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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
How Physician Obesity Medicine Specialists Treated Obesity before 2012 New Drug Approvals.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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A survey of obesity medicine specialists was conducted before the approval of new obesity medications in 2012.
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Functional foods to promote weight loss and satiety.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Diets that induce negative energy balance continue to be the cornerstone of obesity management. However, long-term volitional reduction in energy intake is challenging. Functional foods that enhance satiety may have an important practical application in increasing compliance to weight loss diets and thereby promoting sustained weight loss. Here, we present recent advances in identifying common foods that increase satiety.
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Whole grains and pulses: a comparison of the nutritional and health benefits.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and management of disease. Whole grain cereals contain a host of nutrients and bioactive substances that have health-promoting effects. Epidemiological evidence shows a consistent inverse association between whole grain intake and the risk of chronic disease. Despite a concerted effort by scientists, educators, and policy makers to promote the consumption of whole grains, it remains dismally short of the recommended intakes. Pulses (dried beans and peas) differ from whole grains in their structural and physicochemical properties and have varying amounts of fiber, resistant starch, vitamins, minerals, and other bioactive components; nevertheless, these food groups complement each other. Observational as well as intervention trials show that pulse consumption has beneficial effects on the prevention and management of chronic disease. The nutritional and phytochemical components of pulses coupled with those of whole grains suggest a potential synergistic effect that could provide significant health benefits.
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Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model for Obesity Pharmacology Development.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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The Caenorhabditis elegans model is a rapid and inexpensive method to address pharmacologic questions. We describe the use of C. elegans to explore 2 pharmacologic questions concerning candidate antiobesity drugs and illustrate its potential usefulness in pharmacologic research: (1) to determine a ratio of betahistine-olanzapine that blocks the olanzapine-induced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) as detected by Nile red staining and (2) to identify the mechanism of action of a pharmaceutical candidate AB-101 that reduces IFD. Olanzapine (53 ?g/mL) increased the IFD (12.1 ± 0.1%, P < 0.02), which was blocked by betahistine (763 ?g/mL, 39.3 ± 0.01%, P < 0.05) in wild-type C. elegans (N2). AB-101 (1.0%) reduced the IFD in N2 (P < 0.05), increased the pharyngeal pumping rate (P < 0.05), and reversed the elevated IFD induced by protease inhibitors atazanavir and ritonavir (P < 0.05). AB-101 did not affect IFD in a ACS null mutant strain acs-4(ok2872) III/hT2[bli-4(e937) let-?(q782) qIs48](I;III) suggesting an involvement of the lipid oxidation pathway and an upregulation of CPT-1. Our studies suggest that C. elegans may be used as a resource in pharmacologic research. This article is intended to stimulate a greater appreciation of its value in the development of new pharmaceutical interventions.
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Hyperphagia: current concepts and future directions proceedings of the 2nd international conference on hyperphagia.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Hyperphagia is a central feature of inherited disorders (e.g., Prader-Willi Syndrome) in which obesity is a primary phenotypic component. Hyperphagia may also contribute to obesity as observed in the general population, thus raising the potential importance of common underlying mechanisms and treatments. Substantial gaps in understanding the molecular basis of inherited hyperphagia syndromes are present as are a lack of mechanistic of mechanistic targets that can serve as a basis for pharmacologic and behavioral treatments.
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Weight loss and improved quality of life with a nonsurgical endoscopic treatment for obesity: clinical results from a 3- and 6-month study.
Surg Obes Relat Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The TransPyloric Shuttle™ (TPS) is a nonsurgical device that is endoscopically delivered to and removed from the stomach to treat obesity. The device consists of a large spherical bulb connected to a smaller cylindrical bulb by a flexible tether. The larger bulb prevents migration from the stomach, while the smaller bulb passes freely into the duodenum to position the TPS across the pylorus. Transpyloric positioning may delay gastric emptying, reducing caloric intake and enabling weight loss. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the clinical procedure and device.
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The role of meal viscosity and oat ?-glucan characteristics in human appetite control: a randomized crossover trial.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat, and improve the nutritional quality of their diets. Viscosity generated by oat ?-glucan, influences gastrointestinal mechanisms that mediate satiety. Differences in the source, processing treatments, and interactions with other constituents in the food matrix affect the amount, solubility, molecular weight, and structure of the ?-glucan in products, which in turn influences the viscosity. This study examined the effect of two types of oatmeal and an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) on appetite, and assessed differences in meal viscosity and ?-glucan characteristics among the cereals.
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A randomized trial to manipulate the quality instead of quantity of dietary proteins to influence the markers of satiety.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To test whether a breakfast including eggs (EB) containing high-quality protein decreases subsequent food intake and increases satiety-related hormones in overweight or obese adults more than a breakfast including cereal (CB) of lower protein quality, but matched for energy density and macronutrient composition.
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Determinants of sedentary 24-h energy expenditure: equations for energy prescription and adjustment in a respiratory chamber.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Achieving energy balance is critical for the interpretation of results obtained in respiratory chambers. However, 24-h energy expenditure (24EE) predictions based on estimated resting metabolic rate and physical activity level are often inaccurate and imprecise.
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Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners (CS), glucose, sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, are associated with weight gain. Beverages sweetened with intense sweeteners (IS) are marketed as low-calorie substitutes to prevent beverages-associated weight gain. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, the effects on intestinal fat deposition (IFD) and pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR) of cola beverages sweetened with glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus acesulfame-potassium (AceK) were compared. Control groups received Escherichia coli (OP50) only. Study I: the nematodes received additional glucose- or IS-sweetened beverages. Study II: the nematodes received additional glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus AceK (AAK). Beverages containing CS or IS (aspartame or AAK) did not alter IFD in wild type (N2) or in daf-16 deficiency. The CS cola increased IFD in sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). The AAK-cola increased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). Glucose increased IFD in N2 and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05). Aspartame showed a tendency towards reduced IFD in N2 and decreased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency (P<0.05). AAK increased IFD in daf-16 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05), and reversed the aspartame-induced reduction in IFD. The aspartame-sweetened cola increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05); similar results were obtained in N2 with both IS (P<0.05). AAK increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2, daf-16, and sir-2.1 deficiencies (P<0.05). Thus, IS increased the PPR, a surrogate marker of lifespan. Aspartame may have an independent effect in reducing IFD to assist humans desiring weight loss. AceK may increase IFD in presence of insulin resistance.
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Effects of naltrexone sustained- release/bupropion sustained-release combination therapy on body weight and glycemic parameters in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of 32 mg naltrexone sustained-release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes with or without background oral antidiabetes drugs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a 56-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 505 patients received standardized lifestyle intervention and were randomized 2:1 to NB or placebo. Coprimary end points were percent weight change and achievement of ?5% weight loss. Secondary end points included achievement of HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol), achievement of weight loss ?10%, and change in HbA1c, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and lipids. RESULTS In the modified intent-to-treat population (54% female, 80% Caucasian, and mean age 54 years, weight 106 kg, BMI 37 kg/m(2), and HbA1c 8.0% [64 mmol/mol]), NB resulted in significantly greater weight reduction (-5.0 vs. -1.8%; P < 0.001) and proportion of patients achieving ?5% weight loss (44.5 vs. 18.9%, P < 0.001) compared with placebo. NB also resulted in significantly greater HbA1c reduction (-0.6 vs. -0.1% [6.6 vs. 1.1 mmol/mol]; P < 0.001), percent of patients achieving HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol) (44.1 vs. 26.3%; P < 0.001), and improvement in triglycerides and HDL cholesterol compared with placebo. NB was associated with higher incidence of nausea (42.3 vs. 7.1%), constipation (17.7 vs. 7.1%), and vomiting (18.3 vs. 3.6%). No difference was observed between groups in the incidence of depression, suicidal ideation, or hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS NB therapy in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes induced weight loss, which was associated with improvements in glycemic control and select cardiovascular risk factors and was generally well tolerated with a safety profile similar to that in patients without diabetes.
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Acute effect of oatmeal on subjective measures of appetite and satiety compared to a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal: a randomized crossover trial.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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The physicochemical properties of soluble oat fiber (?-glucan) affect viscosity-dependent mechanisms that influence satiety. The objective of this study was to compare the satiety impact of oatmeal with the most widely sold ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) when either was consumed as a breakfast meal.
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Anthropometric markers of obesity and mortality in white and African American adults: the pennington center longitudinal study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine the association between anthropometric measures of obesity and all-cause mortality in white and African American men and women.
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Dietary strategies to increase satiety.
Adv. Food Nutr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Obesity has a multifactorial etiology. Although obesity is widespread and associated with serious health hazards, its effective prevention and treatment have been challenging. Among the currently available treatment approaches, lifestyle modification to induce a negative energy balance holds a particularly larger appeal due to its wider reach and relative safety. However, long-term compliance with dietary modifications to reduce energy intake is not effective for the majority. The role of many individual nutrients, foods, and food groups in inducing satiety has been extensively studied. Based on this evidence, we have developed sample weight-loss meal plans that include multiple satiating foods, which may collectively augment the satiating properties of a meal. Compared to a typical American diet, these meal plans are considerably lower in energy density and probably more satiating. A diet that exploits the satiating properties of multiple foods may help increase long-term dietary compliance and consequentially enhance weight loss.
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Resistant starch from high amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and Dietary butyrate reduce abdominal fat by a different apparent mechanism.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Obesity is a health concern. Resistant starch (RS) type 2 from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary sodium butyrate (SB) reduce abdominal fat in rodents. RS treatment is associated with increased gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), but it is not known if SB increases these hormones.
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Clinical utility and reproducibility of visceral adipose tissue measurements derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in white and african american adults.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine reproducibility and clinical thresholds for DXA-derived visceral adipose tissue (VAT).
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The effect of leptin, caffeine/ephedrine, and their combination upon visceral fat mass and weight loss.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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To evaluate the effects of combination caffeine/ephedrine and leptin A-200 on visceral fat mass and weight loss over 24 weeks.
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Early resolution of type 2 diabetes seen after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) accounts for the majority of diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults in the United States. Many of these individuals are also morbidly obese and choose to undergo bariatric surgery to lose weight and gain glycemic control. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has been shown to resolve diabetes before substantial weight loss occurs. Several studies suggest that the vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a newer bariatric operation, may result in comparable weight loss and rapid diabetes control.
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Loss of taste responds to high-dose biotin treatment.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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We saw 2 patients who lost their sense of taste, which was restored by pharmacologic doses of biotin. The key objective is to describe the 2 case reports and suggest a potential treatment for unexplained loss of taste.
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Pharmacokinetic pilot study of the antiangiogenic activity of standardized platycodi radix.
Adv Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Platycodi radix is a radish used in food, such as Korean kimchi, and has been shown to cause weight loss in rodents. Platycodin D is considered its active ingredient and has been shown to inhibit lipases. The authors hypothesized that platycodi radix and the platycodin D it contains inhibit angiogenesis; another mechanism for weight loss.
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A clinical trial testing the safety and efficacy of a standardized Eucommia ulmoides Oliver bark extract to treat hypertension.
Altern Med Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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A tea made from Eucommia ulmoides leaves and bark is part of the Japanese diet. Eucommia is an herbal medicine that, by increasing nitric oxide, reduced blood pressure (BP) in rats and humans in an uncontrolled clinical trial.
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Orlistat 60 mg reduces visceral adipose tissue: a 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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It is well established that abdominal obesity or upper body fat distribution is associated with increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a 24 week weight loss program with orlistat 60 mg in overweight subjects would produce a greater change in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as measured by computed tomography (CT) scan, compared to placebo. The effects of orlistat 60 mg on changes in total fat mass (EchoMRI-AH and BIA), ectopic fat (CT) and glycemic variables were assessed. One-hundred thirty-one subjects were randomized into a multicenter, double-blind placebo controlled study in which 123 subjects received at least one post baseline efficacy measurement (intent-to-treat population). Both orlistat-and placebo-treated subjects significantly decreased their VAT at 24 weeks with a significantly greater loss of VAT by orlistat treated subjects (-15.7% vs. -9.4%, P < 0.05). In addition, orlistat-treated subjects had significantly greater weight loss (-5.93 kg vs. -3.94 kg, P < 0.05), total fat mass loss (-4.65 kg vs. -3.01 kg, P < 0.05) and trended to a greater loss of intermuscular adipose tissue and content of liver fat compared with placebo-treated subjects. This is the first study to demonstrate that orlistat 60 mg significantly reduces VAT in addition to total body fat compared to placebo treated subjects after a 24 week weight loss program. These results suggest that orlistat 60 mg may be an effective weight loss tool to reduce metabolic risk factors associated with abdominal obesity.
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Combination therapy with naltrexone and bupropion for obesity.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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Although pharmacological treatments for obesity represent only one option in managing obesity, they are a useful tool in an otherwise extremely limited armamentarium. Naltrexone/bupropion combination therapy was developed by using technological advances that have improved our understanding of how the brain regulates body weight.
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Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, 529 cases without a leak: short-term results and technical considerations.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is gaining acceptance among bariatric surgeons as a viable option for treating morbidly obese patients. We describe results of a single surgeons experience with LSG in a community practice revealing a low complication rate and describing the surgical technique.
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Blood pressure and heart rate effects, weight loss and maintenance during long-term phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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There is a perception that phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR), exposing treated patients to increased cardiovascular risk. We collected data from phentermine-treated (PT) and phentermine-untreated (P0) patients at a private weight management practice, to examine blood pressure, HR, and weight changes. Records of 300 sequential returning patients were selected who had been treated with a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet if their records included complete weight, blood pressure, and HR data from seven office examinations during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The mean time in therapy, time range, and mode was 92 (97.0), 12-624, and 52 weeks. 14% were normotensive, 52% were prehypertensive, and 34% were hypertensive at their first visit or had a previous diagnosis of hypertension. PT subjects systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) declined from baseline at all data points (SBP/DBP -6.9/-5.0 mm Hg at 26, and -7.3/-5.4 at 52 weeks). P0 subjects declines of SBP/DBP at both 26 and 52 weeks were -8.9/-6.3 but the difference from the treated cohort was not significant. HR changes in treated/untreated subjects at weeks 26 (-0.9/-3.5) and 52 (+1.2/-3.6) were not significant. Weight loss was significantly greater in the PT cohort for week 1 through 104 (P = 0.0144). These data suggest phentermine treatment for obesity does not result in increased SBP, DBP, or HR, and that weight loss assisted with phentermine treatment is associated with favorable shifts in categorical blood pressure and retardation of progression to hypertension in obese patients.
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Trunk versus extremity adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in white and African American adults.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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To determine contributions of trunk and extremity adiposity to cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) among white and African American adults.
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Dietary methionine restriction increases fat oxidation in obese adults with metabolic syndrome.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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In preclinical reports, restriction of dietary methionine intake was shown to enhance metabolic flexibility, improve lipid profiles, and reduce fat deposition. The present report is the outcome of a "proof of concept" study to evaluate the efficacy of dietary methionine restriction (MR) in humans with metabolic syndrome.
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Ethnic-specific BMI and waist circumference thresholds.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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BMI and waist circumference (WC) are used to identify individuals with elevated obesity-related health risks. The current thresholds were derived largely in populations of European origin. This study determined optimal BMI and WC thresholds for the identification of cardiometabolic risk among white and African-American (AA) adults. The sample included 2096 white women, 1789 AA women, 1948 white men, and 643 AA men aged 18-64 years. Elevated cardiometabolic risk was defined as ?2 risk factors (blood pressure ? 130/85 mm Hg; glucose ?100 mg/dl; triglycerides ?150 mg/dl; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol <40 mg/dl (men) or <50 mg/dl (women)). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify optimal BMI and WC thresholds in each sex-by-ethnicity group. The optimal BMI thresholds were 30 kg/m2 in white women, 32.9 kg/m2 in AA women, 29.1 kg/m2 white men, and 30.4 kg/m2 in AA men, whereas optimal WC thresholds were 91.9 cm in white women, 96.8 cm in AA women, 99.4 in white men, and 99.1 cm in AA men. The sensitivities at the optimal thresholds ranged from 63.5 to 68.5% for BMI and 68.4 to 71.0% for WC and the specificities ranged from 64.2 to 68.8% for BMI and from 68.5 to 71.0% for WC, respectively. In general, the optimal BMI and WC thresholds approximated currently used thresholds in men and in white women. There are no apparent ethnic differences in men; however, in AA women the optimal BMI and WC values are ~3 kg/m2 and 5 cm higher than in white women.
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Consistency of fat mass--fat-free mass relationship across ethnicity and sex groups.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2010
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The model developed by Forbes (1987) of how body fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) change during periods of weight loss or gain (? body weight (BW)) assumed that they change in relationship to a constant C = 10·4, where ?FFM/?BW = 10·4/(10·4+FM). Forbes derived C based on aggregated, cross-sectional data from a small sample of women. The objective of the present study was to reanalyse the relationship described by Forbes and to explore whether this relationship is consistent across ethnicity and sex groups using cross-sectional data from a large sample of white and African-American men and women. Baseline data from white and African-American men and women aged 18-60 years, who participated in a clinical study at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center since 2001 and who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, were available for analysis. To overcome differences in BMI distributions among the ethnicity-by-sex groups, a stratified random sample of participants was selected within each group such that numbers in each BMI category ( < 25, 25-29·9, 30-34·9, 35-39·9, 40+ kg/m2) were proportional to those within the group with the smallest sample size, yielding a sample of 1953 individuals. Linear regression models assessed the FM-FFM relationship across the four ethnicity-by-sex groups. The FM-FFM relationship varied little by ethnicity (P = 0·57) or by sex (P = 0·26). The constant describing the FM-FFM relationship was estimated to be 9·7 (95 % CI 9·0, 10·3). In conclusion, results from our large, biethnic sample of men and women found a FM-FFM relationship very close to that originally described by Forbes, absent of significant variability by ethnicity or sex.
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Endocrine and nutritional management of the post-bariatric surgery patient: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2010
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We sought to provide guidelines for the nutritional and endocrine management of adults after bariatric surgery, including those with diabetes mellitus. The focus is on the immediate postoperative period and long-term management to prevent complications, weight regain, and progression of obesity-associated comorbidities. The treatment of specific disorders is only summarized.
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The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (18-39 and 40-64 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex difference in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race differences in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex differences, and in some instances race differences, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI.
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Abnormalities in circadian blood pressure variability and endothelial function: pragmatic markers for adverse cardiometabolic profiles in asymptomatic obese adults.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, although perceived to be high, is often difficult to demonstrate in disease free (healthy) obese adults.
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Effect of naltrexone plus bupropion on weight loss in overweight and obese adults (COR-I): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Despite increasing public health concerns regarding obesity, few safe and effective drug treatments are available. Combination treatment with sustained-release naltrexone and bupropion was developed to produce complementary actions in CNS pathways regulating bodyweight. The Contrave Obesity Research I (COR-I) study assessed the effect of such treatment on bodyweight in overweight and obese participants.
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Obesity increases the production of proinflammatory mediators from adipose tissue T cells and compromises TCR repertoire diversity: implications for systemic inflammation and insulin resistance.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Emerging evidence suggests that increases in activated T cell populations in adipose tissue may contribute toward obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. The present study investigates three unanswered questions: 1) Do adipose-resident T cells (ARTs) from lean and obese mice have altered cytokine production in response to TCR ligation?; 2) Do the extralymphoid ARTs possess a unique TCR repertoire compared with lymphoid-resident T cells and whether obesity alters the TCR diversity in specific adipose depots?; and 3) Does short-term elimination of T cells in epididymal fat pad without disturbing the systemic T cell homeostasis regulate inflammation and insulin-action during obesity? We found that obesity reduced the frequency of naive ART cells in s.c. fat and increased the effector-memory populations in visceral fat. The ARTs from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice had a higher frequency of IFN-gamma(+), granzyme B(+) cells, and upon TCR ligation, the ARTs from DIO mice produced increased levels of proinflammatory mediators. Importantly, compared with splenic T cells, ARTs exhibited markedly restricted TCR diversity, which was further compromised by obesity. Acute depletion of T cells from epididymal fat pads improved insulin action in young DIO mice but did not reverse obesity-associated feed forward cascade of chronic systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in middle-aged DIO mice. Collectively, these data establish that ARTs have a restricted TCR-Vbeta repertoire, and T cells contribute toward the complex proinflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue in obesity. Development of future long-term T cell depletion protocols specific to visceral fat may represent an additional strategy to manage obesity-associated comorbidities.
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Prehypertension in disease-free adults: a marker for an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Understandably, cardiometabolic risk assessment is an integral component of every adult health evaluation. Customary assessment measures are, however, inadequate: as two-thirds of sudden cardiac deaths occur in clinically healthy individuals. Novel indicators favoring early recognition of adverse cardiometabolic risk in disease-free adults are clearly needed. Clinically healthy disease-free adults with prehypertension (PreHTN: BP120-139/80-89 mm Hg) have an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile. A statistical analysis of disease-free adult NHANES participants was conducted from 1999 to 2006. Overall prevalence of PreHTN in disease-free adults was 36.3%. Prevalence was higher in men (P<0.001) increasing with age up to 70 years (P<0.001). Prevalence correlated strongly with indicators of adverse cardiometabolic risk profile: it was higher with increasing body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) (P<0.001 for both). Means were significantly higher for BMI, WC, glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, homeostasis model assessment, pulse pressure, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol and triglycerides in subjects with PreHTN (vs. desirable BP: P<0.05 for all). Prevalence of two or more unfavorable risk factors (other than high BP) was 30% higher in disease-free adults with PreHTN vs. desirable BP (prevalence ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.39). Detection of PreHTN (a precursor for subsequent HTN), during annual health maintenance in disease-free adults, (especially with one or more of the recognized CVD risk correlates), could become an early marker of adverse cardiometabolic risk profile. Clinical care designed to prevent progression from PreHTN to HTN (JNC 7 recommendation) may attenuate risk.
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Combination drugs for treating obesity.
Curr. Diab. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Although obesity is a chronic disease like hypertension and diabetes, obesity is not treated with drug combinations as are other chronic diseases. This is because orlistat and sibutramine, the two drugs approved for long-term treatment of obesity, do not result in additive weight loss when combined. This article discusses the history of combination drug therapy for treating obesity, the lessons learned from that experience, and describes the drug combinations now in development. One combination of two standardized dietary herbal supplements that result in clinically significant weight loss is also described. Obesity is poised to enter the era of combination drug therapy, as is now the routine in the treatment of other chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. The advent of combination drug therapy for obesity treatment offers hope for increasing the efficacy of obesity pharmacotherapy.
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Resistant starch, fermented resistant starch, and short-chain fatty acids reduce intestinal fat deposition in Caenorhabditis elegans.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Obesity is a growing global public health dilemma. The objective of this project is to develop and validate a screening mechanism for bioactive compounds that may reduce body fat and promote health. Resistant starch (RS) reduces body fat in rodents. Amylose starch that has a high content of RS, endogenous compounds obtained from the ceca of amylose starch fed mice (fermented RS), and individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were tested. The Caenorhabditis elegans model and Nile red staining were selected to determine the intestinal fat deposition response to bioactive components. The fluorescence intensity of Nile red was reduced to 76.5% (amylose starch), 78.8% (fermented RS), 63.6% (butyrate), or 28-80% (SCFAs) of controls, respectively (P < 0.001). The reduced intestinal fat deposition suggests reduced food intake or increased energy expenditure. C. elegans is a practical animal model to screen for bioactive compounds that may prevent or treat obesity.
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Effect of the look AHEAD study intervention on medication use and related cost to treat cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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To examine the effect of a lifestyle intervention to produce weight loss and increased physical fitness on use and cost of medications to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes.
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Oral dose-ranging developmental toxicity study of an herbal supplement (NT) and gallic acid in rats.
Adv Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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To evaluate the combination of rhubarb, astragalus, red sage, ginger, and turmeric (mixture referred to as "NT") together with gallic acid for evidence of reproductive toxicity in rats.
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Increased food intake and energy expenditure following administration of olanzapine to healthy men.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Atypical antipsychotic medications like olanzapine (OLZ) induce weight gain and increase the risk of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to assess potential mechanisms of OLZ-induced weight gain and accompanying metabolic effects. Healthy, lean, male volunteers received OLZ and placebo (PBO) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. In periods 1 and 2, subjects received OLZ (5 mg for 3 days then OLZ 10 mg for 12 days) or matching PBO separated by a minimum 12-day washout. Twenty-four hour food intake (FI), resting energy expenditure (REE), activity level, metabolic markers, and insulin sensitivity (IS) were assessed. In total, 30 subjects were enrolled and 21 completed both periods. Mean age and BMI were 27 years (range: 18-49 years) and 22.6 +/- 2.2 kg/m(2), respectively. Relative to PBO, OLZ resulted in a 2.62 vs. 0.08 kg increase in body weight (P < 0.001) and 18% (P = 0.052 or 345 kcal) increase in FI. Excluding one subject with nausea and dizziness on the day of OLZ FI measurement, the increase in FI was 547 kcal, (P < 0.05). OLZ increased REE relative to PBO (113 kcal/day, P = 0.003). Significant increases in triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-I), leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were observed. No significant differences in activity level or IS were observed. This study provides evidence that OLZ pharmacology drives the early increase in weight through increased FI, without evidence of decreased energy expenditure (EE), activity level, or short-term perturbations in IS.
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Effect of pioglitazone on energy intake and ghrelin in diabetic patients.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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To measure ghrelin and energy intake in the laboratory after pioglitazone treatment.
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Leptin replacement prevents weight loss-induced metabolic adaptation in congenital leptin-deficient patients.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Context: Leptin regulates energy homeostasis by suppressing food intake; however, its role in energy expenditure and fat oxidation remains uncertain in humans. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess 24-h energy metabolism before and after weight loss induced by leptin treatment in congenital leptin-deficient subjects or low-calorie diet in controls. Design and Patients: We measured 24-h energy expenditure, 24-h fat oxidation, and body fat in three null homozygous leptin-deficient obese adults before and after weight loss induced by a 19-wk leptin replacement period (0.02-0.04 mg/kg/d). The same measures were performed in three obese controls pair-matched for sex, age, and weight loss induced by a 10- to 21-wk low-calorie diet. Measurements were preceded for 1 wk of weight stabilization. Energy expenditure was adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, sex, and age based on a reference population (n = 842; R(2) = 0.85; P < 0.0001). Similarly, fat oxidation was adjusted for fat-free mass, percentage body fat, energy balance, and diet composition during the 24-h respiratory chamber stay (R(2) = 0.38; P < 0.0001). Results: Before weight loss, congenital leptin-deficient and control subjects had similar energy expenditure. However, after weight loss ( approximately 15 kg), controls had energy expenditures lower than expected for their new weight and body composition (-265 +/- 76 kcal/d; P = 0.04), whereas leptin-treated subjects had values not different from the reference population (-128 +/- 119 kcal/d; P = 0.67). Before weight loss, fat oxidation was similar between groups. However, after weight loss, leptin-treated subjects had higher fat oxidation than controls (P = 0.005) and higher than the reference population (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: In congenital leptin-deficient subjects, leptin replacement prevented the decrease in energy expenditure and fat oxidation often observed after weight loss.
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Fenugreek bread: a treatment for diabetes mellitus.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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Use of fenugreek, a food with demonstrated efficacy in lowering blood sugar, is limited by its bitter taste and strong flavor. A bread incorporating fenugreek using a proprietary process was tested for its taste acceptability and its effect on carbohydrate metabolism. We developed a fenugreek bread formula that was produced in a commercial bakery by incorporating fenugreek flour into a standard wheat bread formula. Whole wheat bread was prepared by the same formula in the same bakery using wheat flour. Eight diet-controlled diabetic subjects were served two slices (56 g) and 5% fenugreek. Blood glucose and insulin were tested periodically over a 4-hour period after consumption. The tests were run on two occasions 1 week apart, once with the fenugreek bread and once with regular bread. The study was double-blind, and the order was randomized and balanced. Fenugreek and whole wheat bread samples were evaluated for sensory attributes and nutrient composition. There was no statistically significant difference in proximate composition, color, firmness, texture, and flavor intensity between the fenugreek and wheat bread (P > .05). The area under the curve for glucose and insulin was lower in the fenugreek condition, but only reached significance with insulin (P < .05). The fenugreek-containing bread was indistinguishable from the whole wheat bread control. Normally, fenugreek flour impacts bread quality negatively. The bread maintained fenugreeks functional property of reducing insulin resistance. Acceptable baked products can be prepared with added fenugreek, which will reduce insulin resistance and treat type 2 diabetes.
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Comparison of combined bupropion and naltrexone therapy for obesity with monotherapy and placebo.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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The efficacy of current centrally acting obesity pharmacotherapies is limited by compensatory mechanisms that mitigate weight loss.
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Racial differences in abdominal depot-specific adiposity in white and African American adults.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
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There is increasing interest in understanding racial differences in adiposity in specific body depots as a way to explain differential health risks associated with obesity.
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Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Calorie restriction (CR) delays the development of age-associated disease and increases lifespan in rodents, but the effects in humans remain uncertain.
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Modification of vascular function after handgrip exercise training in 73- to 90-yr-old men.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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To examine the influence of a unilateral exercise training protocol on brachial artery reactivity (BAR) in 12 men (aged 81 +/- 5 yr).
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Pioglitazone, but not metformin, reduces liver fat in Type-2 diabetes mellitus independent of weight changes.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2009
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Pioglitazone (Pio) treatment induces weight gain in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which could worsen hepatic lipid accumulation, and alter adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).
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A pilot study to evaluate the effect of splanchnic nerve stimulation on body composition and food intake in rats.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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Systemic sympathetic stimulation with caffeine and ephedrine increased metabolic rate, reduced food intake, and improved body composition but had systemic adverse events. We hypothesize that selective sympathetic stimulation of the upper gastrointestinal tract will preserve the advantages of systemic sympathetic stimulation without its adverse events. This study evaluated the effect of splanchnic nerve stimulation on metabolic rate, food intake, and body composition.
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Prevalence of risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2006.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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To investigate the prevalence of distinct combinations of components of the metabolic syndrome among adolescents.
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How physician obesity specialists use drugs to treat obesity.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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Specialist physicians may have prescribing habits that are different from nonspecialist physicians. Little is known about the prescribing habits of physicians specializing in the treatment of obesity. An anonymous survey was given to the physician members of the American Society of Bariatric Physicians (ASBP). There was a 35% response rate (266 physicians) to the questionnaire that was represented nationally. Almost all prescribed medications and all of them recommended phentermine. The average maximal dose of phentermine was above that approved in the package insert, and these physicians disagreed with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Obesity Treatment Guidelines. Phendimetrazine, metformin, and phentermine plus L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) with carbidopa were all used more frequently than either orlistat or sibutramine. The combination of sibutramine and orlistat as well as 5-HTP/carbidopa were prescribed by 14 and 20%, respectively. As 5-HTP-carbidopa was a combination not previously reported for the treatment of obesity, a retrospective chart review was performed in a single obesity practice, which may not be representative. Twenty-two subjects had a 16% weight loss with phentermine over 6 months and an additional 1% weight loss with the addition of 5-HTP/carbidopa for an additional 6 months. One subject who started on 5-HTP/carbidopa alone lost 24.4% of initial body weight over 6 months. This questionnaire revealed that 20% of the obesity specialists responding to the survey used phentermine plus of 5-HTP/carbidopa, an unreported combination. A controlled, randomized, clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this combination in treating obesity should be considered.
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Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year.
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Stimulation of sympathetic innervation in the upper gastrointestinal tract as a treatment for obesity.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Sympathetic activity and obesity have a reciprocal relationship. Firstly, hypothalamic obesity is associated with decreased sympathetic activity. Caffeine and ephedrine increase sympathetic activity and induce weight loss, of which 25% is due to increased metabolic rate and 75% is due to a reciprocally decreased food intake. Secondly, hormones and drugs that affect body weight have an inverse relationship between food intake and metabolic rate. Neuropeptide Y decreases sympathetic activity and increases food intake and body weight. Thirdly, a gastric pacemaker Transcend and vagotomy increase the ratio of sympathetic to parasympathetic activation, decrease food intake, and block gut satiety hormones. Weight loss with the pacemaker or vagotomy is variable. Significant weight reduction is seen only in a small group of those treated. This suggests that activation of the sympathetic arm of the autonomic nervous system may be most important for weight loss. Systemic sympathetic activation causes weight loss in obese patients, but side effects limited its use. We hypothesize that selective local electrical sympathetic stimulation of the upper gastrointestinal tract may induce weight loss and offer a safer, yet effective, obesity treatment. Celiac ganglia delivers sympathetic innervation to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Voltage regulated electrical simulation of the rat celiac ganglia increased metabolic rate in a dose-dependent manner. Stimulation of 6, 3, or 1.5 V increased metabolic rate 15.6%, 6.2%, and 5%, respectively in a single rat. These responses support our hypothesis that selective sympathetic stimulation of the upper GI tract may treat obesity while avoiding side effects of systemic sympathetic activation.
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Lower total adipocyte number but no evidence for small adipocyte depletion in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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We hypothesized that, compared with obese subjects, patients with type 2 diabetes have a lower total adipocyte number with fewer small adipocytes.
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Association between energy intake and viewing television, distractibility, and memory for advertisements.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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The effect of television viewing (TVV) with and without advertisements (ads) on energy intake is unclear.
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Obesity and albuminuria among adults with type 2 diabetes: the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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To determine the association between obesity measures and albuminuria in adults with type 2 diabetes.
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Racial differences in weight loss, payment method, and complications following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy.
Adv Ther
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Obesity affects approximately one-third of the US adult population. Although more black adults are considered to be obese compared to white adults, black adults are less likely to undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss. Black adults typically lose less weight and are more prone to adverse events following bariatric surgery than white adults. The objectives of this study were to compare weight loss, payment methods, and early postoperative complications between black and white adults.
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Efficacy of Olibra: a 12-week randomized controlled trial and a review of earlier studies.
J Diabetes Sci Technol
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Intervention strategies that harness the bodys appetite and satiety regulating signals provide a means of countering excessive energy intake.
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Reducing the glycemic index or carbohydrate content of mixed meals reduces postprandial glycemia and insulinemia over the entire day but does not affect satiety.
Diabetes Care
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We evaluated the effects of mixed meals differing in glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content on postprandial serum glucose and insulin response, hunger, and satiety over the course of a 12-h day.
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Single-dose pharmacokinetics of different oral sodium nitrite formulations in diabetes patients.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
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Diabetic foot ulcers, although associated with macrovascular disease and neuropathy, have a microvascular disease causing ischemia not amenable to surgical intervention. Nitrite selectively releases nitric oxide in ischemic tissues, and diabetes subjects have low nitrite levels that do not increase with exercise. This study explores the safety and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of sodium nitrite in subjects with diabetic foot ulcers.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.