lymphocytes, but was increased upon activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). The increase in lamin-A was an early event that accelerated formation of the immunological synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Polymerization of F-actin in T cells is a critical step for immunological synapse formation, and lamin-A interacted with the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex to promote F-actin polymerization. We also showed that lamin-A expression accelerated TCR clustering and led to enhanced downstream signaling, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling, as well as increased target gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway reduced lamin-A-dependent T cell activation. Moreover, mice lacking lamin-A in immune cells exhibited impaired T cell responses in vivo. These findings underscore the importance of A-type lamins for TCR activation and identify lamin-A as a previously unappreciated regulator of the immune response.
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Maintenance of immune tolerance by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells requires CD69 expression.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Although FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells are key players in the maintenance of immune tolerance and autoimmunity, the lack of specific markers constitute an obstacle to their use for immunotherapy protocols. In this study, we have investigated the role of the C-type lectin receptor CD69 in the suppressor function of Tregs and maintenance of immune tolerance towards harmless inhaled antigens. We identified a novel FoxP3(+)CD69(+) Treg subset capable to maintain immune tolerance and protect to developing inflammation. Although CD69(+) and CD69(-)FoxP3(+) Tregs exist in homeostasis, only CD69-expressing Tregs express high levels of CTLA-4, ICOS, CD38 and GITR suppression-associated markers, secrete high amounts of TGF? and have potent suppressor activity. This activity is regulated by STAT5 and ERK signaling pathways and is impaired by antibody-mediated down-regulation of CD69 expression. Moreover, immunotherapy with FoxP3(+)CD69(+) Tregs restores the homeostasis in Cd69(-/-) mice, that fail to induce tolerance, and is also highly proficient in the prevention of inflammation. The identification of the FoxP3(+)CD69(+) Treg subset paves the way toward the development of new therapeutic strategies to control immune homeostasis and autoimmunity.
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Early postoperative complications of transvaginal access in minimally invasive sigmoid colon procedures.
Ginekol. Pol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The aim of the study was to evaluate early (the first 30 days) postoperative complications after transvaginal resection of the sigmoid colon.
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The leukocyte activation receptor CD69 controls T cell differentiation through its interaction with galectin-1.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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CD69 is involved in immune cell homeostasis, regulating the T cell-mediated immune response through the control of Th17 cell differentiation. However, natural ligands for CD69 have not yet been described. Using recombinant fusion proteins containing the extracellular domain of CD69, we have detected the presence of a ligand(s) for CD69 on human dendritic cells (DCs). Pulldown followed by mass spectrometry analyses of CD69-binding moieties on DCs identified galectin-1 as a CD69 counterreceptor. Surface plasmon resonance and anti-CD69 blocking analyses demonstrated a direct and specific interaction between CD69 and galectin-1 that was carbohydrate dependent. Functional assays with both human and mouse T cells demonstrated the role of CD69 in the negative effect of galectin-1 on Th17 differentiation. Our findings identify CD69 and galectin-1 to be a novel regulatory receptor-ligand pair that modulates Th17 effector cell differentiation and function.
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Ergonomics problems due to the use and design of dissector and needle holder: a survey in minimally invasive surgery.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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This study analyzes the problems and consequences associated with prolonged use of laparoscopic instruments (dissector and needle holder) and equipments.
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[Consensus guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in the elderly patient.]
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia increases with age and is associated with an elevated morbidity and mortality due to the physiological changes associated with aging and a greater presence of chronic disease. Taking into account the importance of this disease from an epidemiological and prognostic point of view, and the enormous heterogeneity described in the clinical management of the elderly, we believe a specific consensus document regarding this patient profile is necessary. The purpose of the present work was to perform a review of the evidence related to the risk factors for the etiology, the clinical presentation, the management and the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in elderly patients with the aim of producing a series of specific recommendations based on critical analysis of the literature. This document is the result of the collaboration of different specialists representing the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine and Emergency Care (SEMES), the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SEGG), the Spanish Society of Chemotherapy (SEQ), the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI), the Spanish Society of Respiratory Medicine and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR), Spanish Society of Home Hospitalization (SEHAD) and the Spanish Society of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC).
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Development and initial assessment of a training program for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. First module: the urethrovesical anastomosis.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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We present our experience in the design and development of a training program in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), and the validation of the first steps of the program by objective measurement of the attendants' skills improvement and subjective evaluation of its contents.
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Characteristics of acute heart failure in very elderly patients - EVE study (EAHFE very elderly).
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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To determine the characteristics and prognostic factors of early death in the very elderly with acute heart failure (AHF).
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A clinical approach to the nutritional care process in protein-energy wasting hemodialysis patients.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Malnutrition/wasting/cachexia are complex-disease conditions that frequently remain undiagnosed and/or untreated in up to 75% of prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. The nutrition care process (NCP) based on assessment, diagnosis, intervention and monitoring of nutritional status is a systematic method that nutrition professionals use to make decisions in clinical practice.
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Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors in Huicholes in Mexico.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Very little is known about the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ethnic groups in Mexico. Huicholes are an indigenous ethnic group living in a remote mountainous region in Mexico. We sought to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in Huicholes; and to determine the association of Toxoplasma seropositivity with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of Huicholes.
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Protective effects of sea spaghetti-enriched restructured pork against dietary cholesterol: effects on arylesterase and lipoprotein profile and composition of growing rats.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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There is a general assumption that seaweeds are hypocholesterolemics and antioxidants. However, controversial results suggest specific properties for each individual alga. This study aims to assess the effect of including Sea Spaghetti alga (S) in a restructured-pork (RP) diet, both enriched and not enriched with dietary cholesterol, on arylesterase (AE) activity and lipoprotein concentration and composition of Wistar rats. Four groups of 10 growing male Wistar rats were each fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M diet and 15% freeze-dried RP for 5 weeks. The control group (C) consumed control RP-C; the S group consumed RP-S with 5% seaweeds; the Chol-C group consumed the C diet but enriched with cholesterol (2.43%) and cholic acid (0.49%); the Chol-S group consumed the S diet but enriched with cholesterol and cholic acid. AE activity was five times higher (P<.01) in S compared with C rats, but three times lower in Chol-S compared with Chol-C rats (P<.01). The Chol-C diet induced hypercholesterolemia but reduced triglycerides (TG), giving rise to the presence of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) that was enriched in cholesterol. The Chol-S diet partially blocked (P<.001) the hypercholesterolemic induction of the Chol-C diet, and reduced TG levels (P<.05) with respect to S rats. The cholesterol supplementation increased total cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and intermediate-density lipoprotein+LDL-cholesterol (IDL+LDL)-cholesterol (P<.001) in Chol-C rats, but the effect was lower in the Chol-S diet. In conclusion, RP-S increases the antioxidant capacity within a noncholesterol enriched diet while improving the lipoprotein profile within a cholesterol-enriched diet.
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Mesenchymal stem cell-coated sutures enhance collagen depositions in sutured tissues.
Wound Repair Regen
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Sutures are commonly used for surgical procedures and new sutures are being developed to improve wound healing. In the past decade, it has been extensively shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a wound healing potential. To benefit the overall wound healing process, we aimed to analyze the usage of pretreated sutures for improving the implantation of MSCs in the tissues. Our results firstly showed that suture pretreatments with gelatin, poly-L-lysine, and NaOH improved the adhesive strength of MSCs to sutures. These cells remained surrounding the sutured tissue and no significant phenotypic changes were found in those cells cultured onto pretreated sutures. In vivo experiments showed that the implantation of MSCs by suturing increases the collagen content in the sutured tissue. Moreover, proteomics analysis of secreted proteins showed that collagen alpha-1(I) chain was the most abundant collagen found. To our knowledge, this is the first report that aimed to improve the implantation of MSCs in tissue by suture pretreatments. Moreover, in vivo experiments suggest that MSC-coated sutures may enhance wound healing and tissue remodeling through the release of different collagen types being applicable for those patients that tend to have difficulty healing.
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2,6-Bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II): synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray study and in vitro cytotoxicity.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) and the ligand 2,6-bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine (L) were synthesized and fully characterized by IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray diffraction for two representative cases. These novel compounds were designed to study their activity as anti-proliferative drugs against different human cancer cell lines. The tridentate ligand forms heptacoordinated compounds from nitrate metallic salts, where the nitrate acts in a chelating form to complete the seven coordination positions. In vitro cell growth inhibition was measured for Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes, as well as for the free ligand. Upon coordination, the IC50 value of the transition-metal compounds is improved compared to the free ligand. The copper(II) and zinc(II) compounds are the most promising candidates for further in vitro and in vivo studies. The activity against colon and prostate cell lines merits further research, in views of the limited therapeutic options for such cancer types.
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Online monitoring of myocardial bioprosthesis for cardiac repair.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop a myocardial bioprosthesis for cardiac repair with an integrated online monitoring system. Myocardial infarction (MI) causes irreversible myocyte loss and scar formation. Tissue engineering to reduce myocardial scar size has been tested with variable success, yet scar formation and modulation by an engineered graft is incompletely characterized.
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Tetraspanins CD9 and CD151 at the immune synapse support T-cell integrin signaling.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Understanding how the immune response is activated and amplified requires detailed knowledge of the stages in the formation of the immunological synapse (IS) between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We show that tetraspanins CD9 and CD151 congregate at the T-cell side of the IS. Silencing of CD9 or CD151 blunts the IL-2 secretion and expression of the activation marker CD69 by APC-conjugated T lymphocytes, but does not affect the accumulation of CD3 or actin to the IS, or the translocation of the microtubule-organizing center toward the T-B contact area. CD9 or CD151 silencing diminishes the relocalization of ?4?1 integrin to the IS and reduces the accumulation of high-affinity ?1 integrins at the cell-cell contact. These changes are accompanied by diminished phosphorylation of the integrin downstream targets FAK and ERK1/2. Our results suggest that CD9 and CD151 support integrin-mediated signaling at the IS.
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Development of an optimal diaphragmatic hernia rabbit model for pediatric thoracoscopic training.
Exp. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Our objectives were to standarize the procedure needed to reproduce a similar surgical scene which a pediatric surgeon would face on repairing a Bochdalek hernia in newborns and to define the optimal time period for hernia development that achieve a realistic surgical scenario with minimimal animal suffering. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits weighing 3-3.5 kg were divided into four groups depending on the time frame since hernia creation to thoracoscopic repair: 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 30 days. Bochdalek trigono was identified and procedures for hernia creation and thoracoscopic repair were standarized. Blood was collected for hematology (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin and hematocrit), biochemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase) and gas analysis (arterial blood pH, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbón dioxide, oxygen saturation and bicarbonate) at baseline and before the surgial repairment. Glucocorticoid metabolites concentration in faeces was measured. Thoracoscopy video recordings were evaluated by six pediatric surgeons and rated from 0 to 10 according to similarities with congenital diaphragmatic hernia in newborn and with its thoracoscopic approach. Statistical methods included the analysis of variance, and comparisons between groups were followed by a post-hoc Tukey's test. Fourty -eight h showed to be the optimal time frame to obtain a diaphragmatic hernia similar to newborn scenario from a surgical point of view with minimal stress for the animals.
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ROS-triggered phosphorylation of complex II by Fgr kinase regulates cellular adaptation to fuel use.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Electron flux in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is determined by the superassembly of mitochondrial respiratory complexes. Different superassemblies are dedicated to receive electrons derived from NADH or FADH2, allowing cells to adapt to the particular NADH/FADH2 ratio generated from available fuel sources. When several fuels are available, cells adapt to the fuel best suited to their type or functional status (e.g., quiescent versus proliferative). We show that an appropriate proportion of superassemblies can be achieved by increasing CII activity through phosphorylation of the complex II catalytic subunit FpSDH. This phosphorylation is mediated by the tyrosine-kinase Fgr, which is activated by hydrogen peroxide. Ablation of Fgr or mutation of the FpSDH target tyrosine abolishes the capacity of mitochondria to adjust metabolism upon nutrient restriction, hypoxia/reoxygenation, and T cell activation, demonstrating the physiological relevance of this adaptive response.
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Miro-1 links mitochondria and microtubule Dynein motors to control lymphocyte migration and polarity.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation is crucial for a functional immune response. In the present work, we explored the role of mitochondria in lymphocyte adhesion, polarity, and migration. We show that during adhesion to the activated endothelium under physiological flow conditions, lymphocyte mitochondria redistribute to the adhesion zone together with the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) in an integrin-dependent manner. Mitochondrial redistribution and efficient lymphocyte adhesion to the endothelium require the function of Miro-1, an adaptor molecule that couples mitochondria to microtubules. Our data demonstrate that Miro-1 associates with the dynein complex. Moreover, mitochondria accumulate around the MTOC in response to the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1?; this redistribution is regulated by Miro-1. CXCL12-dependent cell polarization and migration are reduced in Miro-1-silenced cells, due to impaired myosin II activation at the cell uropod and diminished actin polymerization. These data point to a key role of Miro-1 in the control of lymphocyte adhesion and migration through the regulation of mitochondrial redistribution.
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PIP2: choreographer of actin-adaptor proteins in the HIV-1 dance.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role during the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 infection is affected by cellular proteins that influence the clustering of viral receptors or the subcortical actin cytoskeleton. Several of these actin-adaptor proteins are controlled by the second messenger phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2), an important regulator of actin organization. PIP2 production is induced by HIV-1 attachment and facilitates viral infection. However, the importance of PIP2 in regulating cytoskeletal proteins and thus HIV-1 infection has been overlooked. This review examines recent reports describing the roles played by actin-adaptor proteins during HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells, highlighting the influence of the signaling lipid PIP2 in this process.
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Liver oxidation and inflammation in Fa/Fa rats fed glucomannan/spirulina-surimi.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The effect of high-fat squid-surimi diets enriched in glucomannan or glucomannan-spirulina on lipemia, liver glutathione status, antioxidant enzymes and inflammation biomarkers was determined in Zucker Fa/Fa rats. Groups of eight rats each received for 7weeks the squid-surimi control (C), glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi (G) and glucomannan-spirulina enriched squid-surimi (GS). Liver weight, cytochrome P450 7A1 expression and cholesterolemia were decreased in G and GS vs. C, improving glutathione red-ox index (p<0.05). G also showed increased glutathione reductase (GR) levels vs. C, but reduced the endothelial (eNOS) and increased the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) levels (p<0.05). The GS diet improved superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and GR activities and eNOS, iNOS and TNF-? levels (p<0.05). The glucomannan enriched surimi-diet induced hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant and proinflammatory effects, while the addition of 3g/kg spirulina kept those hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects but reduced the inflammation observed.
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Noninvasive identification of epicardial ventricular tachycardia substrate by magnetic resonance-based signal intensity mapping.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Endo-epicardial substrate ablation reduces ventricular tachycardia (VT) recurrences; however, not all patients in whom the epicardium is explored have a VT substrate. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ceMRI) is used to characterize VT substrate after myocardial infarction.
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Evaluation of a Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia rabbit model for pediatric thoracoscopic training.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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This study evaluated the usefulness of a Bochdalek hernia rabbit model as a tool for advanced thoracoscopic training, teaching the specific skills required for thoracoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
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Characteristics and longevity of electronic citations in four leading biomedical journals in Spain.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed)
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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We aimed to determine the frequency of use and accessibility over time of electronic citations in Revista Española de Cardiología and 3 other Spanish biomedical journals, and to identify the factors that influence the accessibility and retrievability of these links.
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Characteristics and Longevity of Electronic Citations in Four Leading Biomedical Journals in Spain.
Rev Esp Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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We aimed to determine the frequency of use and accessibility over time of electronic citations in Revista Española de Cardiología and 3 other Spanish biomedical journals, and to identify the factors that influence the accessibility and retrievability of these links.
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Acute hypoxia produces a superoxide burst in cells.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Oxygen is a key molecule for cell metabolism. Eukaryotic cells sense the reduction in oxygen availability (hypoxia) and trigger a series of cellular and systemic responses to adapt to hypoxia, including the optimization of oxygen consumption. Many of these responses are mediated by a genetic program induced by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), regulated by a family of prolyl hydroxylases (PHD or EGLN) that use oxygen as a substrate producing HIF hydroxylation. In parallel to these oxygen sensors modulating gene expression within hours, acute modulation of protein function in response to hypoxia is known to occur within minutes. Free radicals acting as second messengers, and oxidative posttranslational modifications, have been implied in both groups of responses. Localization and speciation of the paradoxical increase in reactive oxygen species production in hypoxia remain debatable. We have observed that several cell types respond to acute hypoxia with a transient increase in superoxide production for about 10 min, probably originating in the mitochondria. This may explain in part the apparently divergent results found by various groups that have not taken into account the time frame of hypoxic ROS production. We propose that this acute and transient hypoxia-induced superoxide burst may be translated into oxidative signals contributing to hypoxic adaptation and preconditioning.
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Sorting it out: regulation of exosome loading.
Semin. Cancer Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Extracellular vesicles (EVs), a term that includes both exosomes of endocytic origin and vesicles derived from plasma membranes, are continuously secreted by cells to the extracellular environment, and represent a novel vehicle for cell-cell communication. Exosomes contain specific repertoires of proteins and RNAs, indicating the existence of mechanisms that control the sorting of molecules into them. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate the loading of proteins into exosomes have been studied for years, the sorting of RNA has been elusive until recently. Here we review the molecular mechanisms that control the sorting of molecules into exosomes, with special attention to the sorting of RNA. We also discuss how the cellular context affects the composition of exosomes, and thus the outcome of the communication between the exosome-producer and recipient cells, with particular focus on the communication between tumor cells and with cells of the tumor microenvironment.
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T cells kill bacteria captured by transinfection from dendritic cells and confer protection in mice.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose, process, and present bacterial antigens to T lymphocytes to trigger adaptive immunity. In vivo, bacteria can also be found inside T lymphocytes. However, T cells are refractory to direct bacterial infection, leaving the mechanisms by which bacteria invade T cells unclear. We show that T cells take up bacteria from infected DCs by the process of transinfection, which requires direct contact between the two cells and is enhanced by antigen recognition. Prior to transfer, bacteria localize to the immunological synapse, an intimate DC/T cell contact structure that activates T cells. Strikingly, T cells efficiently eliminate the transinfecting bacteria within the first hours after infection. Transinfected T cells produced high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and were able to protect mice from bacterial challenge following adoptive transfer. Thus, T lymphocytes can capture and kill bacteria in a manner reminiscent of innate immunity.
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Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City.
Int J Biomed Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico.
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Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a case-control study in a Northern Mexican population.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The outcome of pregnancy is often threatened by hypertension disorders, i.e. eclampsia. Rate of infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can be as high as 80% in pregnant women, and infection acquired during pregnancy can lead to fetal death. Very little is known about a potential association between infections, i.e. those with Toxoplasma gondii, and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.
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Evidence of promiscuous endothelial binding by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The adhesion of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) to human endothelium is considered a key event in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria and other life-threatening complications caused by the most prevalent malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In the past 30 years, 14 endothelial receptors for iRBCs have been identified. Exposing 10 additional surface proteins of endothelial cells to a mixture of P.? falciparum isolates from three Ghanaian malaria patients, we identified seven new iRBC receptors, all expressed in brain vessels. This finding strongly suggests that endothelial binding of P. ?falciparum?iRBCs is promiscuous and may use a combination of endothelial surface moieties.
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Description and validation of realistic and structured endourology training model.
Am J Clin Exp Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of the present study was to validate a model of training, which combines the use of non-biological and ex vivo biological bench models, as well as the modelling of urological injuries for endourological treatment in a porcine animal model.
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An Analysis of Skills Acquisition During a Training Program for Experienced Laparoscopists in Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery.
Surg Innov
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Background. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery has been presented in the past few years as an innovative minimally invasive approach, one which despite its advantages is also challenging and requires specific training. We propose to analyze the performance of attendants in a specific LESS training course. Methods. Following the LESSCAR 2010 guidelines, we focused on level 1 hands-on simulator tasks and level 2 hands-on training on animal model for skills acquisition during a LESS-specific training course. Each attendant completed coordination and cut tasks on simulator, followed by a cholecystectomy on an ex vivo porcine liver. Hands-on animal model each trainee performed 1 cholecystectomy and at least 2 nephrectomies (N1, N2). Performance was analyzed through video recording and reviewed by 3 independent observers. Each result was registered according to a modified objective structured assessment of technical skills. Total task or procedure completion time was also determined. Results. Regarding coordination and cut tasks, attendants improved on their performance from first to third attempts with an accompanying decrease in completion time. Surgeons completed the cholecystectomy on animal model significantly faster than on simulator, although with lower performance quality. Regarding N1 and N2, attendants showed improvement both in quality and total completion time. Conclusions. A gradual and positive evolution of attendants was observed throughout the training course. Thus, we believe a structured program for the acquisition of basic skills in new minimally invasive surgical approaches should be recommended. Considering that this is a small study, it would be advisable to increase the number of study subjects on future opportunities.
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Toxoplasma gondii infection and suicide attempts: a case-control study in psychiatric outpatients.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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The association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with suicide attempts has been scarcely evaluated. Two hundred eighty-three psychiatric outpatients (156 patients with history of suicide attempt and 127 control patients without history of suicide attempt) were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalences of Toxoplasma IgG and IgM in the cases and the controls were similar: 7 (4.5%) and 3 (1.9%) vs. 10 (7.9%) and 3 (2.4%) (p = 0.23 and p = 0.55), respectively. In contrast, the Toxoplasma IgG levels higher than 150 IU/ml were more frequently observed in the cases than in the controls (100% vs. 50%, respectively; p = 0.04). The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection increased with age and with the number of suicide attempts. Toxoplasma seropositivity was associated with reflex impairment, national trips, and snake meat consumption. Our results suggest that although seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection is not associated with suicide attempts, a high anti-Toxoplasma antibody level is, therefore warranting further research.
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Conicity index as a contributor marker of inflammation in haemodialysis patients.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Abdominal fat mass is an important risk factor of inflammation in the general population as it is in haemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of adiposity using the conicity index (Ci) with nutritional-inflammatory markers and to analyse whether these factors were related with the clinical outcome in HD patients.
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Nori- and sea spaghetti- but not wakame-restructured pork decrease the hypercholesterolemic and liver proapototic short-term effects of high-dietary cholesterol consumption.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Restructured pork (RP) enriched in Seaweeds are potential functional foods. The antiapoptotic and hypocholesterolemic effects of consuming cholesterol enriched diets containing Wakame-RP (CW), Nori-RP (CN) and Sea Spaghetti (CS) were tested in a 1-wk study. Groups of six rats per group were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet containing cholesterol and cholic acid as a cholesterol rising agent plus 15% RP containing alga. These diets were compared to control-RP diets enriched or not in cholesterol (CC and C, respectively). After 1-wk, cholesterol feeding significantly increased liver apoptosis markers which were significantly reduced by CS (cellular cycle DNA, caspase-3, and cytochrome c), CN (caspase-3 and cytochrome c) and CW (caspase-3) diets. CN and CS diets significantly blocked the cholesterolaemic rising effect observed in the CC group but no protective effect was observed in the CW group. Differences in seaweed composition added to RP appear responsible for blocking or not the proapoptotic and hypercholesterolemic effects of high cholesterol-RP consumption; thus, any generalization on seaweed effects or food containing seaweeds must be avoided. Although present results are worthy, future studies are demanded to ascertain the utility of consuming algal-RP as part of usual diets.
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Systems and technologies for objective evaluation of technical skills in laparoscopic surgery.
Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Abstract Minimally invasive surgery is a highly demanding surgical approach regarding technical requirements for the surgeon, who must be trained in order to perform a safe surgical intervention. Traditional surgical education in minimally invasive surgery is commonly based on subjective criteria to quantify and evaluate surgical abilities, which could be potentially unsafe for the patient. Authors, surgeons and associations are increasingly demanding the development of more objective assessment tools that can accredit surgeons as technically competent. This paper describes the state of the art in objective assessment methods of surgical skills. It gives an overview on assessment systems based on structured checklists and rating scales, surgical simulators, and instrument motion analysis. As a future work, an objective and automatic assessment method of surgical skills should be standardized as a means towards proficiency-based curricula for training in laparoscopic surgery and its certification.
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Actin-binding protein drebrin regulates HIV-1-triggered actin polymerization and viral infection.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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HIV-1 contact with target cells triggers F-actin rearrangements that are essential for several steps of the viral cycle. Successful HIV entry into CD4(+) T cells requires actin reorganization induced by the interaction of the cellular receptor/co-receptor complex CD4/CXCR4 with the viral envelope complex gp120/gp41 (Env). In this report, we analyze the role of the actin modulator drebrin in HIV-1 viral infection and cell to cell fusion. We show that drebrin associates with CXCR4 before and during HIV infection. Drebrin is actively recruited toward cell-virus and Env-driven cell to cell contacts. After viral internalization, drebrin clustering is retained in a fraction of the internalized particles. Through a combination of RNAi-based inhibition of endogenous drebrin and GFP-tagged expression of wild-type and mutant forms, we establish drebrin as a negative regulator of HIV entry and HIV-mediated cell fusion. Down-regulation of drebrin expression promotes HIV-1 entry, decreases F-actin polymerization, and enhances profilin local accumulation in response to HIV-1. These data underscore the negative role of drebrin in HIV infection by modulating viral entry, mainly through the control of actin cytoskeleton polymerization in response to HIV-1.
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Immune synapse: conductor of orchestrated organelle movement.
Trends Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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To ensure proper cell function, intracellular organelles are not randomly distributed within the cell, but polarized and highly constrained by the cytoskeleton and associated adaptor proteins. This relationship between distribution and function was originally found in neurons and epithelial cells; however, recent evidence suggests that it is a general phenomenon occurring in many highly specialized cells including T lymphocytes. Recent studies reveal that the orchestrated redistribution of organelles is dependent on antigen-specific activation of and immune synapse (IS) formation by T cells. This review highlights the functional implications of organelle polarization in early T cell activation and examines recent findings on how the IS sets the rhythm of organelle motion and the spread of the activation signal to the nucleus.
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Analysis of microRNA and protein transfer by exosomes during an immune synapse.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Immune cells release microRNA-containing exosomes that can be taken up by recipient cells. Exosomes can thus act as mediators of cell-cell communication through direct exchange of genetic material between cells. Exosome-mediated transfer of miRNAs between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can take place over long distances. Our work has shown that this transfer is enhanced by the formation of a functional immune synapse. Here we give a detailed description of the isolation of exosomes produced by immune cells by ultracentrifugation, their quantification by flow cytometry, and the analysis of miRNA and protein exchange between T cells and APCs, both at a distance and after the formation of an immune synapse.
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Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show defects in immunoregulatory mechanisms. Herein we assessed the expression of different regulatory receptors in circulating and thyroid dendritic cells (DCs).
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Induction of th17 lymphocytes and treg cells by monocyte-derived dendritic cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Dendritic cells (DCs) have a key role in the regulation of immune response. We herein explored, in patients with inflammatory diseases, the role of monocyte derived DCs (mo-DCs) on the generation of Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Peripheral blood was obtained from thirty-five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), twelve with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and twenty healthy subjects. Mo-DCs were generated under standard (IL-4/GM-CSF) or tolerogenic (IL-4/GM-CSF plus recombinant P-selectin or PD-1 or IL-10) conditions, and their ability to induce Th17 and Treg lymphocytes was tested. We detected that mo-DCs from patients with RA showed an enhanced release of IL-6 and IL-23 as well as an increased capability to induce Th17 cells. Although mo-DCs from SLE patients also released high levels of IL-6/IL-23, it did not show an increased ability to induce Th17 lymphocytes. In addition, mo-DCs, from patients with RA and SLE generated under the engagement of PSGL-1, showed a defective capability to induce Foxp3+ Treg cells. A similar phenomenon was observed in SLE, when DCs cells were generated under PDL-1 engagement. Our data indicate that DCs from patients with rheumatic inflammatory disease show an aberrant function that may have an important role in the pathogenesis of these conditions.
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SirT1 regulation of antioxidant genes is dependent on the formation of a FoxO3a/PGC-1? complex.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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SirT1 is a class III histone deacetylase that has been implicated in metabolic and reactive oxygen species control. In the vasculature it has been shown to decrease endothelial superoxide production, prevent endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms that mediate SirT1 antioxidant functions remain to be characterized. The transcription factor FoxO3a and the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?-coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) have been shown to induce the expression of antioxidant genes and to be deacetylated by SirT1.
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Ergonomic analysis of muscle activity in the forearm and back muscles during laparoscopic surgery: influence of previous experience and performed task.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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The first aim of this study is to analyze the muscle activity in back and forearm muscles in surgeons during laparoscopic dissection and suturing maneuvers. The second aim is to determine the influence of the surgeons previous experience in laparoscopic surgery.
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Tonometry as a predictor of inadequate splanchnic perfusion in an intra-abdominal hypertension animal model.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The gastrointestinal system is the most sensitive to the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension. We aimed to assess the early prognostic value of gastric air tonometry as a predictor of inadequate splanchnic perfusion and determine its relation with abdominal perfusion pressure (APP).
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Is CD69 an effective brake to control inflammatory diseases?
Trends Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Early studies described CD69 as a leukocyte activation marker, and suggested its involvement in the activation of different leukocyte subsets as well as in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. However, recent investigations have showed that CD69 knockout mice exhibit an enhanced or reduced susceptibility to different experimental models of inflammatory diseases, including those mediated by T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes. In this regard, the expression of CD69, both in Th17 lymphocytes and by a subset of regulatory T cells, has an important role in the control of the immune response and the inflammatory phenomenon. Therefore, different evidence indicates that CD69 exerts a complex immunoregulatory role in humans, and that it could be considered as a target molecule for the therapy of immune-mediated diseases.
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S-glutathionylation: relevance in diabetes and potential role as a biomarker.
Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Glutathione is considered the main regulator of redox balance in the cellular milieu due to its capacity for detoxifying deleterious molecules. The oxidative stress induced as a result of a variety of stimuli promotes protein oxidation, usually at cysteine residues, leading to changes in their activity. Mild oxidative stress, which may take place in physiological conditions, induces the reversible oxidation of cysteines to sulfenic acid form, while pathological conditions are associated with higher rates of reactive oxygen species production, inducing the irreversible oxidation of cysteines. Among these, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes have been proposed to be pathogenetically linked to this state. In diabetes-associated vascular complications, lower levels of glutathione and increased oxidative stress have been reported. S-glutathionylation has been proposed as a posttranslational modification able to protect proteins from over-oxidizing environments. S-glutathionylation has been identified in proteins involved in diabetic models both in vitro and in vivo. In all of them, S-glutathionylation represents a mechanism that regulates the response to diabetic conditions, and has been described to occur in erythrocytes and neutrophils from diabetic patients. However, additional studies are necessary to discern whether this modification represents a biomarker for the early onset of diabetic vascular complications.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.