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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antifungal drug discovery: the process and outcomes.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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New data suggest that the global incidence of several types of fungal diseases have traditionally been under-documented. Of these, mortality caused by invasive fungal infections remains disturbingly high, equal to or exceeding deaths caused by drug-resistant tuberculosis and malaria. It is clear that basic research on new antifungal drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tools is needed. In this review, we focus upon antifungal drug discovery including in vitro assays, compound libraries and approaches to target identification. Genome mining has made it possible to identify fungal-specific targets; however, new compounds to these targets are apparently not in the antimicrobial pipeline. We suggest that 'repurposing' compounds (off patent) might be a more immediate starting point. Furthermore, we examine the dogma on antifungal discovery and suggest that a major thrust in technologies such as structural biology, homology modeling and virtual imaging is needed to drive discovery.
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Deciphering azole resistance mechanisms with a focus on transcription factor-encoding genes TAC1, MRR1 and UPC2 in a set of fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Several and often combined mechanisms can lead to acquired azole resistance in Candida albicans and subsequent therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to provide a complete overview of the molecular basis of azole resistance in a set of six C. albicans clinical isolates recovered from patients who failed azole therapy. For this purpose, expression levels of CDR1, MDR1 and ERG11 were investigated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) together with amplification and sequencing of the genes encoding their transcription factors TAC1, MRR1 and UPC2. In all, the data underline that azole resistance in this set of clinical isolates results from distinct, often combined, mechanisms, being mostly driven by CDR1 and/or MDR1 active efflux. We show that gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the transcription-factor-encoding genes TAC1, MRR1 and UPC2 are a common event in azole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates. In addition, together with the finding that these genes are highly permissive to nucleotide changes, we describe several novel mutations that could act as putative GOF mutations involved in fluconazole resistance.
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Fatal invasive infection with fungemia due to Microascus cirrosus after heart and lung transplantation in a patient with cystic fibrosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Scopulariopsis species are rarely but increasingly recognized as opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. We report on a patient suffering from cystic fibrosis who developed disseminated fungal infection due to a rare Scopulariopsis species, Microascus cirrosus, after heart and lung transplantation. Despite antifungal combination therapy with voriconazole and caspofungin, the patient died 4 weeks after transplantation. Diagnostic difficulties and optimal management of disseminated Scopulariopsis/Microascus infections are discussed.
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Disseminated Scedosporium/Pseudallescheria infection after double-lung transplantation in patients with cystic fibrosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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We report a case of disseminated Scedosporium/Pseudallescheria infection due to Pseudallescheria boydii sensu stricto after lung transplantation in a patient with cystic fibrosis. Dissemination occurred under voriconazole. Despite surgery and combination therapy with voriconazole, caspofungin, and terbinafine, the patient died 8 months after transplantation. Previously reported cases are reviewed.
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Successful triple combination therapy of disseminated absidia corymbifera infection in an adolescent with osteosarcoma.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Mucormycosis are opportunistic infections mostly observed in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who suffered a systemic mucormycosis without presenting the usual risk factors. She was undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy for advanced osteosarcoma of the femur with an uncommunicative pathologic fracture and pulmonary metastasis. Absidia corymbifera was isolated from skin lesions at the primary tumor site. She subsequently developed fungal pulmonary localizations and blood vessel thrombosis. Surgical treatment together with systemic, high doses of liposomal amphotericin B, posaconazole, and caspofungin cured the local infection and controlled systemic lesions. Unfortunately, the break in chemotherapy led to pulmonary metastasis progression.
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Comparative evaluation of the ARCHITECT Toxo IgG, IgM, and IgG Avidity assays for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies detection in pregnant women sera.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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We assessed the performance of the ARCHITECT Toxo IgG, IgM, and IgG Avidity assays against corresponding assays on AxSYM and Vidas using 730 sera from pregnant women. The ARCHITECT Toxo IgG and IgM assays showed a relative sensitivity of 97.5% and 89.9% and a relative specificity of 99.1% and 99.8%, respectively. If IgM sensitivity is calculated only for sera drawn less than 4 months after infection, the relative sensitivity rises to 98.1%. Correlation between the ARCHITECT and Vidas Avidity assays was 0.87 (n = 103). Testing 86 IgG-positive specimens from recent infection (<4 months), we never obtained high avidity results, but 2 specimens were in the gray zone, whereas sera from past infections (>4 months) exhibited high avidity results in 72.5% (137/189) of cases. The method can be used reliably to exclude recent infections in sera with concurrently positive results for IgM and IgG (IgG, >3 IU/mL).
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Genotype of 88 Toxoplasma gondii isolates associated with toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients and correlation with clinical findings.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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We report the genotyping analysis of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in samples collected from 88 immunocompromised patients, along with clinical and epidemiological data. Most of these samples were collected in France during the current decade by the Toxoplasma Biological Resource Center. Lack of specific anti-Toxoplasma treatment, pulmonary toxoplasmosis, and involvement of multiple organs were the 3 main risk factors associated with death for this patient group. Genotyping results with 6 microsatellite markers showed that type II isolates were predominant among patients who acquired toxoplasmic infection in Europe. Non-type II isolates included 13 different genotypes and were mainly collected from patients who acquired toxoplasmosis outside Europe. Type III was the second most common genotype recovered from patients, whereas type I was rare in our population. Three nonarchetypal genotypes were repeatedly recovered from different patients who acquired the infection in sub-Saharan Africa (genotypes Africa 1 and Africa 2) and in the French West Indies (genotype Caribbean 1). The distribution of genotypes (type II vs. non-type II) was not significantly different when patients were stratified by underlying cause of immunosuppression, site of infection, or outcome. We conclude that in immunocompromised patients, host factors are much more involved than parasite factors in patients resistance or susceptibility to toxoplasmosis.
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Amino acid-derived 1,2-benzisothiazolinone derivatives as novel small-molecule antifungal inhibitors: identification of potential genetic targets.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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We have identified four synthetic compounds (DFD-VI-15, BD-I-186, DFD-V-49, and DFD-V-66) from an amino acid-derived 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BZT) scaffold that have reasonable MIC(50) values against a panel of fungal pathogens. These compounds have no structural similarity to existing antifungal drugs. Three of the four compounds have fungicidal activity against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and several dermatophytes, while one is fungicidal to Aspergillus fumigatus. The kill rates of our compounds are equal to those in clinical usage. The BZT compounds remain active against azole-, polyene-, and micafungin-resistant strains of Candida spp. A genetics-based approach, along with phenotype analysis, was used to begin mode of action (MOA) studies of one of these compounds, DFD-VI-15. The genetics-based screen utilized a homozygous deletion collection of approximately 4,700 Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants. We identified mutants that are both hypersensitive and resistant. Using FunSpec, the hypersensitive mutants and a resistant ace2 mutant clustered within a category of genes related directly or indirectly to mitochondrial functions. In Candida albicans, the functions of the Ace2p transcription factor include the regulation of glycolysis. Our model is that DFD-VI-15 targets a respiratory pathway that limits energy production. Supporting this hypothesis are phenotypic data indicating that DFD-VI-15 causes increased cell-reactive oxidants (ROS) and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Also, the same compound has activity when cells are grown in a medium containing glycerol (mitochondrial substrate) but is much less active when cells are grown anaerobically.
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Phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria infectoria: a single-center experience with utility of PCR for diagnosis and species identification.
Med. Mycol.
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The term phaeohyphomycosis refers to a rare group of fungal infections characterized by the presence of dark-walled hyphae or yeast-like cells in affected tissues. Herein, we report on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of six cases of phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria spp. that occurred in our hospital over a 30-month period (from January 2008 to June 2010). Interestingly, whereas histopathological examinations were positive and fungal cultures yielded molds in all cases, mycological identification using conventional phenotypic methods was never possible despite prolonged incubation of the isolates. Identification of Alternaria infectoria species complex was obtained for each isolate by amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA). All patients had favourable outcomes following the introduction of azole-based antifungal therapy. This case series describes the clinical course of these six patients and highlights the utility of molecular identification to help in the identification of the etiologic agent when classical mycological methods have failed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.