JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Subcellular distribution of trace elements in wound granulation tissue of severe burn patients by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A method for simultaneous and quantitative determination of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd elements in the subcellular fractions of nuclei, mitochondria, lysosome, microsome and cytosol of wound granulation tissue of severe burn patients by octopole reaction system (ORS) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. Using differential centrifugation, the sample is separated into different subcellular fractions. The subcellular fraction was digested by HNO3 + H2O2 with microwave digestion followed by dilution with ultrapure water then the above 8 trace elements in the solution were analyzed directly by ICP-MS. In the presented method, using ORS eliminates the polyatomic interferences caused by the matrixes. Rh as internal standard element was used to compensate matrix effect and signal drift. The detection limits of the 8 elements are in the range of 0.72-33.05 ng x L(-1), and the RSD is less than 8.4%. The results showed that the levels of some elements in subcellular fractions of wound granulation tissues were significantly different from those of normal skin tissues. ORS-ICP-MS is a useful tool for simultaneous determination of multi-elements in wound granulation tissue of severe burn patients, and could be widely used in other biological samples analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Trends in Unintentional Fall Related Traumatic Brain Injury Death Rates in Older Adults in the United States, 1980-2010: A Joinpoint Analysis.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Fall-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) death rate is high in older adults in the United States, but little is known regarding trends of these death rates. We sought to examine fall-related TBI death rates by age and sex in older adults from 1980 through 2010 in the United States. We used multiple-cause mortality data from 1980 through 2010 (31 years of data) to identify fall-related TBI deaths. Using a joinpoint regression program, we determined the joinpoints (years at which trends change significantly) and annual percentage changes (APCs) in mortality trends. The fall-related TBI death rates (deaths per 100,000 population) in older adults aged 65-74, 75-84, and 85 years and above were 2.7, 9.2 and 21.5 for women; and 8.5, 18.2 and 40.8 for men, respectively, in 1980. The rate was about the same in 1992 yet increased markedly to 5.9, 23.4 and 68.9 for women; and 11.6, 41.2 and 112.4 for men, respectively, in 2010. For men all aged 65 years old and above, we found the first joinpoint in 1992, when the APC for 1980 through 1992, -0.8%, changed to 6.2% for 1992 to 2005. The second joinpoint occurred in 2005, when the APC decreased to 3.7% for 2005 to 2010. For all women aged 65 years old and above, the first joinpoint was in 1993 when the APC for 1980 through 1993, -0.2%, changed to 7.6% from 1993 to 2005. The second joinpoint occurred in 2005 when the APC decreased to 3.8% for 2005 to 2010. This descriptive epidemiological study suggests increasing fall-related TBI death rates from 1992 to 2005 and then a slowdown of increasing trends between 2005 and 2010. Continued monitoring of fall-related TBI death rate trends is needed to determine the burden of this public health problem among older adults in the United States.
Related JoVE Video
[Simulation of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles retrieval from CrIS observations].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to get higher vertical resolution atmosphere profile information, the present paper retrieves atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the newly-launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) with a nonlinear Newton iteration method by using the profiles retrieved via statical regression method as the first guess, and the issue of channel selection is discussed. The retrieved profiles are compared with radiosonde observations, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) analyses show that the physical retrievals of temperature and moisture are in good agreement with the distributions from GDAS analysis fields and radiosonde observations, and have a notable improvements of the atmospheric profile retrieval accuracy as compared with the eigenvector regression algorithm. For pressures between 200 and 700 hPa the accuracy is of the order of 1 K for the temperature profile, and 20% for the relative humidity profile is consistent with the jacobian peaks of the selected channels.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of FGF-21 on learning and memory ability and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue of D-galactose-induced aging mice].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effects of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) on learning and memory abilities and antioxidant capacity of D-galactose-induced aging mice. Kunming mice (37.1 +/- 0.62) g were randomly divided into normal control group, model group and FGF-21 high, medium and low dose groups (n = 8). Each group was injected in cervical part subcutaneously with D-galactose 180 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) once a day for 8 weeks. At the same time, FGF-21-treated mice were administered with FGF-21 by giving subcutaneous injection in cervical part at the daily doses of 5, 2 and 1 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). The normal control group was given with normal saline by subcutaneous injection in cervical part. At seventh week of the experiment, the learning and memory abilities of mice were determined by water maze and jumping stand tests. At the end of the experiment, the mice were sacrificed and the cells damage of hippocampus was observed by HE staining in each group. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the brain of mice were determined. The results showed that different doses of FGF-21 could reduce the time reaching the end (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and the number of touching blind side (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the water maze comparing with the model group. It could also prolong the latency time (P < 0.05) and decrease the number of errors (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the step down test. The result of HE staining showed that FGF-21 could significantly reduce brain cell damage in the hippocampus. The ROS and MDA levels of three different doses FGF-21 treatment group reduced significantly than that of the model group [(5.58 +/- 1.07), (7.78 +/- 1.92), (9.03 +/- 1.77) vs (12.75 +/- 2.02) pmol (DCF) x min(-1) x mg(-1), P < 0.01 or P < 0.05], [(2.92 +/- 0.71), (4.21 +/- 0.81), (4.41 +/- 0.97) vs (5.62 +/- 0.63) nmol x mg(-1) (protein), P < 0.01]. Comparing with the model group, the activities of SOD, GPx, CAT and T-AOC of the three different doses FGF-21 treatment groups were also improved in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that FGF-21 can ameliorate learning and memory abilities of D-galactose induced aging mice, improve the antioxidant abilities in brain tissue and delay brain aging. This finding provides a theoretical support for clinical application of FGF-21 as a novel therapeutics for preventing aging.
Related JoVE Video
[The synergism and mechanism of action of rClone30-hDR5 in combination with TRAIL on HCC].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the cell-killing effect and its possible mechanism of rClone30-hDR5 in combination with TRAIL on human hepatic carcinoma (HCC) cell line, first of all, recombinant plasmid pee12.4-hDR5 was introduced into HepG2 cells by liposome transfection. After five rounds of screening by flow cytometry, HepG2 cells expressing high levels of DR5 on cell surface were isolated. The cytotoxicity of TRAIL to selected cells was higher than that of TRAIL to HepG2 cells by MTT method (P < 0.01). The result suggested that the cloned hDR5 gene had biological activity. MTT assay showed that, rClone30- hDR5 in combination with TRAIL more efficiently inhibited the tumor growth of HepG2 cells compared to rClone30-hDR5 or TRAIL in vitro. The results of Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and Quantitative Real-time PCR indicated that rClone30-hDR5 in combination with TRAIL significantly increased the mRNA levels of caspase 3 and caspase 8, and induced the apoptosis of tumor cells. HepG2 cells were infected with rClone30-hDR5 or rClone30 at MOI of 1. The expression of hDR5 on tumor surface increased significantly by rClone30-hDR5 compared to that by rClone30, which contributed to the sensitivity to TRAIL. In conclusion, rClone30-hDR5 in combination with TRAIL has potential application value in cancer treatment.
Related JoVE Video
[Determination of Si and P in MnZn ferrites by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of Si and P in MnZn ferrites. The sample was digested by HNO3 + HCl with microwave digestion followed by dilution with ultrapure water then the above two elements in the solution were analyzed directly by ICP-MS. The analytical elements were by introducing the helium gas into the octopole reaction system (ORS) to eliminate the polyatomic interferences caused by the high salty matrixes. The matrix effects and the instrument drift could be commendably calibrated with Y as internal standard element. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. The NIST SRM 362 and NIST SRM 364 were used as standard reference materials. The results showed a good agreement between the certified values and the experimental results for three analytes. The detection limits for Si and P is 0.91 and 0.27 microg x L(-1).
Related JoVE Video
[A quickly atmospheric correction method for HJ-1 CCD with deep blue algorithm].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present, for the characteristic of HJ-1 CCD camera, after receiving aerosol optical depth (AOD) from deep blue algorithm which was developed by Hsu et al. assisted by MODerate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance database, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) correction with Kernel-Driven Model, and the calculation of viewing geometry with auxiliary data, a new atmospheric correction method of HJ-1 CCD was developed which can be used over vegetation, soil and so on. And, when the CCD data is processed to correct atmospheric influence, with look up table (LUT) and bilinear interpolation, atmospheric correction of HJ-1 CCD is completed quickly by grid calculation of atmospheric parameters and matrix operations of interface define language (IDL). The experiment over China North Plain on July 3rd, 2012 shows that by our method, the atmospheric influence was corrected well and quickly (one CCD image of 1 GB can be corrected in eight minutes), and the reflectance after correction over vegetation and soil was close to the spectrum of vegetation and soil. The comparison with MODIS reflectance product shows that for the advantage of high resolution, the corrected reflectance image of HJ-1 is finer than that of MODIS, and the correlation coefficient of the reflectance over typical surface is greater than 0.9. Error analysis shows that the recognition error of aerosol type leads to 0. 05 absolute error of surface reflectance in near infrared band, which is larger than that in visual bands, and the 0. 02 error of reflectance database leads to 0.01 absolute error of surface reflectance of atmospheric correction in green and red bands.
Related JoVE Video
Bulk entanglement spectrum reveals quantum criticality within a topological state.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A quantum phase transition is usually achieved by tuning physical parameters in a Hamiltonian at zero temperature. Here, we show that the ground state of a topological phase itself encodes critical properties of its transition to a trivial phase. To extract this information, we introduce an extensive partition of the system into two subsystems both of which extend throughout the bulk in all directions. The resulting bulk entanglement spectrum has a low-lying part that resembles the excitation spectrum of a bulk Hamiltonian, which allows us to probe a topological phase transition from a single wave function by tuning either the geometry of the partition or the entanglement temperature. As an example, this remarkable correspondence between the topological phase transition and the entanglement criticality is rigorously established for integer quantum Hall states.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates, carrying multiple genes coding for this antibiotic resistance.
Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Carbapenemase genes are one of the most frequent mechanisms reported in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa; however, description of P. aeruginosa co-harbouring two or more carbapenemases is unusual.
Related JoVE Video
Relationships Between CETP Genetic Polymorphisms and Alzheimer's Disease Risk: A Meta-Analysis.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CETP gene and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from inception through October 1, 2013, without language restrictions. Nine case-control studies with a total of 2172 AD patients and 8017 healthy controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Two common polymorphisms (rs708272 T>C and rs5882?A>G) in the CETP gene were assessed. Our meta-analysis results showed that CETP rs5882?A>G polymorphism might increase the risk of AD (A allele vs. G allele: odds ratio [OR]=1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.02-1.21, p=0.014; AA+AG vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95% CI=1.07-1.52, p=0.006; AA vs. GG: OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.10-1.70, p=0.003; AA vs. AG: OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.03-1.50, p=0.020; respectively). However, we found no correlations of CETP rs708272 T>C polymorphism with AD risk (all p>0.05). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested positive associations between CETP rs5882?A>G polymorphism and an increased risk of AD among Caucasians (A allele vs. G allele: OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.01-1.21, p=0.014; AA+AG vs. GG: OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.06-1.69, p=0.015; AA vs. GG: OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.07-1.70, p=0.011; respectively), but not among Asians (all p>0.05). No associations were found between CETP rs708272 T>C polymorphism and AD risk among both Asians and Caucasians (all p>0.05). Our findings provide empirical evidence that CETP rs5882?A>G polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to AD, especially among Caucasians. However, CETP rs708272 T>C polymorphism does not seem to be an important determinant in the pathogenesis of AD.
Related JoVE Video
Removing residual DNA from Vero-cell culture-derived human rabies vaccine by using nuclease.
Biologicals
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clearance of host cell DNA is a critical indicator for Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the clearance of DNA in Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine by purification process utilizing ultrafiltration, nuclease digestion, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the bioprocess of using nuclease decreased residual DNA. Dot-blot hybridization analysis showed that the residual host cell DNA was <100 pg/ml in the final product. The residual nuclease in rabies vaccine was less than 0.1 ng/ml protein. The residual nuclease could not paly the biologically active role of digestion of DNA. Experiments of stability showed that the freeze-drying rabies virus vaccine was stable and titers were >5.0 IU/ml. Immunogenicity test and protection experiments indicated mice were greatly induced generation of neutralizing antibodies and invoked protective effects immunized with intraperitoneal injections of the rabies vaccine. These results demonstrated that the residual DNA was removed from virus particles and nuclease was removed by gel filtration chromatography. The date indicated that technology was an efficient method to produce rabies vaccine for human use by using nuclease.
Related JoVE Video
Pre-existing hyperlipidaemia increased the risk of new-onset anxiety disorders after traumatic brain injury: a 14-year population-based study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anxiety disorders (ADs) are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the risk factors of new-onset ADs remain unclear. This study was aimed at evaluating the incidence and risk factors for new-onset ADs, including pre-existing hyperlipidaemia and three major comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease), in patients with TBI.
Related JoVE Video
A series of 3D metal organic frameworks based on [24-MC-6] metallacrown clusters: structure, magnetic and luminescence properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four isostructural metal organic frameworks (MOFs), namely [Co6(HipO)6]·6H2O (1), [Mn6(HipO)6]·6H2O (2), [Cd6(HipO)6]·6H2O (3) and [Zn6(HipO)6]·7H2O (4) (H3ipO = 2-hydroxyisophthalic acid), were synthesized and structurally characterized. They have a 3D (4,6)-connected framework based on [24-MC-6] metallacrown clusters ([24-MC-6]-based MOFs). The arrangements of the 24-MC-6 metallacrown SBUs show a regular change indicated by the orientation of their symmetry axes, resulting in a special dense packing mode different from other [24-MC-6]-based MOFs. The analysis of SQUID measurements reveal that compound 1 displays the dominant antiferromagnetic exchanges in 300-10 K between the adjacent Co(II) ions and a ferromagnetic-like behavior at lower temperatures, whereas compound 2 shows an antiferromagnetic interaction between the adjacent Mn(II) ions. Compound 1 exhibits a magnetocaloric effect (MCE) with the resulting entropy change (-?S(m)) of 15.20 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ?H = 50 kG at 6 K, which is the highest value among the cobalt-based MOFs with MCE reported so far. The luminescence properties of compounds 3 and 4 were studied, both of them exhibit photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature which can be ascribed to intraligand ???* transitions.
Related JoVE Video
Localizing hand motor area using resting-state fMRI: validated with direct cortical stimulation.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) is a promising tool in clinical application, especially in presurgical mapping for neurosurgery. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of R-fMRI in the localization of hand motor area in patients with brain tumors validated by direct cortical stimulation (DCS). We also compared this technique to task-based blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI (T-fMRI).
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-218 inhibits cell invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer via regulating ROBO1.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
miRNA-218 is a highlighted tumor suppressor and its underlying role in tumor progression is still unknown. Here, we restored the expression of miRNA-218 in pancreatic cancer to clarify the function and potent downstream pathway of miRNA-218. The expressions of both miRNA-218 and its potent target gene ROBO1 were revealed by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Transfection of miRNA-218 precursor mimics and luciferase assay were performed to elucidate the regulation mechanism between miRNA-218 and ROBO1. Cells, stably expressing miRNA-218 followed by forced expression of mutant ROBO1, were established through co-transfections of both lentivirus vector and plasmid vector. The cell migration and invasion abilities were evaluated by migration assay and invasion assay respectively. An increased expression of ROBO1 was revealed in cell BxPC-3-LN compared with cell BxPC-3. Elevated expression of miRNA-218 would suppress the expression of ROBO1 via complementary binding to a specific region within 3'UTR of ROBO1 mRNA (sites 971-978) in pancreatic cancer cells. Stably restoring the expression of miRNA-218 in pancreatic cancer significantly downregulated the expression of ROBO1 and effectively inhibited cell migration and invasion. Forced expression of mutant ROBO1 could reverse the repression effects of miRNA-218 on cell migration and invasion. Consequently, miRNA-218 acted as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer by inhibiting cell invasion and migration. ROBO1 was a functional target of miRNA-218's downstream pathway involving in cell invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Glioma-associated antigen HEATR1 induces functional cytotoxic T lymphocytes in patients with glioma.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A2B5+ glioblastoma (GBM) cells have glioma stem-like cell (GSC) properties that are crucial to chemotherapy resistance and GBM relapse. T-cell-based antigens derived from A2B5+ GBM cells provide important information for immunotherapy. Here, we show that HEAT repeat containing 1 (HEATR1) expression in GBM tissues was significantly higher than that in control brain tissues. Furthermore, HEATR1 expression in A2B5+ U87 cells was higher than that in A2B5-U87 cells (P = 0.016). Six peptides of HEATR1 presented by HLA-A?02 were selected for testing of their ability to induce T-cell responses in patients with GBM. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors (n = 6) and patients with glioma (n = 33) were stimulated with the peptide mixture, eight patients with malignant gliomas had positive reactivity with a significantly increased number of responding T-cells. The peptides HEATR(1682-690), HEATR(11126-1134), and HEATR(1757-765) had high affinity for binding to HLA-A?02:01 and a strong capacity to induce CTL response. CTLs against HEATR1 peptides were capable of recognizing and lysing GBM cells and GSCs. These data are the first to demonstrate that HEATR1 could induce specific CTL responses targeting both GBM cells and GSCs, implicating that HEATR1 peptide-based immunotherapy could be a novel promising strategy for treating patients with GBM.
Related JoVE Video
Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) delivered by rNDV. We demonstrated that rNDV expressing TRAIL (rNDV-TRAIL) or both human IL-2 and TRAIL (rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL) significantly enhanced inherent anti-neoplastic of rNDV by inducing apoptosis. And we showed that apoptosis-related genes mRNA expression was increased after treated with rNDV-TRAIL or rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL compared with rNDV and rNDV-IL-2. We also demonstrated that both rNDV-IL-2 and rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL induced proliferation of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) in treated mice and elicited expression of TNF-? and IFN-? antitumor cytokines. These mice treated with oncolytic agents exhibited significant reduction in tumor development compared with mice treated with the parental virus. In addition, experiments in both hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma-bearing mice demonstrated that the genetically engineered rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL exhibited prolonged animals' survival compared with rNDV, rNDV-IL-2, and rNDV-TRAIL. In conclusion, the immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy properties of NDV can be enhanced by the introduction of IL-2 and TRAIL genes, whose products initiated a broad cascade of immunological affects and induced tumor cells apoptosis in the microenvironment of the immune system.
Related JoVE Video
[Antitumor efficacy of the recombinant Newcastle disease virus rNDV-IL15 on melanoma models].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to enhance the antitumor efficacy of recombinant Newcastle disease virus, rNDV-IL15 was rescued in this study. Recombinant plasmid prNDV-IL15 was constructed, and BHK21 cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmid. Finally, the recombinant Newcastle disease virus rNDV-IL15 was successfully rescued. The growth curves of these two recombinant viruses were determined. Murine melanoma B16F10 cells were infected with rNDV-IL15 at MOI of 0.1, and the expression level of IL15 in the supernatant was detected by ELISA. The antitumor efficacy of rNDV-IL15 and rNDV was compared in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that prNDV-IL15 was constructed and recombinant virus rNDV-IL15 was successfully rescued. The growth curve of rNDV-IL15 showed that the growth of rNDV-IL15 had not been changed after insertion of IL15 gene. Results showed that there was high level of IL15 expression in the supernatant of rNDV-IL5-infected B16F10 cells (1 044.3 +/- 27.7 ng x mL(-1)). rNDV-IL15 and rNDV significantly inhibited the growth of B16F10 cells in vitro in a time-dependent manner. However, there was no significant difference between them. In animal experiments, rNDV-IL15 efficiently suppressed tumor growth in vivo when compared with rNDV, and the difference was statistically significant. The results suggested that rNDV-IL15 is a more effective antitumor agent.
Related JoVE Video
Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophs and anammox bacteria.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes may play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. In this study, a coculture of denitrifying methanotrophs (DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria) and anammox bacteria, initially sourced from the environment, was enriched with a supply of methane, nitrate, and ammonium. After a 4.5-month enrichment, simultaneous oxidation of methane and ammonium and reduction of nitrate were observed. The highest rate of nitrate reduction in the suspended DAMO culture was 4.84 mmol/L/day, and simultaneously, the highest ammonium removal rate was 4.07 mmol/L/day. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the coexistence of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria. The development of anammox bacteria might reduce the enrichment time of DAMO microorganisms and promote the activity of DAMO archaea. The activity of the reactor fluctuated during the long-term operation, which might be caused by the formation of microbial clusters whereby DAMO archaea grew in aggregates that were surrounded by anammox and DAMO bacteria. This study is the first to demonstrate that it is feasible to establish a coculture of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria from environmental inocula.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of catechol as a new marker for detecting propolis adulteration.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles of poplar extracts and propolis were compared, and a new marker compound, catechol, was isolated and identified from the extracts of poplar buds. The polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, responsible for catalyzing oxidation of catechol was detected in poplar buds and propolis. The results indicate catechol can be used as a marker to detect propolis adulterated with poplar extract.
Related JoVE Video
Early responses of silkworm midgut to microsporidium infection - A Digital Gene Expression analysis.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Host-pathogen interactions are complex processes, which have been studied extensively in recent years. In insects, the midgut is a vital organ of digestion and nutrient absorption, and also serves as the first physiological and immune barrier against invading pathogenic microorganisms. Our focus is on Nosema bombycis, which is a pathogen of silkworm pebrine and causes great economic losses to the silk industry. A complete understanding of the host response to infection by N. bombycis and the interaction between them is necessary to prevent this disease. Silkworm midgut infected with N. bombycis is a good model to investigate the early host responses to microsporidia infection and the interaction between the silkworm and the microsporidium. Using Digital Gene Expression analysis, we investigated the midgut transcriptome profile of P50 silkworm larvae orally inoculated with N. bombycis. At 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-infection (hpi), 247, 95, 168, 450, 89, 80, and 773 DEGs were identified, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis showed the influence of N. bombycis infection on many biological processes including folate biosynthesis, spliceosome, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, protein export, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, biosynthesis of amino acids, ribosome, and RNA degradation. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes involved in the immune response were identified. Overall, the results of this study provide an understanding of the strategy used by silkworm as a defense against the invasion by N. bombycis. Similar interactions between hosts and pathogens infection may exist in other species.
Related JoVE Video
Natural progression of childhood asthma symptoms and strong influence of sex and puberty.
Ann Am Thorac Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asthma prevalence, onset, remission and relapse, and healthcare use have been intensively studied. However, asthma symptom progression through childhood and adolescence has not been well studied, in part due to the challenges in obtaining consistent and robust long-term follow-up data on a large series of subjects with asthma.
Related JoVE Video
The histone lysine demethylase Kdm6b is required for activity-dependent preconditioning of hippocampal neuronal survival.
Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enzymes that regulate histone lysine methylation play important roles in neuronal differentiation, but little is known about their contributions to activity-regulated gene transcription in differentiated neurons. We characterized activity-regulated expression of lysine demethylases and lysine methyltransferases in the hippocampus of adult male mice following pilocarpine-induced seizure. Pilocarpine drove a 20-fold increase in mRNA encoding the histone H3 lysine 27-specific demethylase Kdm6b selectively in granule neurons of the dentate gyrus, and this induction was recapitulated in cultured hippocampal neurons by bicuculline and 4-aminopyridine (Bic + 4AP) stimulation of synaptic activity. Because activity-regulated gene expression is highly correlated with neuronal survival, we tested the requirement for Kdm6b expression in Bic + 4AP induced preconditioning of neuronal survival. Prior exposure to Bic + 4AP promoted neuronal survival in control neurons upon growth factor withdrawal; however, this effect was ablated when we knocked down Kdm6b expression. Loss of Kdm6b did not disrupt activity-induced expression of most genes, including that of a gene set previously established to promote neuronal survival in this assay. However, using bioinformatic analysis of RNA sequencing data, we discovered that Kdm6b knockdown neurons showed impaired inducibility of a discrete set of genes annotated for their function in inflammation. These data reveal a novel function for Kdm6b in activity-regulated neuronal survival, and they suggest that activity- and Kdm6b-dependent regulation of inflammatory gene pathways may serve as an adaptive pro-survival response to increased neuronal activity.
Related JoVE Video
Low-dose recombinant factor VIIa for reversing coagulopathy in patients with isolated traumatic brain injury.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of low-dose recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) (20 ?g/kg) in reversing coagulopathy in patients with isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Related JoVE Video
Experimental observation of Dirac-like surface states and topological phase transition in Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te(111) films.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The surface of a topological crystalline insulator (TCI) carries an even number of Dirac cones protected by crystalline symmetry. We epitaxially grew high-quality Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te(111) films and investigated the TCI phase by in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te(111) films undergo a topological phase transition from a trivial insulator to TCI via increasing the Sn/Pb ratio, accompanied by a crossover from n-type to p-type doping. In addition, a hybridization gap is opened in the surface states when the thickness of the film is reduced to the two-dimensional limit. The work demonstrates an approach to manipulating the topological properties of TCI, which is of importance for future fundamental research and applications based on TCI.
Related JoVE Video
Parallel transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for controlling portal hypertension complications in cirrhotic patients.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the feasibility of a second parallel transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to reduce portal venous pressure and control complications of portal hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Camellia oleifera leaves.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polysaccharides from Camellia oleifera leaves were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and optimized with response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of the extraction of polysaccharides were determined to be the extraction time of 1.6h, extraction temperature of 88°C and ratio of liquid to raw material of 20, which contributed to the highest yield of 3.77%. The crude polysaccharide was purified and three fractions (CLP-1, CLP-2 and CLP-3) were obtained. Their physicochemical properties were investigated with chemical method. The results indicated that the uronic acid content of CLP-2 was significantly higher than those of CLP-1 and CLP-3, and CLPs were mainly composed of glucose and galactose residue. In vitro antioxidant assay indicated that three polysaccharide fractions showed remarkable antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with CLP-1 and CLP-2, CLP-3 exhibited higher iron chelating activity. CLP-2 possessed significant higher hydroxyl radial and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities than those of CLP-1 and CLP-3. Overall, the polysaccharides derived from C. oleifera leaves might be explored as potential natural antioxidant.
Related JoVE Video
Brominated polyunsaturated lipids from the Chinese sponge Xestospongia testudinaria as a new class of pancreatic lipase inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemical analysis of the Chinese marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria afforded a library of brominated polyunsaturated lipids including eight new compounds, named xestonarienes A-H (3-10) and thirteen known analogues (11-23). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with literature data. The isolated lipids were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase (PL), an essential enzyme for efficient fat digestion and the major metabolite, 14, exhibited a marked inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.11 ?M), similar to that of the positive control Orlistat (IC50 = 0.78 ?M). The preliminary structure-activity relationships on the series of compounds clearly evidenced that a terminal (E)-enyne functionality, a diyne within the chain, and methyl ester group are all key functional groups for the activity of this class of PL inhibitors. Further biological investigation on compound 14 revealed a significant decrease in the plasma triglyceride level following an oral lipid challenge in C57BLKS/J male mice. Acute toxicology study demonstrated that compound 14 was non-toxic up to 1600 mg/kg p.o in mice. This is the first report of the PL inhibitory activity for brominated polyunsaturated lipids and the obtained results qualify compound 14 as a potent and bioavailable drug candidate for a mild and safe treatment to prevent and reduce obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Using random forest to classify linear B-cell epitopes based on amino acid properties and molecular features.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identification and characterization of B-cell epitopes in target antigens was one of the key steps in epitopes-driven vaccine design, immunodiagnostic tests, and antibody production. Experimental determination of epitopes was labor-intensive and expensive. Therefore, there was an urgent need of computational methods for reliable identification of B-cell epitopes. In current study, we proposed a novel peptide feature description method which combined peptide amino acid properties with chemical molecular features. Based on these combined features, a random forest (RF) classifier was adopted to classify B-cell epitopes and non-epitopes. RF is an ensemble method that uses recursive partitioning to generate many trees for aggregating the results; and it always produces highly competitive models. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), and area under the curve (AUC) values for current method were 78.31%, 80.05%, 72.23%, 0.5836, and 0.8800, respectively. These results showed that an appropriate combination of peptide amino acid features and chemical molecular features with a RF model could enhance the prediction performance of linear B-cell epitopes. Finally, a freely online service was available at http://sysbio.yznu.cn/Research/Epitopesprediction.aspx.
Related JoVE Video
Establishment of an orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model: cells suspended and injected in Matrigel.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To establish an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer that mimics the pathological features of exocrine pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging for predicting the consistency of intracranial meningiomas.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability of preoperative MRI-sequences to predict the consistency of intracranial meningiomas has not yet been clearly defined. We aim to demonstrate that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) improves the prediction of intracranial meningiomas consistency.
Related JoVE Video
CTL responses to HSP47 associated with the prolonged survival of patients with glioblastomas.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To define heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) as a novel glioma-associated antigen and to preliminarily assess the association of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to HSP47 with clinical outcomes in patients with glioblastomas (GBMs).
Related JoVE Video
An outbreak of adult measles by nosocomial transmission in a high vaccination coverage community.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aims of this study were to determine the mechanism of an outbreak of measles in adults and to provide scientific measures for putting forward a measles elimination program.
Related JoVE Video
Establishment and maintenance of a standardized glioma tissue bank: Huashan experience.
Cell Tissue Bank
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerebral glioma is the most common brain tumor as well as one of the top ten malignant tumors in human beings. In spite of the great progress on chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as the surgery strategies during the past decades, the mortality and morbidity are still high. One of the major challenges is to explore the pathogenesis and invasion of glioma at various "omics" levels (such as proteomics or genomics) and the clinical implications of biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis or treatment of glioma patients. Establishment of a standardized tissue bank with high quality biospecimens annotated with clinical information is pivotal to the solution of these questions as well as the drug development process and translational research on glioma. Therefore, based on previous experience of tissue banks, standardized protocols for sample collection and storage were developed. We also developed two systems for glioma patient and sample management, a local database for medical records and a local image database for medical images. For future set-up of a regional biobank network in Shanghai, we also founded a centralized database for medical records. Hence we established a standardized glioma tissue bank with sufficient clinical data and medical images in Huashan Hospital. By September, 2013, tissues samples from 1,326 cases were collected. Histological diagnosis revealed that 73 % were astrocytic tumors, 17 % were oligodendroglial tumors, 2 % were oligoastrocytic tumors, 4 % were ependymal tumors and 4 % were other central nervous system neoplasms.
Related JoVE Video
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates production of amyloid-? peptides and tau phosphorylation in diabetic rat brain.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pathogenesis of diabetic neurological complications is not fully understood. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by amyloid deposits. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD and DM. Here we tried to investigate the production of amyloid-? peptides (A ?) and phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau in DM rats and elucidate the role of GSK-3 and Akt (protein kinase B, PKB) in these processes. Streptozotocin injection-induced DM rats displayed an increased GSK-3 activity, decreased activity and expression of Akt. And A ? 40 and A ? 42 were found overproduced and the microtubule-associated protein tau was hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus. Furthermore, selective inhibition of GSK-3 by lithium could attenuate the conditions of A ? overproduction and tau hyperphosphorylation. Taken together, our studies suggest that GSK-3 regulates both the production of A ? and the phosphorylation of tau in rat brain and may therefore contribute to DM caused AD-like neurological defects.
Related JoVE Video
Utility of PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, assessment of resectability and metabolic response of pancreatic cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors, with its incidence staying at a high level in both the United States and China. However, the overall 5-year survival rate of pancreatic cancer is still extremely low. Surgery remains the only potential chance for long-term survival. Early diagnosis and precise staging are crucial to make proper clinical decision for surgery candidates. Despite advances in diagnostic technology such as computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasound, diagnosis, staging and monitoring of the metabolic response remain a challenge for this devastating disease. Positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), a relatively novel modality, combines metabolic detection with anatomic information. It has been widely used in oncology and achieves good results in breast cancer, lung cancer and lymphoma. Its utilization in pancreatic cancer has also been widely accepted. However, the value of PET/CT in pancreatic disease is still controversial. Will PET/CT change the treatment strategy for potential surgery candidates? What kind of patients benefits most from this exam? In this review, we focus on the utility of PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, and assessment of resectability of pancreatic cancer. In addition, its ability to monitor metabolic response and recurrence after treatment will be emphasis of discussion. We hope to provide answers to the questions above, which clinicians care most about.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid: toward the identification of biomarkers for gliomas.
Neurosurg Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults and, despite advances in the understandings of glioma pathogenesis in the genetic era, they are still ineradicable, justifying the need to develop more reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for this malignancy. Because changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are suggested to be capable of sensitively reflecting pathological processes, e.g., neoplastic conditions, in the central nervous system, CSF has been deemed a valuable source for potential biomarkers screening in this era of proteomics. This systematic review focused on the proteomic analysis of glioma CSF that has been published to date and identified a total of 19 differentially expressed proteins. Further functional and protein-protein interaction assessments were performed by using Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) website and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software, which revealed several important protein networks (e.g., IL-6/STAT-3) and four novel focus proteins (IL-6, galanin (GAL), HSPA5, and WNT4) that might be involved in glioma pathogenesis. The concentrations of these focus proteins were subsequently determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in an independent set of CSF and tumor cyst fluid (CF) samples. Specifically, glioblastoma (GBM) CF had significantly lower GAL, HSPA5, and WNT4 levels than CSF from different grades of glioma. In contrast, IL-6 level was significantly higher in GBM CF when compared with CSF and, among different CSF groups, was highest in GBM CSF. Therefore, these candidate protein biomarkers, identified from both the literatures and in silico analysis, may have potentials in clinical diagnosis, prognosis evaluation, treatment response monitoring, and novel therapeutic targets identification for patients with glioma.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of MALDI-TOF MS, gene sequencing and the Vitek 2 for identification of seventy-three clinical isolates of enteropathogens.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was performed to evaluate the analytical and practical performance of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) compared to the sequencing method and the Vitek 2 system for identi?cation of enteropathogens in the clinical microbiology laboratory.
Related JoVE Video
Rem2 is an activity-dependent negative regulator of dendritic complexity in vivo.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A key feature of the CNS is structural plasticity, the ability of neurons to alter their morphology and connectivity in response to sensory experience and other changes in the environment. How this structural plasticity is achieved at the molecular level is not well understood. We provide evidence that changes in sensory experience simultaneously trigger multiple signaling pathways that either promote or restrict growth of the dendritic arbor; structural plasticity is achieved through a balance of these opposing signals. Specifically, we have uncovered a novel, activity-dependent signaling pathway that restricts dendritic arborization. We demonstrate that the GTPase Rem2 is regulated at the transcriptional level by calcium influx through L-VGCCs and inhibits dendritic arborization in cultured rat cortical neurons and in the Xenopus laevis tadpole visual system. Thus, our results demonstrate that changes in neuronal activity initiate competing signaling pathways that positively and negatively regulate the growth of the dendritic arbor. It is the balance of these opposing signals that leads to proper dendritic morphology.
Related JoVE Video
Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure.
Related JoVE Video
Spontaneous brain activity in type 2 diabetics revealed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and its association with diabetic vascular disease: a resting-state FMRI study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate correlations between altered spontaneous brain activity, diabetic vascular disease, and cognitive function for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).
Related JoVE Video
Medulloblastoma in China: clinicopathologic analyses of SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups reveal different therapeutic responses to adjuvant chemotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors in children. Data is lacking of a large cohort of medulloblastoma patients in China. Also, our knowledge on the sensitivity of different molecular subgroups of MB to adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CHT) is still limited. The authors performed a retrospective study of 173 medulloblastoma patients treated at two institutions from 2002 to 2011. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues were available in all the cases and sections were stained to classify histological and molecular subgroups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate prognostic factors. Of 173 patients, there were 118 children and 55 adults, 112 males and 61 females. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for all patients, children and adults were 52%, 48% and 63%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, postoperative primary radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CHT) were revealed as favorable prognostic factors influencing OS and EFS. Postoperative primary chemotherapy (CHT) was found significantly improving the survival of children (p<0.001) while it was not a significant prognostic factor for adult patients. Moreover, patients in WNT subtype had better OS (p?=?0.028) than others (SHH and Non-SHH/WNT subtypes) given postoperative adjuvant therapies. Postoperative primary RT was found to be a strong prognostic factor influencing the survival in all histological and molecular subgroups (p<0.001). Postoperative primary CHT was found significantly to influence the survival of classic medulloblastoma (CMB) (OS p<0.001, EFS p<0.001), SHH subgroup (OS p?=?0.020, EFS p?=?0.049) and WNT subgroup (OS p?=?0.003, EFS p?=?0.016) but not in desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DMB) (OS p?=?0.361, EFS p?=?0.834) and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup (OS p?=?0.127, EFS p?=?0.055). Our study showed postoperative primary CHT significantly influence the survival of CMB, SHH subgroup and WNT subgroup but not in DMB and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup of MB.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for rebleeding of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rebleeding is a serious complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhaging. To date, there are conflicting data regarding the factors contributing to rebleeding and their significance.
Related JoVE Video
One-year mortality associations in hemodialysis patients after traumatic brain injury--an eight-year population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the one-year mortality associations in hemodialysis patients who underwent neurosurgical intervention after traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a nationwide database in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical outcomes of percutaneous kyphoplasty under local anesthesia for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the clinical outcomes of percutaneous kyphoplasty under local anesthesia for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.
Related JoVE Video
Dissecting the chromatin interactome of microRNA genes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our knowledge of the role of higher-order chromatin structures in transcription of microRNA genes (MIRs) is evolving rapidly. Here we investigate the effect of 3D architecture of chromatin on the transcriptional regulation of MIRs. We demonstrate that MIRs have transcriptional features that are similar to protein-coding genes. RNA polymerase II-associated ChIA-PET data reveal that many groups of MIRs and protein-coding genes are organized into functionally compartmentalized chromatin communities and undergo coordinated expression when their genomic loci are spatially colocated. We observe that MIRs display widespread communication in those transcriptionally active communities. Moreover, miRNA-target interactions are significantly enriched among communities with functional homogeneity while depleted from the same community from which they originated, suggesting MIRs coordinating function-related pathways at posttranscriptional level. Further investigation demonstrates the existence of spatial MIR-MIR chromatin interacting networks. We show that groups of spatially coordinated MIRs are frequently from the same family and involved in the same disease category. The spatial interaction network possesses both common and cell-specific subnetwork modules that result from the spatial organization of chromatin within different cell types. Together, our study unveils an entirely unexplored layer of MIR regulation throughout the human genome that links the spatial coordination of MIRs to their co-expression and function.
Related JoVE Video
[Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City: the China Nine-Province survey].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yongchuan of Chongqing City, China.
Related JoVE Video
Terpenes from the soft corals of the genus sarcophyton: chemistry and biological activities.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This review covers structural diversity and biological activities of terpenes from soft corals of the genus of Sarcophyton, reported from 1995 to July, 2011. During this period, besides undefined species, 16 species of the genus Sarcophyton, from different geographical areas, had been chemically examined. Two hundred and five terpenes had been isolated from this genus, including eleven sesquiterpenes, 165 diterpenes, 29 biscembranoids, some of which had novel skeletons. They exhibited various biological features, such as antifeedant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifouling activities.
Related JoVE Video
Structural and Energetic Analyses of SNPs in Drug Targets and Implications for Drug Therapy.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in drug targets can alter the therapeutic effects of drugs. Therefore, evaluating the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on drug-target binding is of significant interest. This study focuses on the analysis of the structural and energy properties of SNPs in successful drug targets by using the data derived from HapMap and the Therapeutic Target Database. The results show the following: (i) Drug targets undergo strong purifying selection, and the majority (92.4%) of the SNPs are located far from the drug-binding sites (>12 Å). (ii) For SNPs near the drug-binding pocket (?12 Å), nearly half of the drugs are weakly affected by the SNPs, and only a few drugs are significantly affected by the target mutations. These results have direct implications for population-based drug therapy and for chemical treatment of genetic diseases as well.
Related JoVE Video
Series of edge-sharing bi-triangle Ln4 clusters with a ?4-NO3(-) bridge: syntheses, structures, luminescence, and the SMM behavior of the Dy4 analogue.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of Ln4 clusters, [Ln4L2(?3-OH)2(?4-NO3)(NO3)4(OCH3)(H2O)]·xMeCN·yMeOH (Ln = Gd (), Tb (), Dy (), Ho (), Er (), Yb (), L = 2-{[2-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-ethylimino]-methyl}-6-methoxyphenol), have been synthesized by the reaction of Ln(NO)3 and a Schiff-base ligand formed in situ. The six complexes display similar structures, with an overall metal core comprising two edge-sharing triangular Ln3 units linked by a ?4-NO3(-) bridge. The luminescence spectrum of complex shows the characteristic emission of the Tb(III) ions. The magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that the Ln(III) ions are very weakly interacting in all six compounds. Frequency dependence of the ac-susceptibility was found for , suggesting a typical single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior with an anisotropic barrier of 28 K.
Related JoVE Video
[Advance in studies on antioxidant activity of propolis and its molecular mechanism].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Propolis is an adhesive substance mixed with plant resins collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) and secretions from their mandibular gland and wax gland, with wide pharmacological activity and healthcare functions. Its antioxidant activity has long been regarded as one of the most important biological activities of propolis. This article summarizes studies on the antioxidant activity of propolis extracts from different geographic origins and with different extraction methods, as well as several important monomer active ingredients in propolis, and concludes the potential molecular mechanism of antioxidant activity of propolis and its monomer ingredients, with the aim of providing ideas for further studies on pharmacological activity of propolis, as well as reference for in-depth development of propolis products.
Related JoVE Video
Geographical influences on content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly in China.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), a marker compound in royal jelly (RJ), is the most important criterion in grading RJ for commercial trade and varies with its origin. To identify the effect of geographical origin on 10-HDA content in RJ, 138 samples were collected from 19 provinces of China (divided into three groups) produced by either Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806 or a hybrid of A. m. ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica Pollman, 1879 and analyzed for moisture, sugar, crude protein, ash, acid, and 10-HDA concentration. The results show that RJ from western China has a significantly higher 10-HDA level (2.01 +/- 0.05%) than those from northeastern (1.87 +/- 0.05%) and eastern (1.75 +/- 0.03%) China. RJ secreted by hybrid bees contained more 10-HDA (1.89 +/- 0.03%) than that secreted by A. m. ligustica (1.78 +/- 0.03%). The 10-HDA content of RJ produced during flowering of rape (Brassica campestris L.), lime (Tilia amurensis Ruprecht), and vitex (Vitex negundo L. variety heterophylla (Franch.) Rehder) was 1.92, 1.80, and 1.68%, respectively. The results would be helpful during the process of price determination of RJ by providing some basis of geographical, bee strain, and botanical information for commercial trade.
Related JoVE Video
Serological Identification of URGCP as a Potential Biomarker for Glioma.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most frequent human brain tumor and causes dismal outcome. To identify tumor-associated antigens in GBM patients may find potential diagnostic markers and immunotherapeutic targets. In this study, we identified a gene termed URGCP using the serological identification of antigens by recombinant A2B5 positive glioma cDNA library. The gene product of URGCP is immunogenic in GBM after tested in allogenic patients serum screening.
Related JoVE Video
[Role of small-dose recombinant human coagulation factor VIIa for coagulopathy in patients with isolated traumatic brain injury].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the role of small-dose recombinant human coagulation factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for coagulopathy in patients with isolated traumatic brain injury.
Related JoVE Video
[Application of problem-based learning in pre-job training of postgraduate students in department of endodontics].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To apply problem-based learning (PBL) in pre-job training of postgraduate students in department of endodontics.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on the determination of 14 inorganic elements in coffee by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Samples of coffee were digested by microwave digestion, and inorganic elements amounts of Na, Mg, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo and Pb in sample solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HNO3 + H2O2 was used to achieve the complete decomposition of the organic matrix in a closed-vessel microwave oven. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. The results showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 3.84% for all the elements, and the recovery was found to be 92.00% -106.52% by adding standard recovery experiment. This method was simple, sensitive and precise and can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination of coffee, which could satisfy the sample examination request and provide scientific rationale for determining inorganic elements of coffee.
Related JoVE Video
Using ensemble SVM to identify human GPCRs N-linked glycosylation sites based on the general form of Chous PseAAC.
Protein Eng. Des. Sel.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As the most frequent drug target, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of seven transmembrane receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways. Glycosylation is one of the most complex post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It plays important roles in a variety of cellular functions, including protein folding, protein trafficking and localization, cell-cell interactions and epitope recognition. Therefore, investigating the exact position of glycosylation site in GPCR sequence can provide useful clues for drug design and other biotechnology applications. Experimental identification of glycosylation sites is expensive and laborious. Hence, there is a significant interest in the development of computational methods for reliable prediction of glycosylation sites from amino acid sequences. In this article, we presented an effective method to recognize the sites of human GPCRs by combining amino acid hydrophobicity with ensemble support vector machine. The prediction accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Matthews correlation coefficient and area under the curve values were 94.4, 89.7, 98.9%, 0.895 and 0.989, respectively. The establishment of such a fast and accurate prediction method will speed up the pace of identifying proper GPCRs functional sites to facilitate drug discovery.
Related JoVE Video
Spin-filtered edge states with an electrically tunable gap in a two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator.
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three-dimensional topological crystalline insulators were recently predicted and observed in the SnTe class of IV-VI semiconductors, which host metallic surface states protected by crystal symmetries. In this work, we study thin films of these materials and expose their potential for device applications. We demonstrate that thin films of SnTe and Pb1-xSnxSe(Te) grown along the (001) direction are topologically non-trivial in a wide range of film thickness and carry conducting spin-filtered edge states that are protected by the (001) mirror symmetry through a topological invariant. Application of an electric field perpendicular to the film will break the mirror symmetry and generate a bandgap in these edge states. This functionality motivates us to propose a topological transistor device in which charge and spin transport are maximally entangled and simultaneously controlled by an electric field. The high on/off operation speed and coupling of spin and charge in such a device may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological crystalline insulators.
Related JoVE Video
Observation of Dirac node formation and mass acquisition in a topological crystalline insulator.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), topology and crystal symmetry intertwine to create surface states with distinct characteristics. The breaking of crystal symmetry in TCIs is predicted to impart mass to the massless Dirac fermions. Here, we report high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy studies of a TCI, Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Se that reveal the coexistence of zero-mass Dirac fermions protected by crystal symmetry with massive Dirac fermions consistent with crystal symmetry breaking. In addition, we show two distinct regimes of the Fermi surface topology separated by a Van-Hove singularity at the Lifshitz transition point. Our work paves the way for engineering the Dirac band gap and realizing interaction-driven topological quantum phenomena in TCIs.
Related JoVE Video
The sequencing bias relaxed characteristics of Hi-C derived data and implications for chromatin 3D modeling.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 3D chromatin structure modeling by chromatin interactions derived from Hi-C experiments is significantly challenged by the intrinsic sequencing biases in these experiments. Conventional modeling methods only focus on the bias among different chromatin regions within the same experiment but neglect the bias arising from different experimental sequencing depth. We now show that the regional interaction bias is tightly coupled with the sequencing depth, and we further identify a chromatin structure parameter as the inherent characteristics of Hi-C derived data for chromatin regions. Then we present an approach for chromatin structure prediction capable of relaxing both kinds of sequencing biases by using this identified parameter. This method is validated by intra and inter cell-line comparisons among various chromatin regions for four human cell-lines (K562, GM12878, IMR90 and H1hESC), which shows that the openness of chromatin region is well correlated with chromatin function. This method has been executed by an automatic pipeline (AutoChrom3D) and thus can be conveniently used.
Related JoVE Video
High-mobility group box 2 is associated with prognosis of glioblastoma by promoting cell viability, invasion, and chemotherapeutic resistance.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The expression profile of high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and its clinical signature with underlying mechanisms were not fully explored.
Related JoVE Video
Use of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Evaluating Changes in the Microstructural Integrity of White Matter Over 3 Years in Patients with Amnesic-Type Mild Cognitive Impairment Converting to Alzheimers Disease.
J Neuroimaging
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). It is therefore important to identify biomarkers of conversion to AD. This study examined whether the integrity of white matter can predict this conversion.
Related JoVE Video
Sensorimotor cortical changes assessed with resting-state fMRI following total brachial plexus root avulsion.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peripheral nerve injury can induce immediate and long-standing remodelling of the brain cortex, which may affect outcomes of nerve repair. This study examined changes of corresponding cortical representations in patients with brachial plexus injuries.
Related JoVE Video
[Long-term efficacies of sinus skeletonization plus abnormal venous reflux interruption in the treatment of parasinus dural arteriovenous fistula].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To retrospectively explore the long-term efficacies of sinus skeletonization plus abnormal venous reflux interruption in the treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula interfering major dural sinus.
Related JoVE Video
A hierarchical approach for online temporal lobe seizure detection in long-term intracranial EEG recordings.
J Neural Eng
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Around 1% of the worlds population is affected by epilepsy, and nearly 25% of patients cannot be treated effectively by available therapies. The presence of closed-loop seizure-triggered stimulation provides a promising solution for these patients. Realization of fast, accurate, and energy-efficient seizure detection is the key to such implants. In this study, we propose a two-stage on-line seizure detection algorithm with low-energy consumption for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).
Related JoVE Video
Inducing time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity and fermion parity pumping in quantum wires.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We propose a setup to realize time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors in quantum wires, proximity coupled to conventional superconductors. We consider a model of quantum wire with strong spin-orbit coupling and proximity coupling to two s-wave superconductors. When the relative phase between the two superconductors is ?=? a Kramers pair of Majorana zero modes appears at each edge of the wire. We study the robustness of the phase in the presence of both time-reversal-invariant and time-reversal-breaking perturbations. In addition, we show that the system forms a natural realization of a fermion parity pump, switching the local fermion parity of both edges when the relative phase between the superconductors is changed adiabatically by 2?.
Related JoVE Video
Functional abnormalities in the cortical processing of sound complexity and musical consonance in schizophrenia: evidence from an evoked potential study.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated functional and structural temporal lobe abnormalities located close to the auditory cortical regions in schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to determine whether functional abnormalities exist in the cortical processing of musical sound in schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
[Antitumor activity of the recombinant rClone30-CD/5-FC system].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
5-Flucytosine (5-FC) could be changed to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by cytosine deaminase (CD), the latter is able to kill cancer cells. However, there is no efficient method to deliver the CD gene into the tumor cells, which hampers the application of the suicide gene system. In this experiment, for the first time, the NDV has been utilized as a vector to deliver the CD gene into the cancer cells, the virus can infect the cancer cells specifically, replicate and assemble, while the cytosine deaminase is expressed. Then the CD converts the prodrug 5-FC into 5-FU to achieve the purpose of inhibiting tumor. Firstly, the whole genome of E. coli JM109 was extracted, and the CD gene was obtained by cloning method. Then the CD and IRES-EGFP were ligated into the pEE12.4 expression vector to become a recombinant pEE12.4IE-CD eukaryotic expression plasmid. The human liver cancer cells were transfected with the plasmid. The cells were treated with different concentrations of 5-FC, MTT method was used to determine the killing effect of CD/5-FC system on the human liver cancer cells. The cell deaths were 18.07%, 42.98% and 62.20% respectively when the concentrations of prodrug were at 10, 20 and 30 mmol x L(-1). In 5-FC acute toxicity experiment, Kunming mice were injected with different concentrations of 5-FC at intervals of 1:0.5. The LD50 of 5-FC through iv injection was determined by improved Karbers method, the LD50 was 507 mg x kg(-1) and the 95% confidence limit was 374-695 mg x kg(-1). According to the maximum LD0 dose of the LD50, the maximum safe dose was 200 mg x kg(-1). Body weight and clinic symptoms of the experimental animals were observed. These results laid the foundation to verify the antitumor effect and safety of CD/5-FC system in animal models. The CD gene was ligated into the NDV (rClone30) carrier, then the tumor-bearing animal was established to perform the tumor inhibiting experiment. The result showed that the recombinant rClone30-CD/5-FC system has a high antitumor activity in vivo. To summarize, CD gene has been cloned and its bioactivity has been confirmed in the mammalian cells. It is the first time in this study to utilize the recombinant NDV to deliver the CD gene into the tumor cells; our result proves the rClone30-CD/5-FC system is a potential method for cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
The miR-92b functions as a potential oncogene by targeting on Smad3 in glioblastomas.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs(miR) play an important role in cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, which can function either as oncogenes or as tumor suppressors in their effect on tumor growth. Smad3 is often underexpressed in very diverse types of malignant tumors and has an important tumor suppressive function; however, the underlying mechanism in solid cancer including glioblastomas(GBM) is not fully explored. The aim of this study is to explore the role of miR-92b in regulation of smad3 in GBM. In our study, we found that miR-92b expression was significantly increased in GBM tissues compared with normal brain tissues by Q-RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (P<0.01). However, expression of smad3 in GBM samples was significantly reduced compared with normal brain tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry (P<0.05). Using 3UTR luciferase reporter gene assay, we found that miR-92b directly affected smad3 expression in GBM cells by targeting the 3-untranslated region. Silencing of miR-92b was able to significantly inhibit the viability of GBM cells in three GBM cell lines through up-regulating the TGF-beta/smad3/p21 signaling pathway in vitro. Furthermore, the tumor growth and the weight of U87 cells in the miR-92b inhibitor group were significantly inhibited when compared with that of the control group in vivo. Our data demonstrated that miR-92b may be considered as a tumor oncogene to promote GBM cell proliferation, and thus may serve as a potentially useful target for development of miRNA-based therapies in the future.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.