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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhanced anti-tumor effect of zoledronic acid combined with temozolomide against human malignant glioma cell expressing O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Temozolomide (TMZ), a DNA methylating agent, is widely used in the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltranferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme, is frequently discussed as the main factor that limits the efficacy of TMZ. Zoledronic acid (ZOL), which is clinically applied to treat cancer-induced bone diseases, appears to possess direct anti-tumor activity through apoptosis induction by inhibiting mevalonate pathway and prenylation of intracellular small G proteins. In this study, we evaluated whether ZOL can be effectively used as an adjuvant to TMZ in human malignant glioma cells that express MGMT. Malignant glioma cell lines, in which the expression of MGMT was detected, did not exhibit growth inhibition by TMZ even at a longer exposure. However, combination experiment of TMZ plus ZOL revealed that a supra-additive effect resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth. In combined TMZ/ZOL treatment, an increased apoptotic rate was apparent and significant activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase were observed compared with each single drug exposure. There were decreased amounts of Ras-GTP, MAPK and Akt phosphorylation and MGMT expression in the ZOL-treated cells. Subcutanous xenograft models showed significant decrease of tumor growth with combined TMZ/ZOL treatment. These results suggest that ZOL efficaciously inhibits activity of Ras in malignant glioma cells and potentiates TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity, inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis of malignant glioma cells that express MGMT and resistant to TMZ. Based on this work, combination of TMZ with ZOL might be a potential therapy in malignant gliomas that receive less therapeutic effects of TMZ due to cell resistance.
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Pharmacodynamic change in plasma angiogenic proteins: a dose-escalation phase 1 study of the multi-kinase inhibitor lenvatinib.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Lenvatinib (E7080), an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, has inhibitory action on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis in preclinical models. We evaluated correlations between pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers with patient clinical outcomes in a lenvatinib phase 1 dose-escalation study.
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Synergistic anti-tumor effects of a novel phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin dual inhibitor BGT226 and gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and PI3K/mTOR pathway are drug targets for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we investigated anti-tumor effects of the combination of BGT226, a novel PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor, and gefitinib on NSCLC cell lines which are high sensitive to gefitinib. The combination of BGT226 and gefitinib exhibited supra-additive growth inhibitory effects in PC-9 and HCC827 cells. Apoptotic induction and the inhibition of PI3K/mTOR signaling were enhanced by the combination. Significant tumor growth suppression was observed in xenograft model by the combination. These results suggest that the combination is effective in EGFR inhibitor-sensitive NSCLC therapy.
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Clinicopathological features in young patients treated for small-cell lung cancer: significance of immunohistological and molecular analyses.
Clin Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Small-cell lung cancer in young patients is very rare and has not been adequately described. In addition, malignancies associated with genetic rearrangements of nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) have been reported in young patients.
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Design and synthesis of phenolic hydrazide hydrazones as potent poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) are enzymes responsible for catalyzing the formation and degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers, respectively. Activation of PARP has been shown to be involved in cell death induced by genotoxic stimuli. On the other hand, genetic disruption of PARG also leads to increased level of cell death by accumulation of PAR. Unlike PARP, where significant medicinal effort has been expended to identify potent inhibitors, PARG has been insufficiently investigated as a molecular therapeutic target. In this study, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of phenolic hydrazide hydrazones as potent PARG inhibitors. Compounds 3d, 3e, 5d, 5e, 8a, 8b and 8c showed their ability to inhibit the catalytic activity of PARG in vitro with IC50 values of 1.0, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.1, 2.8 and 1.6 ?M, respectively.
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A novel flow cytometry-based cell capture platform for the detection, capture and molecular characterization of rare tumor cells in blood.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Personalized cancer treatment relies on the accurate detection of actionable genomic aberrations in tumor cells. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could provide an alternative genetic resource for diagnosis; however, the technical difficulties in isolating and analyzing rare CTCs have limited progress to date. In this preclinical study, we aimed to develop an improved capture system for molecular characterization of CTCs based on a novel cell sorting technology.
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Tocilizumab, a proposed therapy for the cachexia of Interleukin6-expressing lung cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We previously reported the role of IL-6 in a murine model of cancer cachexia and currently documented a patient in whom tocilizumab, anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, dramatically improved cachexia induced by IL-6 over-expressing lung cancer. Despite this potential to alleviate cancer cachexia, tocilizumab has not been approved for this clinical use. Therefore, preceding our planned clinical trial of tocilizumab, we designed the two studies described here to evaluate the levels of IL-6 in patients with lung cancer and the effect of tocilizumab in a murine model of human cancer cachexia.
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Hypoxia increases gefitinib-resistant lung cancer stem cells through the activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Accumulating evidence indicates that a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is involved in intrinsic resistance to cancer treatment. The hypoxic microenvironment is an important stem cell niche that promotes the persistence of CSCs in tumors. Our aim here was to elucidate the role of hypoxia and CSCs in the resistance to gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. NSCLC cell lines, PC9 and HCC827, which express the EGFR exon 19 deletion mutations, were exposed to high concentration of gefitinib under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Seven days after gefitinib exposure, a small fraction of viable cells were detected, and these were referred to as "gefitinib-resistant persisters" (GRPs). CD133, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, CXCR4, and ALDH1A1-all genes involved in stemness-were highly expressed in GRPs in PC9 and HCC827 cells, and PC9 GRPs exhibited a high potential for tumorigenicity in vivo. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) was also upregulated and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) was activated on GRPs. Importantly, hypoxic exposure significantly increased sphere formation, reflecting the self-renewal capability, and the population of CD133- and Oct4-positive GRPs. Additionally, hypoxia upregulated IGF1 expression through hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?), and markedly promoted the activation of IGF1R on GRPs. Knockdown of IGF1 expression significantly reduced phosphorylated IGF1R-expressing GRPs under hypoxic conditions. Finally, inhibition of HIF1? or IGF1R by specific inhibitors significantly decreased the population of CD133- and Oct4-positive GRPs, which were increased by hypoxia in PC9 and HCC827 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that hypoxia increased the population of lung CSCs resistant to gefitinib in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC by activating IGF1R. Targeting the IGF1R pathway may be a promising strategy for overcoming gefitinib resistance in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC induced by lung CSCs and microenvironment factors such as tumor hypoxia.
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Silencing of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase sensitizes lung cancer cells to radiation through the abrogation of DNA damage checkpoint.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a major enzyme that plays a role in the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARG deficiency reportedly sensitizes cells to the effects of radiation. In lung cancer, however, it has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether PARG siRNA contributes to an increased radiosensitivity using 8 lung cancer cell lines. Among them, the silencing of PARG induced a radiosensitizing effect in 5 cell lines. Radiation-induced G2/M arrest was largely suppressed by PARG siRNA in PC-14 and A427 cells, which exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity in response to PARG knockdown. On the other hand, a similar effect was not observed in H520 cells, which did not exhibit a radiosensitizing effect. Consistent with a cell cycle analysis, radiation-induced checkpoint signals were not well activated in the PC-14 and A427 cells when treated with PARG siRNA. These results suggest that the increased sensitivity to radiation induced by PARG knockdown occurs through the abrogation of radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation in lung cancer cells. Our findings indicate that PARG could be a potential target for lung cancer treatments when used in combination with radiotherapy.
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Multicolor detection of rare tumor cells in blood using a novel flow cytometry-based system.
Cytometry A
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The presence and number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of patients with solid tumors are predictive of their clinical outcomes. To date, the CellSearch system is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved CTC enumeration system for advanced breast, prostate, and colon cancers. However, sensitivity issues due to epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based enrichment and limited capability for subsequent molecular analysis must be addressed before CTCs can be used as predictive markers in the clinical setting. We have developed a multicolor CTC detection system using cross-contamination-free flow cytometry, which permits the enumeration and characterization of CTCs for multiple molecular analyses. Tumor cell lines with different expression levels of EpCAM were spiked into peripheral blood obtained from healthy donors. Spike-in samples were negatively enriched using anti-CD45-coated magnetic beads to remove white blood cells, and this was followed by fixation and labeling with CD45-Alexa Fluor 700, EpCAM-phycoerythrin, cytokeratin (CK)-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibodies, and/or 7-aminoactinomycin D for nuclei staining. Excellent detection (slope?=?0.760-0.888) and a linear performance (R(2) ?=?0.994-0.998) were noted between the observed and expected numbers of tumor cells, independent of EpCAM expression. The detection rate was markedly higher than that obtained using the CellSearch system, suggesting the superior sensitivity of our system in detecting EpCAM- tumor cells. Additionally, the incorporation of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker allowed us to detect EpCAM-/CK- cells and EMT-induced tumor cells. Taken together, our multicolor CTC detection system may be highly efficient in detecting previously unrecognized populations of CTCs. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
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Epidermal growth factor receptor variant type III markedly accelerates angiogenesis and tumor growth via inducing c-myc mediated angiopoietin-like 4 expression in malignant glioma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Expression of the constitutively activated mutant EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), the most common mutation in glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs), has been clinically correlated with tumor proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of EGFRvIII on the tumor microenvironment, especially on angiogenesis.
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Serum heparan sulfate concentration is correlated with the failure of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status is a validated biomarker for the stratification of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKIs) treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its use is limited in patients with wild-type EGFR, and new biomarkers are needed. We hypothesized that the serum concentration of heparan sulfate (HS), which activates oncogenic growth factor receptor signaling through EGFR and non-EGFR signaling pathways, may be a novel glycobiological biomarker for EGFR-TKIs treatment in NSCLC.
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Acquired drug resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor in human vascular endothelial cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Acquired resistance to antiangiogenic drugs has emerged as a potentially important issue in clinical settings; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanism of resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) remains largely unclear. We evaluated the cellular characteristics of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) clones, which are resistant to VEGFR2-TKI (Ki8751) to elucidate this mechanism of resistance to antiangiogenic drugs. Resistant HUVEC clones were 10-fold more resistant to VEGFR2-TKI than the parental cells and they exhibited an almost complete absence of VEGF-mediated cellular proliferation. The mRNA expression analysis revealed that expression of VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 was lower in resistant clones, while that of several angiogenic ligands was increased. The protein expression of VEGFR2 was markedly down-regulated in two (R5 and R6 clone) out of five resistant clones. Focusing on the R5 clone, VEGF stimulation did not increase the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 or the dimerization of VEGFR2. The inhibition of phospho-AKT by VEGFR2-TKI was also weakened more than 10-fold in the R5 clone. Finally, a microarray analysis revealed that some angiogenesis-associated, and some angiogenesis-specific genes, including platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1)/CD31, homeobox A9 (HOXA9), and endothelial cell-specific molecule 1 (ESM1), were remarkably down-regulated in all the resistant clones compared with the parental cells. HUVEC clones resistant to VEGFR2-TKI exhibited down-regulation of VEGFR2, a decreased signal response to VEGF stimulation, and the loss of vascular endothelial markers. These results strongly suggest that an escape from VEGFR2 signaling-dependency is one of the cellular mechanisms of resistance to VEGFR2-TKI in vascular endothelial cells.
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N-cadherin expression is a potential survival mechanism of gefitinib-resistant lung cancer cells.
Am J Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major subtype of lung cancer and is the most common and fatal cancer worldwide. Specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as gefitinib, have been effective in some NSCLC patients and are being used in the clinical setting as pioneer molecularly targeted cancer drugs. However, many patients have not responded to these drugs, and have acquired resistance after long-term treatment. To identify other potential NSCLC molecular targets, we used DNA microarrays to examine gene expression profiles of gefitinib-resistant PC9/ZD cells that are derived from gefitinib-sensitive PC9 cells and harbor a threonine to methionine mutation at codon 790 (T790M) in EGFR, a known mechanism of acquired resistance to gefitinib. We found that N-cadherin expression was significantly upregulated in PC9/ZD cells compared with PC9 cells. Inhibition of N-cadherin expression by siRNA or treatment with antibodies against N-cadherin induced apoptosis of PC9/ZD cells in association with reduced phosphorylation of Akt and Bad, a proapoptotic protein. Moreover, inhibition of Akt expression by siRNA or treatment with an inhibitor for phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase reduced survival of PC9/ZD cells. In addition, we found several N-cadherin-expressing lung cancer cells that showed inherent resistance to gefitinib treatment and reduced survival owing to siRNA-induced inhibition of N-cadherin expression. Thus, it appears that N-cadherin maintains the survival of the gefitinib-resistant lung cancer cells via the PI-3 kinase/Akt survival pathway. From these results, we propose that N-cadherin signaling contributes, at least in part, to the survival mechanisms of gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells and that N-cadherin is a potential molecular target in the treatment of NSCLC.
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Phase I dose-escalation study and biomarker analysis of E7080 in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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E7080, an oral multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has antiangiogenic and antitumor activity. This Phase I study investigated maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and efficacy in patients with advanced solid tumors.
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Sunitinib inhibits lymphatic endothelial cell functions and lymph node metastasis in a breast cancer model through inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Metastasis is a common event and the main cause of death in cancer patients. Lymphangiogenesis refers to the formation of new lymphatic vessels and is thought to be involved in the development of metastasis. Sunitinib is a multi-kinase inhibitor that blocks receptor tyrosine kinase activity, including that of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Although sunitinib is a clinically available angiogenesis inhibitor, its effects on lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sunitinib on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) and a related event, lymphangiogenesis.
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Cancer antineovascular therapy with liposome drug delivery systems targeted to BiP/GRP78.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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Angiogenesis is crucial for tumor growth and hematogenous metastasis. Specifically expressed and functional protein molecules in angiogenic endothelial cells, especially on the plasma membrane, may be molecular targets for antiangiogenic drugs and drug delivery systems (DDS) in cancer therapy. To discover such target molecules, we performed subcellular proteome analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with or without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using 2-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). Among the identified proteins, BiP/GRP78, a molecular chaperone, was highly expressed in the membrane/organelle fraction of HUVECs after VEGF treatment. The involvement of BiP in VEGF-induced angiogenesis was examined by RNA interference. BiP knockdown significantly suppressed VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and VEGF-induced phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2, phospholipase C-?, and VEGF receptor-2 in HUVECs. Cell surface biotinylation analysis revealed that the cell surface expression of BiP was elevated in VEGF-activated HUVECs. Aiming to apply BiP to a target molecule in liposomal DDS, we developed liposomes modified with the WIFPWIQL peptide, which has been shown to bind to BiP, and investigated its potential for cancer therapy. The WIFPWIQL-modified liposomes (WIFPWIQL liposomes) were significantly taken up by VEGF-activated HUVECs as compared to peptide-unmodified liposomes. WIFPWIQL liposomes appeared to accumulate in tumor endothelial cells in vivo. WIFPWIQL liposomes containing doxorubicin significantly suppressed tumor growth and prolonged the survival of colon26 NL-17 carcinoma cell-bearing mice. In summary, BiP may regulate VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation through VEGFR-2-mediated signaling and be an effective target molecule for cancer antineovascular therapy.
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Efficacy of RAD001 (everolimus) against advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Peritoneal dissemination occurs frequently in patients with unresectable advanced-stage gastric cancer. In this study, we tested the efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) against advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination. Using the two cell lines, 58As1, a cell line exhibiting a high propensity for peritoneal metastasis, and its parental cell line, HSC-58, a human scirrhous gastric cancer cell line, we first examined the growth-inhibitory activity of everolimus in vitro. Methylene blue assay demonstrated a moderate inhibitory effect of the drug on both cell lines under normal culture conditions (maximal inhibitory effect: 50.5% at 1 ?M, HSC-58, 65.3%, 58As1). However, under the hypoxic condition (1% O(2)), while the growth-inhibitory activity of everolimus was greatly reduced in the HSC-58 cell line, the degree of reduction of the inhibitory activity was much smaller in the 58As1 cell line. Western blotting revealed that the degree of phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream signaling molecules, p70S6K and 4E-BP1, was decreased under hypoxic conditions in HSC-58. On the other hand, phospho-p70S6K and phospho-4E-BP1 remained active under hypoxic conditions in 58As1, the molecular activity was suppressed by everolimus. Cell-cycle analysis showed that hypoxia-induced G1 arrest was not manifested in the 58As1 cells, unlike in the HSC-58 cells. Separately, an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of 58As1 revealed that everolimus significantly reduced peritoneal dissemination as evaluated by the quantitative photon counting method. Taken together, our results suggest that everolimus may have favorable activity against gastric cancer, particularly in cases with peritoneal dissemination.
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MicroRNA-500 as a potential diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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We identified that microRNA expression changed dynamically during liver development and found that miR-500 is an oncofetal miRNA in liver cancer. miR-500 was abundantly expressed in several human liver cancer cell lines and 45% of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. Most importantly, an increased amount of miR-500 was found in the sera of the HCC patients. In fact, miR-500 levels in sera of the HCC patients returned to normal after the surgical treatment in three HCC patients. Our findings reveal that diverse changes of miRNAs occur during liver development and, one of these, miR-500 is an oncofetal miRNA relevant to the diagnosis of human HCC.
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Synergistic interactions between the synthetic retinoid tamibarotene and glucocorticoids in human myeloma cells.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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Tamibarotene (TM411) is a synthetic retinoic acid receptor-alpha/-beta selective retinoid that is chemically more stable than all-trans retinoic acid. This study was designed to evaluate the activity of TM411 in multiple myeloma (MM) and the effects of TM411 combined with a glucocorticoid (GC). In vitro, five human myeloma cells were treated with TM411 alone, GC alone, or TM411 + GC. Cell survival was analyzed by the tetrazolium dye assay and the Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double-staining method. The effect of TM411 + GC was assessed by the isobologram method. In vivo, the growth-inhibitory effects of the drugs on RPMI-8226 cell xenografts established in SCID mice were examined. The effects of the agents on IL-6-mediated signaling pathways were also analyzed by Western blotting. TM411 was 2- to 10-fold more potent, in terms of its growth-inhibitory effect, than all-trans retinoic acid. The combination of TM411 and GC was found to show a markedly synergistic interaction. While increased expressions of the IL-6 receptor, phosphorylated MAPK, and Akt were observed after exposure to GC, TM411 attenuated this increase in the expressions, suggesting that such modification of the effect of GC by TM411 might be the possible mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction. Furthermore, TM411 + GC showed a supra-additive inhibitory effect in a xenograft model as compared with TM411 or GC alone. These results imply that the combination of TM411 + GC might be highly effective against MM, and suggest the need for clinical evaluation of TM411 + GC for the treatment of MM.
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Identification of predictive biomarkers for response to trastuzumab using plasma FUCA activity and N-glycan identified by MALDI-TOF-MS.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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The aim of this study was to identify glycobiological biomarkers that indicate sensitivity to trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against HER2 in plasma samples from breast cancer patients. Plasma samples were obtained from 24 breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab monotherapy. The catalytic activities of plasma alpha1-6, fucosyltransferase (FUT8) and alpha-L fucosidase (FUCA) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometer, respectively. The plasma N-glycan profiles were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Plasma FUT8 activity was not significantly correlated with either the clinical response or progression-free survival (PFS). On the other hand, plasma FUCA activity was significantly correlated with PFS (p < 0.05). The MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the plasma N-glycan profile revealed that the expression of 2534 m/z N-glycan was lower in patients with progressive disease (PD) and was correlated with PFS. Low expression of 2534 m/z N-glycan discriminated between PD and non-PD with 75% sensitivity and 82% specificity. We demonstrated that the plasma FUCA activity and 2534 m/z N-glycan may be predictive biomarkers of sensitivity to trastuzumab. Our results suggest that glycosylation analysis may provide useful information for determining clinical cancer therapy and provide novel insight into biomarker studies using glycobiological tools in the field of breast cancer.
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Hypoxia induces gefitinib resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer with both mutant and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptors.
Cancer Sci.
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Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, such as exon 19 deletion mutations, are important factors in determining therapeutic responses to gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients have activating mutations in EGFR and show poor responses to gefitinib. In this study, we examined three NSCLC cell lines, HCC827, PC9, and HCC2935, that expressed an EGFR exon 19 deletion mutation. All cells expressed mutant EGFR, but the PC9 and HCC2935 cells also expressed wild-type EGFR. The HCC827 cells were highly sensitive to gefitinib under both normoxia and hypoxia. However, the PC9 and HCC2935 cells were more resistant to gefitinib under hypoxic conditions compared to normoxia. Phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK was suppressed with gefitinib treatment to a lesser extent under hypoxia. The expression of transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) was dramatically upregulated under hypoxia, and the knockdown of TGF? or hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF1?) reversed the resistance to gefitinib in hypoxic PC9 and HCC2935 cells. Finally, introduction of the wild-type EGFR gene into the HCC827 cells caused resistance to gefitinib under hypoxia. This phenomenon was also reversed by the knockdown of TGF? or HIF1?. Our results indicate that hypoxia causes gefitinib resistance in EGFR-mutant NSCLC through the activation of wild-type EGFR mediated by the upregulation of TGF?. The presence of wild-type and mutant EGFR along with tumor hypoxia are important factors that should be considered when treating NSCLC patients with gefitinib.
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Circulating endothelial cells and other angiogenesis factors in pancreatic carcinoma patients receiving gemcitabine chemotherapy.
BMC Cancer
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Pancreatic carcinoma is a significant cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. As the level of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) is known to increase in response to various cancers, we investigated the predictive potential of CEC levels and the association of these levels with the expression of proangiogenic factors in pancreatic carcinoma patients.
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Efficacy of everolimus, a novel mTOR inhibitor, against basal-like triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Cancer Sci.
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Patients with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) typically have a poor prognosis because such cancers have no effective therapeutic targets, such as estrogen receptors for endocrine therapy or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptors for anti-HER2 therapy. As the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade is activated in TNBCs, mTOR is a potential molecular target for anticancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activities of everolimus, an oral mTOR inhibitor, in nine TNBC cell lines. Everolimus effectively inhibited cell growth at concentrations under 100 nM (IC(50)) in five cell lines and even in the 1-nM range in three of the five cell lines. To identify specific characteristics that could be used as predictive markers of efficacy, we evaluated the expressions of proteins in the mTOR cascade, basal markers, and cancer stem cell markers using western blotting, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), or immunohistochemistry. All five of the sensitive cell lines were categorized as a basal-like subtype positive for either epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or CK5/6, although resistant cell lines were not of this subtype and tended to exhibit the characteristics of cancer stem cells, with decreased E-cadherin and the increased expression of Snail or Twist. In vivo assays demonstrated antitumor activity in a mouse xenograft model of basal-like breast cancer, rather than non-basal breast cancer. These results suggest that everolimus has favorable activity against basal-like subtypes of TNBCs. Epidermal growth factor receptor and CK5/6 are positive predictive markers of the TNBC response to everolimus, while cancer stem cell markers are negative predictive markers.
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KRAS mutation confers resistance to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of cetuximab against human colorectal cancer cells.
Int. J. Cancer
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Cetuximab is a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets the extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Oncogenic KRAS mutations in tumors have been shown to be a negative predictor of the response of colorectal cancer (CRC) to cetuximab treatment. Cetuximab exerts its therapeutic effects through several mechanisms including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). However, the influence of KRAS mutations on cetuximab-mediated ADCC is not fully understood. Here, we investigated cetuximab-mediated ADCC in two pairs of isogenic CRC cells with or without a KRAS mutation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers and NK92, a natural killer (NK) cell line that exogenously expresses Fc?RIIIa (CD16a), were used as effector cells. In an ADCC assay, perforin-dependent target cell lysis was not affected by the KRAS mutation status. On the other hand, perforin-independent ADCC was observed only in CRC cells with wild-type KRAS, but not in cells with mutant KRAS. Neutralizing experiments revealed that the Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) interaction was responsible for the induction of apoptosis and perforin-independent ADCC. Furthermore, the presence of effector cells clearly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of cetuximab only in CRC cells with wild-type KRAS, but not in those with mutant KRAS. These findings suggest that ADCC is an important mode of action of cetuximab and that KRAS mutation impairs the therapeutic effect exerted by cetuximab-mediated ADCC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.