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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phospholipase A(2)-catalyzed acylation of lysophospholipids analyzed by experimental design.
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The catalytic potential of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) for the synthesis of phospholipids with defined fatty acid structure in the sn-2 position has been underestimated hitherto because of very low conversion in most organic solvents. One of the most suitable solvents for PLA2-catalyzed phospholipid synthesis is glycerol. With the aim to analyze the effect of several interacting reaction parameters on the product yield, we studied the conversion of 1-palmitoyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PC) with oleic acid as model reaction in mixtures of glycerol and methanol or ethanol by methods of experimental design. PLA2 from porcine pancreas (ppPLA2) and from bee venom (bvPLA2) were compared as catalysts. For each of the four systems, nine variables were evaluated using Plackett-Burman designs. The most significant four variables were used for subsequent modified D-optimal designs with 30 runs, yielding regression equations for describing the formation of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as a function of the variables. In both solvent systems ppPLA2 was more appropriate for the acylation reaction than bvPLA2. Methanol proved to be more convenient as co-solvent than ethanol. The catalysis by ppPLA2 was more sensitive toward the variables temperature and concentration of Tris-HCl, whereas the reaction time and enzyme activity were more important in the acylation by bvPLA2. Conversion up to 87 (ppPLA2) and 50% (bvPLA2) can be anticipated.
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Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.