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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gene signature-guided dasatinib therapy in metastatic breast cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Dasatinib has limited single-agent activity in unselected patients with metastatic breast cancer. Several gene signatures predictive of dasatinib response in vitro have been reported. The purpose of this three-arm, phase II study was to prospectively assess the utility of three previously published gene signatures to select patients with clinical benefit from dasatinib.
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Reverse-phase protein array for prediction of patients at low risk of developing bone metastasis from breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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A biomarker that predicts bone metastasis based on a protein laboratory assay has not been demonstrated. Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) enables quantification of total and phosphorylated proteins, providing information about their functional status. The aim of this study was to identify bone-metastasis-related markers in patients with primary breast cancer using RPPA analysis.
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Effects of obesity on transcriptomic changes and cancer hallmarks in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Obesity increases the risk of cancer death among postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, but the direct evidence for the mechanisms is lacking. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate direct evidence for the mechanisms mediating this epidemiologic phenomenon.
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Leptomeningeal disease and breast cancer: the importance of tumor subtype.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common tumors to involve the leptomeninges. We aimed to characterize clinical features and outcomes of patients with LMD based on BC subtypes. We retrospectively reviewed records of 233 patients diagnosed with LMD from BC between 1997 and 2012. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and significant differences in survival were determined by Cox proportional hazards or log-rank tests. Of 190 patients with BC subtype available, 67 (35 %) had hormone receptor positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative BC, 56 (29 %) had HER2+BC, and 67 (35 %) had triple-negative BC (TNBC). Median age at LMD diagnosis was 50 years. Median overall survival (OS) from LMD diagnosis was 4.4 months for HER2+BC (95 % CI 2.8, 6.9), 3.7 months (95 % CI 2.4, 6.0) for HR+/HER2-BC, and 2.2 months (95 % CI 1.5, 3.0) for TNBC (p = 0.0002). Older age was associated with worse outcome (p < 0.0001). Patients with HER2+BC and LMD were more likely to receive systemic therapy (ST) (p = 0.001). Use of intrathecal therapy (IT) (52 %) was similar (p = 0.35). Both IT (p < 0.0001) and ST (p < 0.0001) administration were associated with improved OS. After adjusting for age, IT, extracranial disease, and ST, patients with HER2+BC had better OS compared with HR+/HER2-BC (HR 1.72; 95 %CI 1.07-2.76) and TNBC (HR 3.30; 95 %CI 1.98-5.52). LMD carries a dismal prognosis. Modest survival differences by tumor subtype were seen. Patients with HER2+BC had the best outcome. There is an urgent need to develop effective treatment strategies.
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Definition of PKC-?, CDK6, and MET as therapeutic targets in triple-negative breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous and recurrent subtype of breast cancer that lacks an effective targeted therapy. To identify candidate therapeutic targets, we profiled global gene expression in TNBC and breast tumor-initiating cells with a patient survival dataset. Eight TNBC-related kinases were found to be overexpressed in TNBC cells with stem-like properties. Among them, expression of PKC-?, MET, and CDK6 correlated with poorer survival outcomes. In cases coexpressing two of these three kinases, survival rates were lower than in cases where only one of these kinases was expressed. In functional tests, two-drug combinations targeting these three kinases inhibited TNBC cell proliferation and tumorigenic potential in a cooperative manner. A combination of PKC-?-MET inhibitors also attenuated tumor growth in a cooperative manner in vivo. Our findings define three kinases critical for TNBC growth and offer a preclinical rationale for their candidacy as effective therapeutic targets in treating TNBC.
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Breast cancer, BRCA mutations, and attitudes regarding pregnancy and preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Women with premenopausal breast cancer may face treatment-related infertility and have a higher likelihood of a BRCA mutation, which may affect their attitudes toward future childbearing.
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Circulating Tumor Cells and Response to Chemotherapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer: SWOG S0500.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Increased circulating tumor cells (CTCs; five or more CTCs per 7.5 mL of whole blood) are associated with poor prognosis in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A randomized trial of patients with persistent increase in CTCs tested whether changing chemotherapy after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy would improve the primary outcome of overall survival (OS).
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Risk of hospitalization according to chemotherapy regimen in early-stage breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To compare the risk of hospitalization between patients with early-stage breast cancer who received different chemotherapy regimens.
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Simvastatin radiosensitizes differentiated and stem-like breast cancer cell lines and is associated with improved local control in inflammatory breast cancer patients treated with postmastectomy radiation.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Reported rates of local failure after adjuvant radiation for women with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and triple-negative non-IBC are higher than those of women with receptor-expressing non-IBC. These high rates of locoregional recurrence are potentially influenced by the contribution of radioresistant cancer stem cells to these cancers. Statins have been shown to target stem cells and improve disease-free survival among IBC patients. We examined simvastatin radiosensitization of multiple subtypes of breast cancer cell lines in vitro in monolayer and mammosphere-based clonogenic assays and examined the therapeutic benefit of statin use on local control after postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) among IBC patients. We found that simvastatin radiosensitizes mammosphere-initiating cells (MICs) of IBC cell lines (MDA-IBC3, SUM149, SUM190) and of the metaplastic, non-IBC triple-negative receptor cell line (SUM159). However, simvastatin radioprotects MICs of non-IBC cell lines MCF-7 and SKBR3. In a retrospective clinical study of 519 IBC patients treated with PMRT, 53 patients used a statin. On univariate analysis, actuarial 3-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was higher among statin users, and on multivariate analysis, triple negative breast cancer, absence of lymphatic invasion, neoadjuvant pathological tumor response to preoperative chemotherapy, and statin use were independently associated with higher LRFS. In conclusion, patients with IBC and triple-negative non-IBC breast cancer have the highest rates of local failure, and there are no available known radiosensitizers. We report significant improvement in local control after PMRT among statin users with IBC and significant radiosensitization across triple-negative and IBC cell lines of multiple subtypes using simvastatin. These data suggest that simvastatin should be justified as a radiosensitizing agent by a prospective clinical trial.
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Circulating tumor cells as early predictors of metastatic spread in breast cancer patients with limited metastatic dissemination.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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IntroductionTraditional factors currently used for prognostic stratification do not always predict adequately treatment response and disease evolution in advanced breast cancer patients. Therefore, the use of blood-based markers, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), represents a promising complementary strategy for disease monitoring. In this retrospective study, we explored the role of CTC counts as predictors of disease evolution in breast cancer patients with limited metastatic dissemination.Methods492 advanced breast cancer patients who had a CTC count assessed by CellSearch prior to starting a new line of systemic therapy were eligible for this analysis. Using the threshold of 5 cells/7.5 mL of blood, pretreatment CTC counts were correlated in the overall population with metastatic site distribution, evaluated at baseline and at the time of treatment failure, using the Fisher¿s Exact test. Time to visceral progression, as well as, time to the development of new metastatic lesions and sites were estimated in patients with non-visceral metastases and with single-site metastatic disease, respectively, by the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival times were compared among groups according to pretreatment CTC count by log-Rank test.ResultsIn the overall population, pretreatment CTCs¿¿¿5 were associated with increased baseline number of metastatic sites, compared with CTCs¿<¿5 (P¿=¿.0077). At the time of treatment failure, patients with CTCs¿¿¿5 developed more frequently new metastatic lesions and sites compared to those with CTCs <5 (development of new lesions P¿=¿.0002; development of new sites P¿=¿.0031). Among patients with disease originally confined to non-visceral sites, CTCs¿¿¿5 were associated with remarkably shorter time to visceral metastases (P¿=¿.0021) and overall survival (P¿=¿.0006), compared with CTCs¿<¿5. Finally, in patients with single-site metastatic disease, CTCs¿¿¿5 were associated with a significant reduction of the time to development of new metastatic sites (P¿=¿.0051) and lesions (P¿=¿.0002), and with worse overall survival (P¿=¿.0101).ConclusionOur results suggest that baseline CTC counts can be used as an early predictor of metastatic potential in breast cancer patients with limited metastatic dissemination.
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A class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, entinostat, enhances lapatinib efficacy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells through FOXO3-mediated Bim1 expression.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Although there are effective HER2-targeted agents, novel combination strategies in HER2-overexpressing breast cancers are needed for patients whose tumors develop drug resistance. To develop new therapeutic strategy, we investigated the combinational effect of entinostat, an oral isoform-selective histone deacetylase type I inhibitor, and lapatinib, a HER2/EGFR dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in HER2+ breast cancer cells. We assessed the combinational synergistic effect and its mechanism by CellTiter Blue assay, flow cytometry, anchorage-independent growth, quantitative real-time PCR, small interfering RNA, Western blotting, and mammary fat pad xenograft mouse models. We found that compared with entinostat or lapatinib alone, the two drugs in combination synergistically inhibited proliferation (P < 0.001), reduced in vitro colony formation (P < 0.05), and resulted in significant in vivo tumor shrinkage or growth inhibition in two xenograft mouse models (BT474 and SUM190, P < 0.001). The synergistic anti-tumor activity of the entinostat/lapatinib combination was due to downregulation of phosphorylated Akt, which activated transcriptional activity of FOXO3, resulting in induction of Bim1 (a BH3 domain-containing pro-apoptotic protein). Furthermore, entinostat sensitized trastuzumab/lapatinib-resistance-HER2-overexpressing cells to the trastuzumab/lapatinib combination and enhanced the anti-proliferation effect compare with single or double combination treatment. This study provides evidence that entinostat has enhanced anti-tumor effect in combination with HER2-targeted reagent, lapatinib, and resulting in induction of apoptosis by FOXO3-mediated Bim1 expression. Our finding justifies for conducting a clinical trial of combinational treatment with entinostat, lapatinib, and trastuzumab in patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer resistant to trastuzumab-based treatment.
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Promoting quality and evidence-based care in early-stage breast cancer follow-up.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Evidence-based guidelines for long-term follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients developed by oncology societies in the United States and Europe recommend that breast cancer survivors undergo regular evaluation with history and physical examination, as well as annual mammography. Routine blood tests, circulating tumor markers, and/or surveillance imaging studies beyond mammography are not recommended in the absence of concerning symptoms or physical examination findings because of lack of supportive clinical evidence. Despite these guidelines, studies have shown that 20% to 40% of oncologists assess serum tumor markers as part of routine monitoring of early-stage breast cancer patients. As part of efforts to both address the financial challenges confronting the health-care system and optimize patient outcomes, the American Society of Clinical Oncology's Cost of Care Task Force identified adherence to breast cancer surveillance guidelines as an opportunity to improve care and reduce cost. However, these recommendations are based on trials done in an era of outdated technology and limited therapeutic options. It is possible that recent improvements in diagnostics and treatments could make earlier detection of recurrent disease important for improving both survival and quality of life outcomes. Research is necessary to further inform optimal breast cancer follow-up strategies, which could impact these recommendations. At this time, outside of well-conducted clinical trials, there is no role for ordering routine serial blood or imaging tests in monitoring for recurrence in early-stage breast cancer patients.
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Effect of adjuvant/neoadjuvant trastuzumab on clinical outcomes in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The purpose of the current study was to describe the outcomes of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressed/amplified (HER2+) early breast cancer who received adjuvant or neoadjuvant trastuzumab-based therapy and were subsequently retreated with trastuzumab for metastatic disease.
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Predictors that influence contralateral prophylactic mastectomy election among women with ductal carcinoma in situ who were evaluated for BRCA genetic testing.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are at increased risk for developing contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Consequently, more women with DCIS are electing to undergo contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). We evaluated factors associated with CPM in patients with DCIS who underwent genetic counseling for BRCA testing.
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Incidence, risk factors, and management of infusion-related reactions in breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Trastuzumab has become a mainstay of therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 overexpressed breast cancer in nearly all stages of the disease. Like many monoclonal antibodies, trastuzumab is associated with infusion-related reactions (IRRs) that are not well described, and incidence varies widely between reports (0.7%-40% of patients).
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Locoregional recurrence risk for patients with T1,2 breast cancer with 1-3 positive lymph nodes treated with mastectomy and systemic treatment.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) has been shown to benefit breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes, but it is unclear how modern changes in management have affected the benefits of PMRT.
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Effect of age and race on quality of life in young breast cancer survivors.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Given their early age at diagnosis, young breast cancer survivors (YBCSs) face issues that differ widely from their older counterparts.
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Clinical impact of delaying initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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For patients with breast cancer (BC), the optimal time to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy (TTC) after definitive surgery is unknown. We evaluated the association between TTC and survival according to breast cancer subtype and stage at diagnosis.
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TP53 mutation-correlated genes predict the risk of tumor relapse and identify MPS1 as a potential therapeutic kinase in TP53-mutated breast cancers.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Breast cancers (BC) carry a complex set of gene mutations that can influence their gene expression and clinical behavior. We aimed to identify genes driven by the TP53 mutation status and assess their clinical relevance in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative BC, and their potential as targets for patients with TP53 mutated tumors. Separate ROC analyses of each gene expression according to TP53 mutation status were performed. The prognostic value of genes with the highest AUC were assessed in a large dataset of untreated, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy treated patients. The mitotic checkpoint gene MPS1 was the most significant gene correlated with TP53 status, and the most significant prognostic marker in all ER-positive BC datasets. MPS1 retained its prognostic value independently from the type of treatment administered. The biological functions of MPS1 were investigated in different BC cell lines. We also assessed the effects of a potent small molecule inhibitor of MPS1, SP600125, alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Consistent with the gene expression profiling and siRNA assays, the inhibition of MPS1 by SP600125 led to a reduction in cell viability and a significant increase in cell death, selectively in TP53-mutated BC cells. Furthermore, the chemical inhibition of MPS1 sensitized BC cells to conventional chemotherapy, particularly taxanes. Our results collectively demonstrate that TP53-correlated kinase MPS1, is a potential therapeutic target in BC patients with TP53 mutated tumors, and that SP600125 warrant further development in future clinical trials.
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cMET Activation and EGFR-Directed Therapy Resistance in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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EGFR expression and pathway activation are common in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, anti-EGFR therapies have not been effective in these patients. We aimed to study the efficacy of targeting MET in overcoming resistance to EGFR therapy in TNBC cell lines.
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High serum miR-19a levels are associated with inflammatory breast cancer and are predictive of favorable clinical outcome in patients with metastatic HER2+ inflammatory breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Altered serum microRNA (miRNA) levels may be correlated with a dysregulated expression pattern in parental tumor tissue and reflect the clinical evolution of disease. The overexpression of miR-21, miR-10b, and miR-19a is associated with the acquisition of malignant characteristics (increased tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, dissemination, and metastasis); thus, we determined their utility as serum biomarkers for aggressive breast cancer (HER2-overexpressed or -amplified [HER2(+)] and inflammatory breast cancer [IBC]).
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Everolimus plus exemestane as first-line therapy in HR(+), HER2 (-) advanced breast cancer in BOLERO-2.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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The present exploratory analysis examined the efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life effects of everolimus (EVE) + exemestane (EXE) in the subgroup of patients in BOLERO-2 whose last treatment before study entry was in the (neo)adjuvant setting. In BOLERO-2, patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2(-)) advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive EVE (10 mg/day) + EXE (25 mg/day) or placebo (PBO) + EXE. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by local assessment. Overall, 137 patients received first-line EVE + EXE (n = 100) or PBO + EXE (n = 37). Median PFS by local investigator assessment nearly tripled to 11.5 months with EVE + EXE from 4.1 months with PBO + EXE (hazard ratio = 0.39; 95 % CI 0.25-0.62), while maintaining quality of life. This was confirmed by central assessment (15.2 vs 4.2 months; hazard ratio = 0.32; 95 % CI 0.18-0.57). The marked PFS improvement in patients receiving EVE + EXE as first-line therapy for disease recurrence during or after (neo)adjuvant NSAI therapy supports the efficacy of this combination in the first-line setting. Furthermore, the results highlight the potential benefit of early introduction of EVE + EXE in the management of HR(+), HER2(-) advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients.
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Differences in gene and protein expression and the effects of race/ethnicity on breast cancer subtypes.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Background: Differences in gene or protein expression patterns between breast cancers according to race/ethnicity and cancer subtype. Methods: Transcriptional profiling was performed using Affymetrix HG-U133A platform in 376 patients and reverse phase protein array analysis (RPPA) was done for 177 proteins in 255 patients from a separate cohort. Unsupervised clustering was conducted, as well as supervised comparison by race and tumor subtype. Standard statistical methods, BRB-Array tools and Ingenuity Pathways software packages were used to analyze the data. Results: Median age was 50 years in both cohorts. In the RPPA cohort 54.5% of the tumors were HR-positive, 20.7% HER2-positive and 24.71% triple-negative (TNBC). One hundred and forty-seven (57.6%), 47 (18.43%), 46 (18.1%) of the patients were White, Hispanic and Black, respectively. Unsupervised hierarchal clustering of the protein expression data showed no distinct clusters by race (p-values were 0.492, 0.489 and 0.494 for the HR-positive, HER2-positive and TNBC tumors respectively). In the gene expression cohort, 54.2% of the tumors were HR-positive, 16.5% HER2-positive and 29.3% TNBC. Two hundred and sixteen (57.5%), 111 (29.52%), and 32 (8.52%) patients were white, Hispanic and black, respectively. No probe set with an FDR < 0.05 showed an association with race by breast cancer subtype; similar results were obtained using pathway and gene set enrichment analysis methods. Conclusions: we did not detect significant variation in RNA or protein expression comparing different race/ethnicity groups of women with breast cancer Impact: More research on the complex network of factors that result in outcomes differences among race/ethnicities is needed.
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Latest biopsy approach for suspected metastases in patients with breast cancer.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Biopsy of suspected metastases in patients with breast cancer is recommended in the practice guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, but not always performed in routine oncology practice, often because of the cost and invasiveness of the procedure. Biopsies can confirm the presence of metastatic disease, reveal unsuspected benign disease or second (non-breast) malignancies and confirm expression of biomarkers, all of which can aid the optimal management of the cancer. Image-guided biopsy has increased the accuracy and safety of the procedure. Here, we aim to provide a practical algorithm for deciding when to perform biopsy of suspected breast cancer metastases, in order to optimize clinical practice. We expect that future clinical trials and standard-of-care practice will increasingly obtain tissue from metastases to assess molecular differences (DNA, RNA, protein) between the primary tumour and metastases. Advances in targeted therapy for breast cancer will be highly dependent on the availability of metastatic tissue. In this article, we provide an up-to-date review of the current issues in biopsy of suspected metastases in patients with breast cancer, including technical details of biopsy, pathology review of biopsy specimens, and interpretation of biopsy findings.
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Breast cancer multifocality and multicentricity and locoregional recurrence.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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The impact of multifocal (MF) or multicentric (MC) breast cancer on locoregional (LR) control rates is unknown. Methods. MF was defined as two or more separate invasive tumors in the same quadrant of the breast. MC was defined as two or more separate invasive tumors occupying more than one quadrant of the same breast. Patients were categorized by LR treatment: breast conservation therapy (BCT; n = 256), mastectomy (n = 466), or mastectomy plus postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT; n = 184). All patients with MC disease had mastectomy (10 patients treated with BCT for MC disease were excluded). The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to calculate 5-year LR control rate. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine independent associations of multifocality or multicentricity with LR control. Results. A total of 906 patients had either MF disease (n = 673) or MC disease (n = 233). With median follow-up of 52 months, the 5-year LR control rate was 99% for MF, 96% for MC, and 98% for unifocal tumors (p = .44). Subset analysis revealed no difference in LR control regardless of the LR treatment (p = .67 for BCT, p = .37 for mastectomy, p = .29 for mastectomy plus PMRT). There were five in-breast recurrences after BCT in the MF group. MF and MC did not have an independent impact on LR control rate on multivariate analysis. Conclusion. MF and MC disease are not independent risk factors for LR recurrence. Patients with MF and MC breast cancer had rates of LR control similar to those of their unifocal counterparts. These data suggest that BCT is a safe option for patients with MF tumors and that MF or MC disease alone is not an indication for PMRT.
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Trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity among older patients with breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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The use of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting improves outcomes but is associated with cardiotoxicity manifested as congestive heart failure (CHF). The rates and risk factors associated with trastuzumab-related CHF among older patients are unknown.
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DNA repair gene patterns as prognostic and predictive factors in molecular breast cancer subtypes.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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DNA repair pathways can enable tumor cells to survive DNA damage induced by chemotherapy and thus provide prognostic and/or predictive value. We evaluated Affymetrix gene expression profiles for 145 DNA repair genes in untreated breast cancer (BC) patients (n = 684) and BC patients treated with regimens containing neoadjuvant taxane/anthracycline (n = 294) or anthracycline (n = 210). We independently assessed estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/HER2-negative, HER2-positive, and ER-negative/HER2-negative subgroups for differential expression, bimodal distribution, and the prognostic and predictive value of DNA repair gene expression. Twenty-two genes were consistently overexpressed in ER-negative tumors, and five genes were overexpressed in ER-positive tumors, but no differences in expression were associated with HER2 status. In ER-positive/HER2-negative tumors, the expression of nine genes (BUB1, FANCI, MNAT1, PARP2, PCNA, POLQ, RPA3, TOP2A, and UBE2V2) was associated with poor prognosis, and the expression of one gene (ATM) was associated with good prognosis. Furthermore, the prognostic value of specific genes did not correlate with proliferation. A few genes were associated with chemotherapy response in BC subtypes and treatment-specific manner. In ER-negative/HER2-negative tumors, the MSH2, MSH6, and FAN1 (previously MTMR15) genes were associated with pathological complete response and residual invasive cancer in taxane/anthracycline-treated patients. Conversely, PMS2 expression was associated with residual invasive cancer in treatments using anthracycline as a single agent. In HER2-positive tumors, TOP2A was associated with patient response to anthracyclines but not to taxane/anthracycline regimens. In genes expressed in a bimodal fashion, RECQL4 was significantly associated with clinical outcome. In vitro studies showed that defects in RECQL4 impair homologous recombination, sensitizing BC cells to DNA-damaging agents.
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Everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal patients with HR(+) breast cancer: BOLERO-2 final progression-free survival analysis.
Adv Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Effective treatments for hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer (BC) following relapse/progression on nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) therapy are needed. Initial Breast Cancer Trials of OraL EveROlimus-2 (BOLERO-2) trial data demonstrated that everolimus and exemestane significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo plus exemestane alone in this patient population.
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Genomic copy number imbalances associated with bone and non-bone metastasis of early-stage breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The aim of this study is to identify and validate copy number aberrations in early-stage primary breast tumors associated with bone or non-bone metastasis. Whole-genome molecular inversion probe arrays were used to evaluate copy number imbalances (CNIs) in breast tumors from 960 early-stage patients with information about site of metastasis. The CoxBoost algorithm was used to select metastasis site-related CNIs and to fit a Cox proportional hazards model. Gains at 1q41 and 1q42.12 and losses at 1p13.3, 8p22, and Xp11.3 were significantly associated with bone metastasis. Gains at 2p11.2, 3q21.3-22.2, 3q27.1, 10q23.1, and 14q13.2-3 and loss at 7q21.11 were associated with non-bone metastasis. To examine the joint effect of CNIs and clinical predictors, patients were stratified into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) based on the sum of predicted linear hazard ratios. For bone metastasis, the hazard (95 % confidence interval) for the low-risk group was 0.32 (0.11-0.92) compared to the intermediate-risk group and 2.99 (1.74-5.11) for the high-risk group. For non-bone metastasis, the hazard for the low-risk group was 0.34 (0.17-0.66) and 2.33 (1.59-3.43) for the high-risk group. The prognostic value of loss at 8p22 for bone metastasis and gains at 10q23.1 for non-bone metastasis, and gain at 11q13.5 for both bone and non-bone metastases were externally validated in 335 breast tumors pooled from four independent cohorts. Distinct CNIs are independently associated with bone and non-bone metastasis for early-stage breast cancer patients across cohorts. These data warrant consideration for tailoring surveillance and management of metastasis risk.
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TIG1 promotes the development and progression of inflammatory breast cancer through activation of Axl kinase.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal form of breast cancer, but the basis for its aggressive properties are not fully understood. In this study, we report that high tumoral expression of TIG1 (RARRES1), a functionally undefined membrane protein, confers shorter survival in patients with IBC. TIG1 depletion decreased IBC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and inhibited tumor growth of IBC cells in vivo. We identified the receptor tyrosine kinase, Axl, as a TIG1-binding protein. TIG1 interaction stablilized Axl by inhibiting its proteasome-dependent degradation. TIG1-depleted IBC cells exhibited reduced Axl expression, inactivation of NF-?B, and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9, indicating that TIG1 regulates invasion of IBC cells by supporting the Axl signaling pathway in IBC cells. Consistent with these results, treatment of IBC cells with the Axl inhibitor SGI-7079 decreased their malignant properties in vitro. Finally, TIG1 expression correlated positively with Axl expression in primary human IBC specimens. Our findings establish that TIG1 positively modifies the malignant properties of IBC by supporting Axl function, advancing understanding of its development and rationalizing TIG1 and Axl as promising therapeutic targets in IBC treatment.
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Health-related quality of life and disease symptoms in postmenopausal women with HR(+), HER2(-) advanced breast cancer treated with everolimus plus exemestane versus exemestane monotherapy.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Everolimus (EVE)+exemestane (EXE; n = 485) more than doubled median progression-free survival versus placebo (PBO)?+?EXE (n = 239), with a manageable safety profile and no deterioration in health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)) advanced breast cancer (ABC) who recurred or progressed on/after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) therapy. To further evaluate EVE?+?EXE impact on disease burden, we conducted additional post-hoc analyses of patient-reported HRQOL.
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A phase II study of docetaxel and vinorelbine plus filgrastim for HER-2 negative, stage IV breast cancer: SWOG S0102.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2013
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Docetaxel and vinorelbine have demonstrated Single-agent activity in breast cancer. Preclinical studies suggest potential synergy between these antitubulin chemotherapy agents. This study evaluates these drugs in combination in metastatic breast cancer. Taxane-naive patients with HER-2 negative, stage IV breast cancer without prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease, were eligible. Docetaxel (60 mg/m(2)) was given intravenously on Day 1, vinorelbine (27.5 mg/m(2)) intravenously on Days 8 and 15, and filgrastim on Days 2-21 of a 21-day cycle. The primary study outcome was one-year overall survival (OS), with secondary outcomes of progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and toxicity. Of 95 patients registered, 92 were eligible and received treatment. One-year OS was 74 % (95 % CI 64-82 %) with a median OS of 22.3 months (95 % CI 18.8-31.4 months). One-year PFS was 34 % (95 % CI 24-43 %) with median of 7.2 months (95 % CI 6.4-10.3). OS at 2 and 3 years were 49 % (95 % CI 38-59 %) and 30 % (95 % CI 21-40 %), respectively. OS was poorer for women with estrogen-receptor negative disease (n = 32) compared to estrogen-receptor positive (n = 60) (log-rank p = 0.031), but PFS was not significantly different (p = 0.11). RR was 59 % among the 74 patients with measurable disease. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were 48 and 16 %, respectively. Grade 4 neutropenia was 12 % and grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia was 3 %. Common grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities were fatigue (14 %), pneumonitis (10 %), and dyspnea (9 %). The combination of docetaxel and vinorelbine is an active first-line chemotherapy in HER-2 nonoverexpressing, metastatic breast cancer. This combination is associated with significant hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity. The safety profile and expense of the filgrastim limit recommendations for routine use.
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Differential response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among 7 triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtypes.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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The clinical relevancy of the 7-subtype classification of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) reported by Lehmann and colleagues is unknown. We investigated the clinical relevancy of TNBC heterogeneity by determining pathologic complete response (pCR) rates after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, based on TNBC subtypes.
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Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of acetyl-L-carnitine for the prevention of taxane-induced neuropathy in women undergoing adjuvant breast cancer therapy.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is common and leads to suboptimal treatment. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a natural compound involved in neuronal protection. Studies have suggested ALC may be effective for the prevention and treatment of CIPN.
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Pilot study to assess toxicity and pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer and impaired liver function secondary to hepatic metastases.
J Oncol Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Background:Limited clinical data are available regarding the safety of docetaxel in metastatic breast cancer patients with liver dysfunction. METHODS: Eligible patients had breast cancer with impaired liver function secondary to hepatic metastases and were candidates for docetaxel therapy. They were assigned to one of five groups on the basis of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase levels. All other causes of liver dysfunction were excluded, and bile duct obstruction was corrected, if possible, prior to study entry. Patients received docetaxel every three weeks. The chemotherapy dose was chosen on the basis of the patients level of hepatic dysfunction and escalated as tolerated. The primary outcome of this study was safety. The secondary outcomes were pharmacokinetic data and efficacy in terms of time to disease progression. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were enrolled. No unexpected toxicities occurred. Grade 3/4 fatigue (65%), neutropenia (30%), myalgias (26%), neutropenic fever (26%), vomiting (9%), and rash (9%) were the most common serious adverse events. The median time to progression was three months (range 1-18 months). Pharmacokinetic results indicated that patients with more severe hepatic dysfunction may have been underdosed based on our conservative dosing strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Docetaxel can be administered to patients with metastatic breast cancer and liver dysfunction after dose attenuation. However, because of a narrow therapeutic index in this clinical setting, therapy should be closely monitored with subsequent dose escalation when possible.
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Safety and Efficacy of Everolimus With Exemestane vs. Exemestane Alone in Elderly Patients With HER2-Negative, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer in BOLERO-2.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer in whom disease progresses or there is recurrence while taking a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) are usually treated with exemestane (EXE), but no single standard of care exists in this setting. The BOLERO-2 trial demonstrated that adding everolimus (EVE) to EXE improved progression-free survival (PFS) while maintaining quality of life when compared with EXE alone. Because many women with HR(+) advanced breast cancer are elderly, the tolerability profile of EVE plus EXE in this population is of interest.
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Case control study of women treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer during pregnancy as compared with nonpregnant patients with breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The purpose of this analysis was to compare disease-free survival (DFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) between pregnant and nonpregnant patients with breast cancer.
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Effect of visceral metastases on the efficacy and safety of everolimus in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: subgroup analysis from the BOLERO-2 study.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Everolimus (EVE; an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR]) enhances treatment options for postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2(-)) advanced breast cancer (ABC) who progress on a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). This is especially true for patients with visceral disease, which is associated with poor prognosis. The BOLERO-2 (Breast cancer trial of OraLEveROlimus-2) trial showed that combination treatment with EVE and exemestane (EXE) versus placebo (PBO)+EXE prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) by both investigator (7.8 versus 3.2 months, respectively) and independent (11.0 versus 4.1 months, respectively) central assessment in postmenopausal women with HR(+), HER2(-) ABC recurring/progressing during/after NSAI therapy. The BOLERO-2 trial included a substantial proportion of patients with visceral metastases (56%).
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Bisphosphorylated PEA-15 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel by impairing the microtubule-destabilizing effect of SCLIP.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Paclitaxel is a standard chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. PEA-15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 kDa) regulates cell proliferation, autophagy, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism and also mediates AKT-dependent chemoresistance in breast cancer. The functions of PEA-15 are tightly regulated by its phosphorylation status at Ser104 and Ser116. However, the effect of PEA-15 phosphorylation status on chemosensitivity of cancer cells remains unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PEA-15 phosphorylated at both Ser104 and Ser116 (pPEA-15) sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel. We first found that knockdown of PEA-15 in PEA-15-high expressing HEY and OVTOKO ovarian cancer cells resulted in paclitaxel resistance, whereas re-expression of PEA-15 in these cells led to paclitaxel sensitization. We next found that SKOV3.ip1-DD cells (expressing phosphomimetic PEA-15) were more sensitive to paclitaxel than SKOV3.ip1-AA cells (expressing nonphosphorylatable PEA-15). Compared with SKOV3.ip1-vector and SKOV3.ip1-AA cells, SKOV3.ip1-DD cells displayed reduced cell viability, inhibited anchorage-independent growth, and augmented apoptosis when treated with paclitaxel. Furthermore, HEY and OVTOKO cells displayed enhanced paclitaxel sensitivity when transiently overexpressing phosphomimetic PEA-15 and reduced paclitaxel sensitivity when transiently overexpressing nonphosphorylatable PEA-15. These results indicate that pPEA-15 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that SCLIP (SCG10-like protein), a microtubule-destabilizing protein, is involved in pPEA-15-mediated chemosensitization. We found that reduced expression and possibly posttranslational modification of SCLIP following paclitaxel treatment impaired the microtubule-destabilizing effect of SCLIP, thereby promoting induction of mitotic arrest and apoptosis by paclitaxel. Our findings highlight the importance of pPEA-15 as a promising target for improving the efficacy of paclitaxel-based therapy in ovarian cancer.
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Comparison of molecular subtype distribution in triple-negative inflammatory and non-inflammatory breast cancers.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Because of its high rate of metastasis, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) has a poor prognosis compared with non-inflammatory types of breast cancer (non-IBC). In a recent study, Lehmann and colleagues identified seven subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We hypothesized that the distribution of TNBC subtypes differs between TN-IBC and TN-non-IBC. We determined the subtypes and compared clinical outcomes by subtype in TN-IBC and TN-non-IBC patients.
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Novel functional assay for spindle-assembly checkpoint by cyclin-dependent kinase activity to predict taxane chemosensitivity in breast tumor patient.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Taxanes are among the drugs most commonly used for preoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer. Taxanes induce mitotic arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) is known to be activated during mitosis, along with cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1), and is required for taxane-induced cell death. We hypothesized that CDK1 activity predicts response to taxane-containing chemotherapy. This study included breast cancer patients who received preoperative chemotherapy- taxane-containing treatment followed by anthracycline-based treatment-and then underwent surgery. Before starting taxane-containing chemotherapy, patients underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and the biopsy samples were incubated in paclitaxel solution to measure CDK activity. Clinical were evaluated after taxane therapy, and pathological resposes were evaluated after completion of all preoperative chemotherapy. Thirty five patients were eligible for analysis of clinical response to taxane-containing therapy. Twenty-six patients had taxane-sensitive and 9 taxane-resistant tumors. Using a cut-off of CDK activity determined by the ROC analysis, patients were classified into SAC function and dysfunction groups. Univariate logistic regression analysis with clinicopathologic parameters showed that only CDK-based SAC functionality was significantly correlated with clinical response (P =0.017). No significant correlation was observed between SAC functionality and pathologic response. CDK-based SAC functionality significantly predicted clinical response (P =.0072, overall agreement = 71.4%), and this is a unique mechanism-based marker for predicting taxane chemosensitivity. Further, large prospective study is needed to determine CDK-based SAC functionality could be developed as a predictive biomarker.
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Use of ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and Primary Breast Cancer Outcomes.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may have anti-tumor properties. We investigated whether the use of ACEI/ARBs affects the clinical outcomes of primary breast cancer patients receiving taxane and anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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Everolimus in postmenopausal hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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Resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer is associated with activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) intracellular signaling pathway. In early studies, the mTOR inhibitor everolimus added to endocrine therapy showed antitumor activity.
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Loss of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in metastatic sites of HER2-overexpressing primary breast tumors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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We evaluated whether patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive primary breast tumors had metastatic tumors that were HER2 positive (concordant) or HER2 negative (discordant). We then evaluated whether treatment with trastuzumab or chemotherapy before biopsy of the metastasis had any effect on the rate of HER2 discordance. We also compared the overall survival durations of patients with HER2-concordant and -discordant tumors.
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Short-term biomarker modulation prevention study of anastrozole in women at increased risk for second primary breast cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM), Tamoxifen and raloxifen reduce risk breast cancer. Patient acceptance of SERMs for breast cancer prevention is low due to toxicities. New agents with a better toxicity profile are needed. Aromatase inhibitors (AI) reduce the risk of contralateral breast cancer and risk of new breast cancer in high risk women. However, the mechanism by which AIs reduce breast risk is not known. Surrogate biomarkers are needed to evaluate the effect of preventive agents. The objective of this prospective short-term prevention study was to evaluate the effect of anastrozole on biomarkers in breast tissue and serum of women at increased risk for developing a contralateral breast cancer. Women with a history of stage I, II breast cancer who started anastrozole for standard adjuvant treatment were eligible. Patients underwent baseline fine needle aspiration of the unaffected breast and serum collection for biomarker analysis before starting anastrozole at 1 mg per oral/day and again at 6 months. Biomarkers included changes in cytology, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. There was a significant modulation in serum IGFBP-1 levels between pre- and postsamples (P = 0.02). No change was observed in IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and breast cytology.We showed a significant modulation of IGFBP-1 levels with six months anastrozole. Anastrozole is currently being studied as a prevention agent in a large phase III trial and our results provide support for continued evaluation of IGFBP-1 as a surrogate endpoint biomarker in prospective breast chemoprevention studies.
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Novel staging system for predicting disease-specific survival in patients with breast cancer treated with surgery as the first intervention: time to modify the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging is used to determine breast cancer prognosis, yet patient survival within each stage shows wide variation. We hypothesized that differences in biology influence this variation and that addition of biologic markers to AJCC staging improves determination of prognosis.
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Hot flashes: a review of pathophysiology and treatment modalities.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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Many therapies are being studied for the treatment of hot flashes for individuals with cancer, yet few studies have demonstrated safe and effective clinical benefit for those who suffer from this distressing symptom. The purpose of this paper is to assess the current options for the management of hot flashes, examining key endpoints from recent clinical trials and reviewing future directions. Hot flashes are a common stressful symptom for individuals with cancer, particularly women with a history of breast cancer and men with prostate cancer. Lifestyle modifications are proposed as the first step in the management of less severe hot flashes. Several publications have addressed nonhormonal agents as a treatment option for hot flashes. Newer antidepressant and anticonvulsant agents have been studied and show potential in treating vasomotor symptoms. Although many complementary and alternative therapies, including herbal medications and phytoestrogens, have been studied for the treatment of hot flashes, none are clinically recommended at this time. Additionally, further evidence is needed for supportive exercise such as yoga and relaxation techniques. Acupuncture may warrant further investigation in the reduction and severity of hot flashes in both men and women. Hormonal therapies, including estrogens and progestogens, are the most well-known and efficient agents in alleviating hot flashes; however, the safety of these agents is disputable.
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Phase III randomized trial of dose intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without G-CSF in locally advanced breast cancer: long-term results.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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To compare the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate of patients treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) versus dose-intense FAC plus G-CSF in the neoadjuvant setting and to compare the delivered dose intensity, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) times, and toxicity between treatment arms in patients with breast cancer.
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Bevacizumab treatment for advanced breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Significant advances in the treatment of patients with breast cancer have been made in the past 10 years. The current systemic treatment of breast cancer is characterized by the discovery of multiple cancer targets leading to treatments that are more sophisticated and specific than conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Two classes of compounds that have helped improve clinical outcomes are small molecules and monoclonal antibodies targeting specific tyrosine kinase receptors. Many novel targets have been discovered, and parallel multiple approaches to anticancer therapy have recently emerged from the literature. One promising strategy is targeting the proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), either by ligand sequestration (preventing VEGF receptor binding) or inhibiting downstream receptor signaling. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against VEGF, has been shown to improve the efficacy of taxanes in frontline treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. This review outlines the most promising breast cancer studies using bevacizumab combined with traditional cytotoxic agents in advanced breast cancer. In addition, we discuss the current indications reviewed by the Oncologic Drug Advisory Committee and define our vision of how the benefit of patient clinical trials should be measured.
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FOXO3a-Dependent Mechanism of E1A-Induced Chemosensitization.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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Gene therapy trials in human breast, ovarian, and head and neck tumors indicate that adenovirus E1A can sensitize cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo. Resistance to paclitaxel has been reported to occur in cells expressing low levels of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a. In this article, we report that FOXO3a is critical for E1A-mediated chemosensitization to paclitaxel. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FOXO3a abolished E1A-induced sensitivity to paclitaxel. Mechanistic investigations indicated that E1A indirectly stabilized FOXO3a by acting at an intermediate step to inhibit a ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis pathway involving the E3 ligase ?TrCP and the FOXO3a inhibitory kinase IKK?. E1A derepressed this inhibitory pathway by stimulating expression of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)/C protein phosphatases, which by binding to the TGF-?-activated kinase TAK1, inhibited its ability to activate IKK? and, thereby, to suppress ?TrCP-mediated degradation of FOXO3a. Thus, by stimulating PP2A/C expression, E1A triggers a signaling cascade that stabilizes FOXO3a and mediates chemosensitization. Our findings provide a leap forward in understanding paclitaxel chemosensitization by E1A, and offer a mechanistic rational to apply E1A gene therapy as an adjuvant for improving therapeutic outcomes in patients receiving paclitaxel treatment.
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Response to neoadjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers and noncarriers: a single-institution experience.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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To compare the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate and relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy (NST) in patients with breast cancer with and without deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
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BikDD eliminates breast cancer initiating cells and synergizes with lapatinib for breast cancer treatment.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Breast cancer initiating cells (BCICs), which can fully recapitulate the tumor origin and are often resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy, are currently considered as a major obstacle for breast cancer treatment. Here, we show that BIKDD, a constitutively active mutant form of proapoptotic gene, BIK, effectively induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells and synergizes with lapatinib. Most importantly, BikDD significantly reduces BCICs through co-antagonism of its binding partners Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy targeting BCICs. Furthermore, we developed a cancer-specific targeting approach for breast cancer that selectively expresses BikDD in breast cancer cells including BCICs, and demonstrated its potent antitumor activity and synergism with lapatinib in vitro and in vivo.
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Outcome of triple-negative breast cancer in patients with or without deleterious BRCA mutations.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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More than 75% of breast cancers that develop in BRCA1 mutation carriers are triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). The aim of this study was to compare the recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in high-risk patients with TNBC with and without deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations. A total of 227 women with TNBC who were referred for genetic counseling and underwent BRCA genetic testing between 1997 and 2010 were included in the study. The relationships between clinical variables and outcomes were evaluated using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models. Of 227 high-risk women with TNBC, 50% (n = 114) tested positive for BRCA1/2 mutations. Age, race, and tumor characteristics did not differ between BRCA non-carriers and carriers. At a median follow-up of 3.4 years, the 5-year RFS rates were 74 and 81% (P = 0.21), and 5-year OS rates were 85 and 93% in BRCA non-carriers and BRCA carriers, respectively (P = 0.11). In a multivariate model, after adjusting for age and disease stage, BRCA carriers tended to have a decreased risk of recurrence (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.38-1.19; P = 0.17) or death (HR = 0.51; 95% CI:0.23-1.17; P = 0.11) compared to non-carriers. Our data indicate a 50% prevalence of deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations in high-risk women diagnosed with TNBC. Overall prognosis of TNBC in BRCA carriers and non-carriers is not significantly different within the first 5 years following an initial diagnosis. Further studies need to evaluate whether different therapies will change the outcome in these subgroups of TNBC.
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Gemcitabine Overcomes Erlotinib Resistance in EGFR-Overexpressing Cancer Cells through Downregulation of Akt.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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A phase III clinical trial showed gemcitabine chemotherapy combined with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib significantly improved overall survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Therefore, we studied whether addition of gemcitabine to erlotinib in cancer cells having intrinsic or acquired erlotinib resistance could restore chemosensitization in these cells. We studied the synergistic effect of erlotinib and gemcitabine in EGFR-overexpressing A-431 cells with acquired erlotinib resistance and in intrinsic erlotinib-resistant triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) BT-549, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines. Erlotinib and gemcitabine were synergistic in both parental intrinsically erlotinib-sensitive A-431 cells (combination index = 0.69 at the effective dose [ED(50)]) and in two A-431 cell pools that had acquired erlotinib resistance (combination indices = 0.63 and 0.49 at ED(50)). The synergistic effect of erlotinib and gemcitabine on cancer cells did not require sensitivity to erlotinib provided that erlotinib can inhibit EGFR. The restoration of sensitivity by gemcitabine occurred through downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), which suggests that PI3K-PTEN-Akt activity is important to the synergism between the two agents. In A-431 parental cells, treatment with gemcitabine followed by erlotinib - but not the reverse sequence - was superior to erlotinib alone. The importance of the order of administration maybe due to the downregulation of p-Akt by gemcitabine in a dose- and time-dependent manner in cells with intrinsic or acquired erlotinib resistance. Our data show that gemcitabine increased the cytotoxic effect of erlotinib by downregulating p-Akt in EGFR-overexpressing cells with either intrinsic or acquired erlotinib resistance.
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SWOG S0215: a phase II study of docetaxel and vinorelbine plus filgrastim with weekly trastuzumab for HER2-positive, stage IV breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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SWOG trial S0102 showed significant activity of the combination of docetaxel and vinorelbine in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). For HER2-positive patients, additional benefit may occur with the addition of trastuzumab due to its synergy with docetaxel and vinorelbine. Patients with HER2-positive MBC, but without prior chemotherapy for MBC or adjuvant taxane, were eligible. Docetaxel (60 mg/m²) was given intravenously on Day 1, vinorelbine (27.5 mg/m²) intravenously on Days 8 and 15, and filgrastim (5 µg/kg) on Days 2-21 of a 21-day cycle. In addition, patients received weekly infusions of trastuzumab (2 mg/kg) after an initial bolus of 4 mg/kg. The primary outcome was 1 year overall survival (OS), with secondary outcomes of progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and toxicity. Due to slow accrual (February 2003-December 2006), enrollment was stopped after 76 of 90 planned patients. There have been 32 deaths and 51 progressions among the 74 eligible patients who received treatment. The estimated 1 year OS was 93% (95% CI 84-97%) with a median of 48 months. One-year PFS was 70% (95% CI 58-79%) with a median of 20 months. Response rate for measurable disease was 84%. No deaths were attributed to treatment. Grade 4 toxicities were reported for 19% with neutropenia the most common (15%). The most common grade 3 toxicities (33%) were leucopenia (14%) and fatigue (10%). The combination of trastuzumab, docetaxel, and vinorelbine is effective as first-line chemotherapy in HER2-positive MBC with minimal toxicity. One-year survival estimates are among the highest reported in this population.
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High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell support as adjuvant therapy in breast cancer: overview of 15 randomized trials.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHST) for high-risk primary breast cancer has not been shown to prolong survival. Individual trials have had limited power to show overall benefit or benefits within subsets.
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FDG-PET/CT compared with conventional imaging in the detection of distant metastases of primary breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2011
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Evidence from studies with small numbers of patients indicates that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) accurately detects distant metastases in the staging of primary breast cancer. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT and conventional imaging (CT, ultrasonography, radiography, and skeletal scintigraphy) for the detection of distant metastases in patients with primary breast cancer.
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Functional proteomics can define prognosis and predict pathologic complete response in patients with breast cancer.
Clin Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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To determine whether functional proteomics improves breast cancer classification and prognostication and can predict pathological complete response (pCR) in patients receiving neoadjuvant taxane and anthracycline-taxane-based systemic therapy (NST).
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Phase I/II study of trastuzumab in combination with everolimus (RAD001) in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer who progressed on trastuzumab-based therapy.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Trastuzumab resistance has been linked to activation of the phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a dual phosphatase that counteracts the PI3K function; PTEN loss leads to activation of the Akt cascade and the downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Preclinical studies demonstrated that mTOR inhibition sensitized the response to trastuzumab in mice with HER2 overexpressing and PTEN-deficient breast xenografts. Our trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of the combination of everolimus and trastuzumab in women with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer (MBC) that progressed on trastuzumab-based therapy.
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Age and associated fibrocystic changes are prognostically significant in patients with small node-negative (T1a,bN0) invasive breast cancer.
Breast J
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Some patients with small (?1.0 cm) node-negative (T1a,bN0) invasive breast cancer (IBC) who undergo only local therapy experience recurrences. There is limited information on prognostic factors in these patients. We sought to identify prognostic factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with T1a,bN0 IBC. Histologic sections from 273 T1a,bN0 IBC patients treated at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) between 1980 and 1999 were reviewed. Microscopic tumor size; multifocality; histologic type, grade of tumor; presence, type, grade of associated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); presence of fibrocystic changes (FCC) with/without atypia; and lymphovascular invasion were identified. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate DFS and OS. Median patient age was 58 years, median follow-up period was 10.8 years, and median tumor size was 0.8 cm. Multifocal disease was identified in 26% of cases. At 10 years, the DFS and OS rates were 91% and 88%, respectively. Twenty-one percent of patients had extensive (>50%), and 30% had grade 3 DCIS. Nonproliferative FCC and proliferative FCC with/without atypia were present in 80%, 36%, and 38% of patients, respectively. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), grade (p = 0.015), and percent (p = 0.046) of DCIS were significantly associated with DFS; presence of FCC was associated with longer DFS and OS. In multivariable models, age and presence of FCC remained significantly associated with survival. Age at diagnosis and associated FCC are significant factors in predicting recurrence in patients with T1a,bN0 IBC. Adjuvant systemic therapy should be discussed with and considered for young patients with T1a,bN0 IBC.
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Prognostic impact of phosphorylated HER-2 in HER-2+ primary breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Tyrosine 1248 is one of the autophosphorylation sites of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2. We determined the prognostic value of the expression level of tyrosine 1248-phosphorylated HER-2 (pHER-2) in patients with HER-2(+) primary breast cancer using a reverse-phase protein array.
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Genetic predictors of taxane-induced neurotoxicity in a SWOG phase III intergroup adjuvant breast cancer treatment trial (S0221).
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Taxanes have resulted in improved survival for breast cancer patients, but often cause neurological toxicities. Identification of biomarkers related to toxicities could be important for dictating treatment regimen. We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Fanconi Anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway in relation to grade 3/4 neurotoxicities in patients (n = 888) from SWOG0221, a phase III adjuvant trial for breast cancer of 4 dose/schedules of cyclophosphamide (C), doxorubicin (A), and paclitaxel (T). In a separate cohort, we measured the correlation of significant FANCD2 SNPs with corresponding gene expression. For FANCD2, permutation testing revealed that 4 (out of 20) SNPs were significantly associated with an almost two-fold increased risk of toxicity. Two FANCD2 haplotypes were also associated with neurological toxicity, with odds ratios (OR) in the overall population of 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 2.5) and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2, 2.4). Although numbers were small, an African-American-specific haplotype was associated with an almost 3-fold increase in risk of neurologic toxicity (OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.9). Expression analyses revealed that significant FANCD2 SNPs were associated with FANCD2 expression levels (P = 0.03). There were no associations between SNPs in BRCA1 and neurotoxicities. In this trial of CA+T for breast cancer, SNPs in FANCD2, but not in BRCA1, were associated with a 70-80% increase in the odds of grade 3/4 neurological toxicities and increased expression of the gene. If replicated, women with these genotypes should be closely monitored for toxicities and could be targeted for preventive measures or alternative therapeutic approaches.
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Beta-blocker use is associated with improved relapse-free survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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To examine the association between beta-blocker (BB) intake, pathologic complete response (pCR) rates, and survival outcomes in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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Initial staging impact of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in locally advanced breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) may reveal distant metastases more accurately than conventional imaging (CT, skeletal scintigraphy, chest radiography). We hypothesized that patients diagnosed with stage III noninflammatory breast cancer (non-IBC) and IBC by conventional imaging with PET/CT have a better prognosis than patients diagnosed without PET/CT.
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Overweight, obesity, diabetes, and risk of breast cancer: interlocking pieces of the puzzle.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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We considered epidemiological data on overweight, diabetes, insulin, and breast cancer. Overweight is inversely related to premenopausal breast cancer, but there is definite evidence that, as compared with normal weight women, the relative risk (RR) for postmenopausal breast cancer is around 1.5 for overweight women and >2 for obese women, and that the association is stronger in elderly women. Overweight and obesity are strongly related to diabetes. Diabetes is associated with postmenopausal breast cancer, too, with summary RRs from meta-analyses of 1.15-1.20, but not with premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.9). There is no consistent evidence that fasting insulin is related to breast cancer risk. Thus, although overweight and obesity are strongly related to postmenopausal breast cancer, diabetes is only moderately related to it. Given the extent of the association, and the likely residual confounding by overweight, inference on causality for the diabetes-breast cancer relation remains open to discussion.
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Dual targeting of tumor angiogenesis and chemotherapy by endostatin-cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyltransferase.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Several antiangiogenic drugs targeting VEGF/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) that were approved by the Food and Drug Administration for many cancer types, including colorectal and lung cancer, can effectively reduce tumor growth. However, targeting the VEGF signaling pathway will probably influence the normal function of endothelial cells in maintaining homeostasis and can cause unwanted adverse effects. Indeed, emerging experimental evidence suggests that VEGF-targeting therapy induced less tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity, allowing residual cells to become more resistant and eventually develop a more malignant phenotype. We report an antitumor therapeutic EndoCD fusion protein developed by linking endostatin (Endo) to cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD). Specifically, Endo possesses tumor antiangiogenesis activity that targets tumor endothelial cells, followed by CD, which converts the nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the cytotoxic antitumor drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the local tumor area. Moreover, selective targeting of tumor sites allows an increasing local intratumoral concentration of 5-FU, thus providing high levels of cytotoxic activity. We showed that treatment with EndoCD plus 5-FC, compared with bevacizumab plus 5-FU treatment, significantly increased the 5-FU concentration around tumor sites and suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in human breast and colorectal orthotropic animal models. In addition, in contrast to treatment with bevacizumab/5-FU, EndoCD/5-FC did not induce cardiotoxicity leading to heart failure in mice after long-term treatment. Our results showed that, compared with currently used antiangiogenic drugs, EndoCD possesses potent anticancer activity with virtually no toxic effects and does not increase tumor invasion or metastasis. Together, these findings suggest that EndoCD/5-FC could become an alternative option for future antiangiogenesis therapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.