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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The early diagnostic and prognostic utility of high-sensitive troponin assays in acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.
Intern Med J
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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To determine the diagnostic and prognostic utility of high-sensitive troponin assays in very early phase of AMI (less than 3 hours since symptoms onset) by performing a meta-analysis of prospective studies.
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[Vertebral internal reinforcement operation for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures combined with bone cement leakage].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To explore incidence rate, influencing factors, leakage routes,and preventative measures of bone cement leakages in vertebral internal reinforcement operation including percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty.
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More favorable response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in women than in men.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Data on sex difference in response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all published studies to determine whether sex-based differences in response to CRT exist.
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Assembly mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei BILBO1, a multidomain cytoskeletal protein.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Trypanosoma brucei BILBO1 (TbBILBO1) is an essential component of the flagellar pocket collar of trypanosomes. We recently reported the high resolution structure of the N-terminal domain of TbBILBO1. Here, we provide further structural dissections of its other three constituent domains: EF-hand, coiled coil, and leucine zipper. We found that the EF-hand changes its conformation upon calcium binding, the central coiled coil forms an antiparallel dimer, and the C-terminal leucine zipper appears to contain targeting information. Furthermore, interdimer interactions between adjacent leucine zippers allow TbBILBO1 to form extended filaments in vitro. These filaments were additionally found to condense into fibers through lateral interactions. Based on these experimental data, we propose a mechanism for TbBILBO1 assembly at the flagellar pocket collar.
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Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the cryptic polo-box domain of Caenorhabditis elegans ZYG-1.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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ZYG-1 is a polo-like kinase essential for centriole assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. The targeting of ZYG-1 to nascent centrioles is via its central cryptic polo-box (CPB) domain. To shed light on the molecular basis of ZYG-1 recruitment, it is necessary to obtain structural knowledge of the ZYG-1 CPB. Here, the expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the ZYG-1 CPB are reported. The protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3), purified by multi-step chromatography and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of the wild-type protein exhibited an order-disorder pathology, which was solved by reductive lysine methylation. A complete anomalous data set was collected to 2.54?Å resolution at the Se?K edge (? = 0.9792?Å). The crystal belonged to space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.3, b = 60.09, c = 87.51?Å, ? = 93.31°. There were two molecules in the asymmetric unit.
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A new epimer of ocotillol from stems and leaves of American ginseng.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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A new minor C-3 epimer of ocotillol, named 3?-ocotillol (1), was isolated along with ocotillol (2) from the stems and leaves of American ginseng for the first time. The structure of the new sapogenin was elucidated as (20S, 24R)-dammar-20,24-epoxy-3?,6?,12?,25-tetraol by the combination analysis of NMR and mass spectrometry. The complete signal assignments of the two compounds were carried out by means of 2D NMR spectral analysis.
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Quality fluctuation detection of an herbal injection based on biological fingerprint combined with chemical fingerprint.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Herbal injection is one of the most important preparations of traditional Chinese medicine. More than 130 types of herbal injections are used clinically for 400 million patients annually with total sales of over four billion US dollars per year. However, the current quality control (QC) methods relying mainly on chemical fingerprints (CF) can hardly ensure quality and safety of the herbal injections with complex chemical composition and have resulted in an increase in serious adverse drug reactions. In this study, a comprehensive approach for the QC of a controversial herbal injection Shuang-Huang-Lian lyophilized powder (SHL) was established based on the quality fluctuation detection by a combination of CF and biological fingerprint (BF). High-performance liquid chromatography and the impedance-based xCELLigence system were applied to establish the CF and BF, respectively. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminant ability of the two methods. The results showed that being subjected to environmental influence like oxygen/air, high temperature, and extreme illumination could lead to quality fluctuation of SHL. The combination of chemical and biological fingerprint method is a more powerful tool for the QC of SHL because it can clearly discriminate different groups of abnormal samples. This method can be used for the detection of quality fluctuation of SHL and can provide reference for the quality control of other herbal injections.
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Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the N-terminal domain of Trypanosoma brucei BILBO1.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Trypanosoma brucei is a unicellular parasite that causes sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa. It has a unique flagellar pocket (FP) at the base of the single flagellum. The FP is the sole site for endocytosis and exocytosis activity and plays crucial roles in the defence of the cell against the host immune response. In the neck region of the FP is an electron-dense material termed the flagellar pocket collar (FPC). T. brucei BILBO1 (TbBILBO1) was the first cytoskeletal protein to be characterized in the FPC. This protein is highly conserved among trypanosomatids and is essential for FP biogenesis. Structural information is needed to better understand the molecular mechanism of TbBILBO1 function in the cell. Here, the expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the N-terminal domain of TbBILBO1 are reported. The protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3), purified by multi-step chromatography and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. The crystal diffracted to 1.69 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 29.69, b = 50.80, c = 37.22 Å, ? = 94.61°. There was one molecule in the asymmetric unit.
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Inhibition potential of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (Ugts) 1A isoforms by the analogue of resveratrol, bakuchiol.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Bakuchiol is a promising anti-tumor candidate with resveratrol-like structure. The present study aims to evaluate the inhibition potential of bakuchiol towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) 1A isoforms. An in vitro incubation system using 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation was used to evaluate the inhibition capability of bakuchiol towards UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9 and 1A10. The glucuronidation of trifluoperazine (TFP) was employed as the probe reaction to determine bakuchiol's inhibition towards UGT1A4. At 1 microM and 10 microM of bakuchiol, no or weak inhibition was observed for all the tested UGT1A isoforms. At 100 microM of bakuchiol, the activity of UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9 and 1A10 was inhibited by -46.2%, 74.7%, 17.8%, 98.7%, 70.4%, 99.2%, 75.8%, and 93.3%, respectively. Further inhibition kinetic behaviour was determined for UGT1A6, 1A8, and 1A10. Both Dixon plot and Lineweaver-Burk plot showed the noncompetitive inhibition of bakuchiol towards all these three UGT isoforms. The inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) were calculated to be 5.3, 1.8, and 92.6 microM for UGT1A6, 1A8, and 1A10, respectively. In combination with the in vivo exposure of bakuchiol, the high possibility of in vivo inhibition of UGT1A6 and 1A8 was predicted. However, relatively low possibility of in vivo inhibition towards UGT1A10 was predicted due to lower in vivo concentration of bakuchiol than its inhibition parameter (Ki). All these information will be helpful for the R&D of bakuchiol as a promising anti-tumor drug.
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Structure of the C. elegans ZYG-1 cryptic polo box suggests a conserved mechanism for centriolar docking of Plk4 kinases.
Structure
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Plk4 family kinases control centriole assembly. Plk4s target mother centrioles through an interaction between their cryptic polo box (CPB) and acidic regions in the centriolar receptors SPD-2/Cep192 and/or Asterless/Cep152. Here, we report a crystal structure for the CPB of C. elegans ZYG-1, which forms a Z-shaped dimer containing an intermolecular ? sheet with an extended basic surface patch. Biochemical and in vivo analysis revealed that electrostatic interactions dock the ZYG-1 CPB basic patch onto the SPD-2-derived acidic region to promote ZYG-1 targeting and new centriole assembly. Analysis of a different crystal form of the Drosophila Plk4 (DmPlk4) CPB suggests that it also forms a Z-shaped dimer. Comparison of the ZYG-1 and DmPlk4 CPBs revealed structural changes in the ZYG-1 CPB that confer selectivity for binding SPD-2 over Asterless-derived acidic regions. Overall, our findings suggest a conserved mechanism for centriolar docking of Plk4 homologs that initiate daughter centriole assembly.
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Sec16 determines the size and functioning of the Golgi in the protist parasite, Trypanosoma brucei.
Traffic
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The Sec16 homologue in Trypanosoma brucei has been identified and characterized. TbSec16 colocalizes with COPII components at the single endoplasmic reticulum exit site (ERES), which is next to the single Golgi stack in the insect (procyclic) form of this organism. Depletion of TbSec16 reduces the size of the ERES and the Golgi, and slows growth and transport of a secretory marker to the cell surface; conversely, overexpression of TbSec16 increases the size of the ERES and Golgi but has no effect on growth or secretion. Together these data suggest that TbSec16 regulates the size of the ERES and Golgi and this size is set for optimal growth of the organism.
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Screening of lymph nodes metastasis associated lncRNAs in colorectal cancer patients.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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To screen lymph nodes metastasis associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer through microarray analysis.
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Balance between metallothionein and metal response element binding transcription factor 1 is mediated by zinc ions (Review).
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Metal ion homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification systems are regulated by certain genes associated with metal ion transport. Metallothionein (MT) and metal response element binding transcription factor 1 (MTF?1) are important regulatory proteins involved in the mediation of intracellular metal ion balance. Differences in the zinc?binding affinities of the zinc fingers of MTF?1 and the ?? and ??domains of MT facilitate their regulation of Zn2+ concentration. Alterations in the intracellular concentration of Zn2+ influence the MTF?1 zinc finger number, and MTF?1 containing certain zinc finger numbers regulates the expression of corresponding target genes. The present review evaluates the association between zinc finger number in MTF?1 protein, MTF?1 target genes and the mechanism underlying MT regulation of the zinc finger number in MTF?1.
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Structure of the TbBILBO1 N-terminal domain from Trypanosoma brucei reveals an essential requirement for a conserved surface patch.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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TbBILBO1 is the only known component of the flagellar pocket collar, an essential cytoskeletal barrier element found in trypanosomes. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of TbBILBO1 was found to be dispensable for targeting of the protein in vivo. However, overexpression of constructs lacking the NTD caused complete growth inhibition, implying an essential requirement for this domain. A high-resolution structure of the NTD of TbBILBO1 showed that it forms a ubiquitin-like fold with a conserved surface patch. Mutagenesis of this patch recapitulated the phenotypic effects of deleting the entire domain, and was found to cause cell death. The surface patch on the NTD of TbBILBO1 is therefore a potential drug target.
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Limited diagnostic value of microRNAs for detecting colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to play important roles in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. Several studies utilizing microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the diagnostic value of microRNAs for detecting colorectal cancer.
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Current and former smoking and risk for venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Smoking is a well-established risk factor for atherosclerotic disease, but its role as an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all published prospective studies and case-control studies to update the risk for VTE in smokers and determine whether a dose-response relationship exists.
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[Clinical anatomy of iliac bone grafts used for mandibular reconstruction and dental implantation].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To investigate the anatomical features of iliac bone grafts used for mandibular reconstruction and dental implantation.
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Differential expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 in human astrocytoma.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3), which is transcriptionally induced by low temperature and hypoxia, has recently been found to be upregulated in human tumors. However, its expression status in human astrocytoma is not well defned. This article focuses on the differential expression of RBM3 in human astrocytomas of different grades and normal brain tissues.
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Krüppel-like factor 8 overexpression is correlated with angiogenesis and poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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To investigate Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) expression in gastric cancer and its relationship with angiogenesis and prognosis of gastric cancer.
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Glutathione S-transferase T1 null genotype is associated with oral cancer susceptibility in Asian populations.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Though there are many studies assessing the association between glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null genotype and oral cancer risk, the association between GSTT1 null genotype and oral cancer in Asian populations is still inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 19 studies including 2,845 cases and 4,295 controls to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was used to assess the relationship. Meta-analysis of those 19 studies suggested that there was an association between GSTT1 null genotype and elevated risk of oral cancer risk (OR = 1.25, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.56, P = 0.047). Sensitivity analysis by omitting one study at a time showed that the significance of the corresponding pooled ORs was materially altered frequently, indicating that the pooled ORs were not statistically stable. In addition, there was no obvious risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis. Therefore, the present meta-analysis suggests that the GSTT1 null genotype is a risk allele for oral cancer development in Asian populations, but more studies with large sample and well-matched controls are needed to further confirm the finding from the meta-analysis.
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Genistein: the potential for efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs. Without treatment, inflammation leads to cartilage damage, bone erosions, joint destruction, and impaired movement. Because of the limited success of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, the exploration of new anti-rheumatic drugs with high efficacy and less toxicity is eagerly needed. Genistein, the major active compound from soybean, has received much attention due to its potential beneficial effects on some of the degenerative diseases. It has been found that genistein has anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenesis, antiproliferative, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, pain relief, and joint protection properties. Hence, significant advances have been made, both by in vitro and in vivo studies showing that genistein is a promising agent for RA treatment.
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Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a potential novel biomarker in childhood asthma.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The presence of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) in human peripheral blood cells may suggest a role under pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the expression profile of TRPV2 gene and childhood asthma in the north of China. The effects of allergens exposure on the expression of TRPV2 gene were also investigated.
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Characteristics of Notch2(+) pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and the relationship with centroacinar cells.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Notch2, a surface marker in cell lines, is used to isolate, identify and localise pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and is a target for therapy of these cells. Sphere formation was induced in Panc-1 and Bxpc-3 pancreatic cancer cell lines, and Notch2(+) cells were separated from Bxpc-3 and Panc-1 cell lines by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). Expression of stem cell-related markers, OCT4, Nanog and PDX1, were measured by immunofluorescent (IF) staining. Expression of Notch2 was also determined immunohistochemically in pancreatic tissues. Notch2(+) cells were transplanted in subcutaneous of mice. AQP1 and AQP5 were also measured by IF in Bxpc-3 cells. The Notch signal pathway inhibitor, Compound E (CE), was used to treat Notch2(+) Bxpc-3 cells, and their vitalities were subsequently measured by the CCK-8 method. Positive expression of OCT4, Nanog and PDX1 was observed in Notch2(+) cells. Notch2(+) cells at centroacinar cell (CAC) and terminal ductal locations expressed AQP1 and AQP5. They were strongly tumourigenic in mice, and CE inhibited proliferation of Notch2(+) Bxpc-3 cells to some degree. OCT4 and Nanog can be used as markers of self-renewal in pancreatic cancer stem cells. Notch2(+) cells in human pancreatic cancer Bxpc-3 and Panc-1 cell lines had the properties of cancer stem cells. The results suggest that Notch2(+) pancreatic cancer stem-like cells had a close relationship with CAC.
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Hepatoprotective effects of IL-22 on fulminant hepatic failure induced by d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide in mice.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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Interleukin-22 (IL-22), a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that is produced by activated Th22, Th1 and Th17 cells as well as natural killer cells, plays an important role in increase of innate immunity, protection from damage and enhancement of regeneration. Here, we examined the effects of IL-22 on acute liver failure model induced by d-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Administration of recombinant human IL-22 (rhIL-22) reduced the death rate markedly and prevented mice from severe hepatic injury, as evidenced by decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (T.Bil) activity as well as improved histological signs in liver. Furthermore, IL-22 treatment decreased the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and increased the reduced glutathione levels. Serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) level and hepatic caspase-3 activity were significantly lower in mice administrated with IL-22. Moreover, IL-22 treatment significantly enhanced activation of STAT3 and up-regulated the expression of Bcl-xL, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and redox factor-1 (Ref-1) in the liver injury induced by GalN/LPS. Collectively, these data indicate that IL-22 can provide critical protection against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury through anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.
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A new hybrid fractal algorithm for predicting thermophilic nucleotide sequences.
J. Theor. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2011
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Knowledge of thermophilic mechanisms about some organisms whose optimum growth temperature (OGT) ranges from 50 to 80 degree plays a major role in helping design stable proteins. How to predict a DNA sequence to be thermophilic is a long but not fairly resolved problem. Chaos game representation (CGR) can investigate the patterns hiding in DNA sequences, and can visually reveal previously unknown structure. Fractal dimensions are good tools to measure sizes of complex, highly irregular geometric objects. In this paper, we convert every DNA sequence into a high dimensional vector by CGR algorithm and fractal dimension, and then predict the DNA sequence thermostability by these fractal features and support vector machine (SVM). We have conducted experiments on three groups: 17-dimensional vector, 65-dimensional vector, and 257-dimensional vector. Each group is evaluated by the 10-fold cross-validation test. For the results, the group of 257-dimensional vector gets the best results: the average accuracy is 0.9456 and average MCC is 0.8878. The results are also compared with the previous work with single CGR features. The comparison shows the high effectiveness of the new hybrid fractal algorithm.
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Interleukin-22 protects against acute alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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The protective effects of interleukin-22 (IL-22) on acute alcohol-induced liver injury were investigated. Mice were gavaged with 7 doses of alcohol (56% wt/vol, 15.2 mL/kg of body weight for each dose) over the 24 h, and IL-22 (0.5 mg/kg BW) was given to the mice by injection into the tail vein 1 h after alcohol administration. The results indicated that acute alcohol administration caused prominent hepatic microvesicular steatosis and an elevation of serum transaminase activities, induced a significant decrease in hepatic glutathione in conjunction with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and increased hepatocyte apoptosis as well as hepatic TNF-alpha production. IL-22 treatment attenuated these adverse changes induced by acute alcohol administration. The protective effects of IL-22 on alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity were due mainly to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic features.
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Distribution of serum prostate-specific antigen in Chinese healthy men: a population-based study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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The morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer have been increasing rapidly in recent China. There were few studies investigating prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values ranges in the healthy Chinese population. We performed this study to determine the distribution of serum PSA in a large healthy Chinese population.
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Metformin attenuates ventricular hypertrophy by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase-endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway in rats.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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1. Metformin is an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Recent studies suggest that pharmacological activation of AMPK inhibits cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, we examined whether long-term treatment with metformin could attenuate ventricular hypertrophy in a rat model. The potential involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the effects of metformin was also investigated. 2. Ventricular hypertrophy was established in rats by transaortic constriction (TAC). Starting 1 week after the TAC procedure, rats were treated with metformin (300 mg/kg per day, p.o.), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg per day, p.o.) or both for 8 weeks prior to the assessment of haemodynamic function and cardiac hypertrophy. 3. Cultured cardiomyocytes were used to examine the effects of metformin on the AMPK-endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) pathway. Cells were exposed to angiotensin (Ang) II (10?? mol/L) for 24 h under serum-free conditions in the presence or absence of metformin (10?³ mol/L), compound C (10?? mol/L), L-NAME (10?? mol/L) or their combination. The rate of incorporation of [³H]-leucine was determined, western blotting analyses of AMPK-eNOS, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were undertaken and the concentration of NO in culture media was determined. 4. Transaortic constriction resulted in significant haemodynamic dysfunction and ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial fibrosis was also evident. Treatment with metformin improved haemodynamic function and significantly attenuated ventricular hypertrophy. Most of the effects of metformin were abolished by concomitant L-NAME treatment. L-NAME on its own had no effect on haemodynamic function and ventricular hypertrophy in TAC rats. 5. In cardiomyocytes, metformin inhibited AngII-induced protein synthesis, an effect that was suppressed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C or the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME. The improvement in cardiac structure and function following metformin treatment was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK and eNOS and increased NO production. 6. The findings of the present study indicate that long-term treatment with metformin could attenuate ventricular hypertrophy induced by pressure overload via activation of AMPK and a downstream signalling pathway involving eNOS-NO.
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Characteristics of circle of Willis variations in the mongolian gerbil and a newly established ischemia-prone gerbil group.
ILAR J
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have an incomplete circle of Willis (CoW), as a result of which approximately 30-40% of these animals develop focal cerebral ischemia after unilateral carotid occlusion (UCO). There are four types of patterns of the anterior and posterior communicating arteries (ACoAs and PCoAs, respectively) of the CoW and they determine the severity of the ischemic symptoms. We used 398 gerbils from five generations, including a selectively bred ischemia-prone group, to investigate post-UCO ischemic symptoms and possible correlations of ACoA and PCoA patterns between parents and their progeny. We observed that if the parents had complete ACoAs, their progeny also had complete ACoAs, and we found significant differences when the parents ACoAs were incomplete: in 60.4% of offspring the type of ACoA was consistent with that of the mother and in 48.2% it was consistent with that of the father. The severity of the neurological symptoms after UCO was significantly related to the patterns of the ACoAs when PCoAs were absent. The proportion of UCO ischemia in gerbils with incomplete ACoAs was significantly higher than in those with complete ACoAs. After selectively breeding five generations, the proportion of UCO ischemia increased from 40% in the F1 animals to 75% in the F5 animals. Our results suggest that variations in the CoW are genetic and demonstrate that we successfully established an ischemia-prone group of gerbils.
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RNA interference of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 increases HLA class I antigen expression in HaCaT-E7 cells.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
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High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the major causative agents of cervical cancer. The E7 protein of high-risk HPV disturbs cell cycle control and down-regulates components of the antigen presentation pathway, suggesting an ideal target for development of the immunotherapy in HPV-positive cervical cancers. We previously reported that HPV16 E7 could down-regulate cell-surface HLA class I antigen accompanying decreased expression of transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1). The purpose of this study was to determine whether knockdown of HPV16 E7 could up-regulate surface HLA class I antigen expression in HPV16 E7 expressing HaCaT cells (HaCaT-E7).
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Ibandronate for prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rabbits.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of ibandronate (IBN) in prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rabbits. A total of 60 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly allocated into six groups. Twenty rabbits in the control group were injected with saline. Forty rabbits received dexamethasone (DX) treatment at a dose of 3 mg/kg twice weekly during the first 6 weeks, while 10 of these rabbits (group IBN&DX) were injected additionally with IBN at a dose of 2 mg/kg before DX treatment. At week 6, the rabbits from IBN&DX group, 10 rabbits from control group (group CNTR-1) and 10 rabbits treated with DX (group DX6) were killed. Half (10) of the remaining rabbits in DX group were continued for DX treatment at a dose of 3 mg/kg once weekly (group DX12), while the other half (10) rabbits (group DX&IBN) additionally received IBN injection (2 mg/kg) once before continuing DX treatment. The remaining rabbits (10) in an additional of control group (group CNTR-2) continuously received saline. At week 12, all rabbits were killed for bone biomechanical analysis and histological examination. At week 6, the analysis of bone biomechanical and histological results of group CNTR-1 and DX6 showed that GIOP rabbit models were successfully established. Compared with group DX6, bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of lumbar spine in group IBN&DX were increased by 100, 45.74 and 40.55%, respectively (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, BV/TV and Tb.N of femoral neck were increased by 30.29 and 16.86%, respectively (P < 0.01). The maximum compressive load, the maximum bending stress and the maximum torque were increased by 24.19, 29.91 and 37.24%, respectively (P < 0.01). At week 12, in comparison of the results between group DX12 and group DX6, the histomorphometric and mechanical analysis demonstrated that prolonged DX treatment could lead to further loss of bone mass and strength. Compared with group DX12, BV/TV, Tb.N and Tb.Th of lumbar spine in group DX&IBN were increased by 73.34, 39.02 and 23.87%, respectively (P < 0.05), the parameters of femoral neck were increased by 88.75, 31.29 and 42.01%, respectively (P < 0.01), and the biomechanical parameters were increased by 54.36, 21.38 and 105.75%, respectively (P < 0.05). IBN could effectively prevent and treat high-dosing glucocorticoid-induced loss of bone mass and strength in rabbits.
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[Effects of AMPK on the transcriptional activity of FOXO1 and ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 expression in rat cardiomyocytes].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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To investigate the effects of AICAR on the activity of transcription factor FOXO1 and expression of ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 in rat cardiomyocytes, and explore the possible role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in proteolysis pathways.
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[Early production of interleukin-17 in airway upon Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the local secretion of IL-6 and MIP-2].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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To evaluate the early interleukin-17 (IL-17) production in airway upon Chlamydia trachomatis infection and its relationship with the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in local site.
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[MRI finding of the lumbar foraminal stenosis and its clinical significance].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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To observe morphological changes of lumbar intervertebral foramen and pathologic changes around the nerve root and to explore the main evaluation index for lumbar foraminal stenosis (LPS) in parasaggital MRI finding.
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The expression of stem cell-related indicators as a prognostic factor in human lung adenocarcinoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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The purpose of the present study was to detect the presence of BASC-like stem cell-related indicators, such as clara cell secretory protein (CCSP), Octamer-4 (OCT4) and Bmi-1, and evaluate their implications in the prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
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The nonpeptide AVE0991 attenuates myocardial hypertrophy as induced by angiotensin II through downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta1/Smad2 expression.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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The nonpeptide AVE0991 is expected to be a putative new drug for cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms for the cardioprotective actions of AVE0991 are still not fully understood. We planned to determine whether AVE0991 attenuates the angiotensin II (AngII)-induced myocardial hypertrophy and whether these AVE0991 effects involved transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and Smad2. A rat model of neonatal myocardial hypertrophy was induced by AngII. The AngII group significantly increased in protein content, surface area, and [(3)H]leucine incorporation efficiency by cardiomyocytes, compared to those of the control group (P < 0.01). The AngII group also had elevated TGF-beta1 and Smad2 expression (P < 0.01). These AngII-induced changes were significantly attenuated by AVE0991 in a dose-dependent manner. In our study, these actions of AngII (10(-6) mol/l) were significantly inhibited by both concentrations of AVE0991 (10(-5) mol/l and 10(-7) mol/l). Moreover, the high AVE0991 group had significantly better inhibition of myocardial hypertrophy than the low AVE0991 group. Meanwhile, the beneficial effects of AVE0991 were completely abolished when the cardiomyocytes were pretreated with Ang-(1-7) receptor antagonist A-779 (10(-6) mol/l). These results suggested that AVE0991 prevented AngII-inducing myocardial hypertrophy in a dose-dependent fashion, a process that may be associated with the inhibition of TGF-beta1/Smad2 signaling.
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[Relationship between nasal inverted papilloma and human papillomavirus subtypes].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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To study the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes in nasal inverted papilloma (NIP), and to evaluate the relationship between HPV and NIP.
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Activation of AMPK inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by modulating of the FOXO1/MuRF1 signaling pathway in vitro.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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To examine the inhibitory effects of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation on cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms.
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Biotechnological implications from abscisic acid (ABA) roles in cold stress and leaf senescence as an important signal for improving plant sustainable survival under abiotic-stressed conditions.
Crit. Rev. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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In the past few years, the signal transduction of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been studied extensively and has revealed an unanticipated complex. ABA, characterized as an intracellular messenger, has been proven to act a critical function at the heart of a signaling network operation. It has been found that ABA plays an important role in improving plant tolerance to cold, as well as triggering leaf senescence for years. In addition, there have been many reports suggesting that the signaling pathways for leaf senescence and plant defense responses may overlap. Therefore, the objective was to review what is known about the involvement of ABA signaling in plant responses to cold stress and regulation of leaf senescence. An overview about how ABA is integrated into sugars and reactive oxygen species signaling pathways, to regulate plant cold tolerance and leaf senescence, is provided. These roles can provide important implications for biotechnologically improving plant cold tolerance.
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Development of novel microsatellite DNA markers by cross-amplification and analysis of genetic variation in gerbils.
J. Hered.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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The objectives of this study are to establish microsatellite loci for the Mongolian gerbil based on mouse microsatellite DNA sequences and to investigate genetic variation in the laboratory gerbil (Capital Medical University, CMU) and 2 wild gerbil populations (from Yin Chuan city [YIN] and the Hohehot Municipality [HOH]). In total, 536 mouse microsatellite markers were chosen to identify polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in the gerbil by cross-amplification. Of these markers, 313 (58.39%) have been discretely amplified from the CMU laboratory gerbil and been sequenced. Of the 313 sequenced markers, 130 were confirmed as simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in the gerbil. In total, 6 of those newly identified loci plus 6 identified in previous reports were used to estimate the genetic polymorphism for 30 laboratory gerbils and 54 wild gerbils (27 each of the HOH and YIN groups). A total of 29 alleles were observed in the 3 populations, and 11 of 12 loci (91.67%) are polymorphic markers. Neis standard genetic distances of 0.0592 (CMU vs. HOH) and 0.1033 (CMU vs. YIN) were observed. The averages of observed versus expected heterozygosity are 0.5231/0.4008, 0.5051/0.3882, and 0.4825/0.3665 for the YIN, HOH, and CMU populations, respectively. These results show that cross-amplification using mouse microsatellite primers is an efficient way to identify gerbil SSR loci. By using these 12 selected markers, we have demonstrated that genetic variation level within the CMU population is higher than that has been reported previously and are comparable with the levels found in 2 wild populations.
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Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in Han Chinese children living in Chongqing, south-west China.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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To derive age- and sex-specific reference values for waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for Han Chinese children and adolescents and to establish the prevalence of excess central adiposity in our study population.
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Allicin protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis via attenuating reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling pathways.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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Increased oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Since allicin suppresses oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo, we hypothesized that allicin would inhibit cardiac hypertrophy through blocking oxidative stress-dependent signaling. We examined this hypothesis using primary cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts and one well-established animal model of cardiac hypertrophy. Our results showed that allicin markedly inhibited hypertrophic responses induced by Ang II or pressure overload. The increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase activity were significantly suppressed by allicin. Our further investigation revealed this inhibitory effect on cardiac hypertrophy was mediated by blocking the activation of ROS-dependent ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways. Additional experiments demonstrated allicin abrogated inflammation and fibrosis by blocking the activation of nuclear factor-?B and Smad 2/3 signaling, respectively. The combination of these effects resulted in preserved cardiac function in response to cardiac stimuli. Consequently, these findings indicated that allicin protected cardiac function and prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy through ROS-dependent mechanism involving multiple intracellular signaling.
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[Construction of a phage antibody library and screening of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor variant III single chain antibody].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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To obtain specific anti-epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) single chain antibody (ScFv) by phage antibody library display system.
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Structural fold, conservation and Fe(II) binding of the intracellular domain of prokaryote FeoB.
J. Struct. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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FeoB is a G-protein coupled membrane protein essential for Fe(II) uptake in prokaryotes. Here, we report the crystal structures of the intracellular domain of FeoB (NFeoB) from Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpNFeoB) and Pyrococcus furiosus (PfNFeoB) with and without bound ligands. In the structures, a canonical G-protein domain (G domain) is followed by a helical bundle domain (S-domain), which despite its lack of sequence similarity between species is structurally conserved. In the nucleotide-free state, the G-domains two switch regions point away from the binding site. This gives rise to an open binding pocket whose shallowness is likely to be responsible for the low nucleotide-binding affinity. Nucleotide binding induced significant conformational changes in the G5 motif which in the case of GMPPNP binding was accompanied by destabilization of the switch I region. In addition to the structural data, we demonstrate that Fe(II)-induced foot printing cleaves the protein close to a putative Fe(II)-binding site at the tip of switch I, and we identify functionally important regions within the S-domain. Moreover, we show that NFeoB exists as a monomer in solution, and that its two constituent domains can undergo large conformational changes. The data show that the S-domain plays important roles in FeoB function.
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[Preparation of cyclosporine A loaded mPEG-PLGA copolymer micelles and study its pharmacokinetics in rats].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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To prepare cyclosporine A (CyA) loaded block copolymer micelles and observe its release behaviors in vitro and pharmacokinetics in rats, methoxylpoly (ethylene glycol)-poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) was synthesized by ring-opening copolymerization of lactide and glycolide in the presence of methoxylpoly (ethylene glycol) (mPEG) as initiator. The structure of the mPEG-PLGA copolymer was confirmed with 1H NMR and FT-IR. The cyclosporine A loaded micelles (CyA-PM) were prepared by solvent evaporation method and their morphology was observed by the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The mean size and size distribution were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The release behaviors in vitro and pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated by HPLC method using cyclosporine A injection commercial agent, sandimmune, as the reference. The obtained CyA-PM showed spherical shape with the core-shell structure, the mean particle sizes are in the range of 136.1-141.9 nm. The drug loading amount and entrapment efficiency were increased and the particle size became smaller with decreasing the ratio of acetone to water. With the increasing of the amount of cyclosporine A fed the drug loading increased, entrapment efficiency decreased and the particle size had no change. CyA-PM showed significant sustained release behave in vitro compared with sandimmune and only 9.7% of encapsulated cyclosporine A was released after 12 hours, the release characteristics was well fitted with Higuchi equation (r = 0.999). The Pharmacokinetics study at equal administration dosage (5 mg x kg(-1)) in rats showed the half-life (t1/2) of CyA-PM extended and the area under concentration-time curve (AUC) increased compared to sandimmune. The results also showed that cyclosporine A concentration-time data were all in accord with two compartment model. Cyclosporine A loaded mPEG-PLGA micelles showed obviously solubility enhancement, sustained release and overcome the side effect and toxicity of sandimmune resulted from solubiling agent-polyoxyethylene castor oil (Cremophor EL) and might be developed as a novel dosage form of cyclosporine A.
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[Role of liver X receptors on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2009
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To investigate the expression of liver X receptors (LXR) in hypertrophic myocardium and the effect of LXR agonist T0901317 on angiotensin II (AngII) induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
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[Lung adenocarcinoma stem cell phenotypes and their correlation with patient prognosis].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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To detect the cancer stem cells and to evaluate their prognostic implication in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
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Infusion of ibandronate once every 3 months effectively decreases bone resorption markers and increases bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal osteoporotic women: a 1-year study.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2009
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The efficacy and safety of intravenous ibandronate were evaluated in postmenopausal osteoporosis women in China. In this multicenter, positive drug-controlled study, 158 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were randomized to receive 2 mg ibandronate given intravenously once every 3 months or 70 mg alendronate given orally once per week. All women also received supplemental calcium (500 mg) and vitamin D (200 IU) daily. One hundred fifty-one patients completed the 1-year study. Ibandronate produced mean increases in bone mineral density (BMD) by 4.27% at the lumbar spine, 3.48% at the femoral neck, and 2.03% at the trochanter. Mean increases in BMD by 4.24% at the lumbar spine, 2.72% at the femoral neck, and 2.99% at the trochanter were observed in the alendronate group. No significant difference was found between the two groups in BMD in all sites measured. Significant decreases in serum c-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the two groups after 1 and 3 months of treatment, respectively; these serum CTX and ALP levels were then maintained at the decreased levels throughout the study period (12 months). No changes of stature were found in the patients of the two groups. Adverse events were similar in the two groups, except more mild muscle pain was observed in the first month after infusion of ibandronate than with oral alendronate (P < 0.001). The results observed in Chinese patients may support the observation that intravenous ibandronate significantly reduced bone resorption and increased BMD with good tolerance in Chinese postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Use of intravenous ibandronate possibly could potentially improve compliance as compared with other oral bisphosphonates because it may avoid the peptic side effects of oral bisphosphonate.
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Thr-114 is an important functional residue of fibroblast growth factor 10 identified by structure-based mutational analysis.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) plays important roles in vertebrate limb development, lung branching morphogenesis, and epidermis regeneration. The receptor (FGFR2b) binding specificity is an essential element in regulating the diverse functions of FGF10. Analyzing the FGF10:FGFR2b complex we found that Thr-114 in beta4 of FGF10 could form specific interactions with D3 of FGFR2b. To investigate the role of Thr-114 played on functions of FGF10, two mutants of FGF10 were constructed, named TA (Thr-114-->Ala) and TR (Thr-114-->Arg), respectively. The biological activity assays showed that the receptor-binding affinity, the stimulating growth effect on rat tracheal epithelium (RTE) cells, and the inducing ability in receptor phosphorylation of both mutants were decreased, which were consistent with the interaction analysis of the TA:FGFR2b and TR:FGFR2b complexes. These results suggested that Thr-114 is a crucial functional residue for FGF10, and mutating Thr-114 to Ala or Arg would lead to great decrease in receptor-binding affinity and biological activity of FGF10.
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B-type natriuretic peptide attenuates cardiac hypertrophy via the transforming growth factor-ß1/smad7 pathway in vivo and in vitro.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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1. Previously, we showed that long-term treatment of rats after myocardial infarction (MI) with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) prevented ventricular remodelling. However, it is unclear whether long-term BNP treatment affects cardiac hypertrophy and, if so, its mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of long-term BNP treatment on cardiac hypertrophy and the molecular mechanisms involved. 2. Cardiac hypertrophy was established in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. After treatment with BNP (5 or 15 microg/kg per day) for 8 weeks, indices of cardiac hypertrophy were determined. In separate in vitro experiments, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by treatment of cardiomyocytes with 10(-6) mol/L angiotensin (Ang) II for 48 h and cell surface area and [(3)H] incorporation were measured. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and smad7 mRNA and protein expression in vivo and in vitro were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. 3. Long-term BNP treatment dose-dependently attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and improved cardiac function in rats after MI. Furthermore, BNP attenuated the upregulation of TGF-beta1 and downregulation of smad7 mRNA and protein expression. The in vitro experiments further proved that BNP inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and changes in the TGF-beta1/smad7 pathway, which were completely blocked by the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor, KT5823 (cells were treated with 10(-6) mol/L KT5823 for 48 h). 4. The results of the present study demonstrate that long-term treatment of rats with BNP dose-dependently attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and that this is associated with downregulation of TGF-beta1 and upregulation of smad7 via PKG signalling. Long-term BNP treatment may be a new therapeutic strategy to prevent cardiac hypertrophy and progression to heart failure.
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Generation of fusion protein EGFRvIII-HBcAg and its anti-tumor effect in vivo.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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The epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most common variation of EGFR. Because it shows a high frequency in several different types of tumor and has not been detected in normal tissues, it is an ideal target for tumor specific therapy. In this study, we prepared EGFRvIII-HBcAg fusion protein. After immunization with fusion protein, HBcAg or PBS, the titers of antibody in BALB/c mice immunized with fusion protein reached 2.75 x 10(5). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the fusion protein had specific antigenicity against anti-EGFRvIII antibody. Further observation showed fusion protein induced a high frequency of IFN-gamma-secreting lymphocytes. CD4+T cells rather than CD8+T cells were associated with the production of IFN-gamma. Using Renca-vIII(+) cell as specific stimulator, we observed remarkable cytotoxic activity in splenocytes from mice immunized with fusion protein. Mice were challenged with Renca-vIII(+) cells after five times immunization. In fusion protein group, three of ten mice failed to develop tumor and all survived at the end of the research. The weight of tumors in fusion protein were obviously lighter than that in other two groups (t = 4.73, P = 0.044; t = 6.89, P = 0.040). These findings demonstrated that EGFRvIII-HBcAg fusion protein triggered protective responses against tumor expressing EGFRvIII.
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[Side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on gastric mucosa and preventive effects of teprenone].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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To evaluate the side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on gastric mucosa, and to study the preventive effects of teprenone in patients.
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Rosiglitazone-induced myocardial protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury is mediated via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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1. Rosiglitazone is widely used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. However, in recent years it has become evident that the therapeutic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands reach far beyond their use as insulin sensitizers. Recently, the ability of rosiglitazone pretreatment to induce cardioprotection following ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) has been well documented; however, the protective mechanisms have not been elucidated. In the present study, examined the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signalling pathway in rosiglitazone cardioprotection following I/R injury. 2. Mice were pretreated with 3 mg/kg per day rosiglitazone for 14 days before hearts were subjected to ischaemia (30 min) and reperfusion (2 h). Wortmannin (1.4 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of PI3-K, was administered 10 min prior to myocardial I/R. Then, activation of the PI3-K/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3alpha signalling pathway was examined. The effects of PI3-K inhibition on rosiglitazone-induced cardioprotection were also evaluated. 3. Compared with control rats, the ratio of infarct size to ischaemic area (area at risk) and the occurrence of sustained ventricular fibrillation in rosiglitazone-pretreated rats was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Rosiglitazone pretreatment attenuated cardiac apoptosis, as assessed by ELISA to determine cardiomyocyte DNA fragmentation. Rosiglitazone pretreatment significantly increased levels of phosphorylated (p-) Akt and p-GSK-3alpha in the rat myocardium. Pharmacological inhibition of PI3-K by wortmannin markedly abolished the cardioprotection induced by rosiglitazone. 4. These results indicate that rosiglitazone-induced cardioprotection in I/R injury is mediated via a PI3-K/Akt/GSK-3alpha-dependent pathway. The data also suggest that modulation of PI3-K/Akt/GSK-3alpha-dependent signalling pathways may be a viable strategy to reduce myocardial I/R injury.
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[Effects of different sterilization methods on mechanical properties of dental fissure bureffects of different sterilization methods on mechanical properties of dental fissure bur].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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The purpose was to analyze the effects of three sterilization methods (dry heat sterilization, steam sterilization, and chemical sterilization) on the corrosion of dental fissure bur.
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Effect of Wnt6 on human dental papilla cells in vitro.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in tissue development by acting on proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate decisions. Because the role of Wnt6 in tooth development was still unknown, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Wnt6 in tooth morphogenesis and dental tissue mineralization by elucidating its effect on human dental papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro.
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[Comparative study of cultivation of hair follicle bulge stem cell].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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The purpose was to compare two different ways of culturing hair follicle bulge stem cell: The defined keratinocyte-serum free medium (DK-SFM) method and the 3T3 feeder cell method.
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Variation of airborne bacteria and fungi at Emperor Qins Terra-Cotta Museum, Xian, China, during the "Oct. 1" gold week period of 2006.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2009
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To stimulate the national economy, a so-called "gold week" comprising May Day and National Day has been put in force by the government, and the first golden-week holiday began on October 1, 1999. Statistical data show that about 15,000 visitors were received each day by Emperor Qins Terra-Cotta Museum during just such a gold week period. To evaluate the effects of tourism on indoor air, airborne samples were collected by the sedimentation plate method for 5 min during the "Oct. 1" gold week period of 2006, and both composition and changes of airborne bacteria and fungi in indoor/outdoor air in the museums were investigated.
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive rats in part by modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signals.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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1. It has been demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits cardiac hypertrophy through its antihypertensive and anti-oxidant effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. 2. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that EGCG attenuates transaortic abdominal aortic constriction (TAC)-induced ventricular hypertrophy by regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways in hypertensive rats. Four groups of rats were used: (i) a sham-operated control group; (ii) an EGCG-treated (50 mg/kg per day, i.p., for 21 days) sham-operated group; (iii) a TAC group; and (iv) an EGCG-treated TAC group. Histological analysis of whole hearts and biochemical analyses of left ventricular (LV) tissue were used to investigate the effects of EGCG. 3. The results showed that the LV myocyte diameter and the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide and ?-myocardial heavy chain were significantly decreased in the EGCG-treated (50 mg/kg per day, i.p.) TAC group. Levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde in the lV were significantly reduced by EGCG in the TAC group. Total superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were decreased in the TAC group, and this decrease was significantly restored by EGCG treatment. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 was significantly reversed in the LV of EGCG-treated TAC rats (40%, 53% and 52% vs TAC, respectively), accompanied by significant inhibition of nuclear factor-?B and activator protein-1. Transaortic abdominal aortic constriction significantly upregulated LV expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 from 32 ± 6 to 100 ± 12% and this increase was inhibited by EGCG treatment (from 100 ± 12 to 50 ± 15%). In addition, TAC decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number and the activity of respiratory chain complexes I (from 100 ± 7 to 68 ± 5%), III (from 100 ± 4 to 2 ± 5%) and IV (from 766 ± 2 to 100 ± 5%); this decrease was reversed by EGCG treatment to levels seen in sham-operated rats.
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[Expression and regulation of matrix metalloproteases in osteoarthritic cartilage].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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The degradation of arthrodial cartilage is a typical characteristic in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the primary enzymes involved in extracellular matrix degradation of cartilage. The mechanism of MMPs in extracellular matrix degradation of cartilage is becoming clear with the in-depth study about MMPs, such as activation, activity regulation, related signal transduction pathways and transcription factors. This artice reviewed the activation, expression and regulation of MMPs in the related theory and empirical study of osteoarthritis cartilage.
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Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibits cardiac hypertrophy through reactivating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha signaling pathway.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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The activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy, however, the mechanism remains unclear. Rat models of cardiac hypertrophy were created with transaortic constriction (TAC) to investigate the mechanistic role of AMPK involved. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses indicated that hypertrophy marker genes ANP and beta-MHC expression were up-regulated in the myocardium of TAC rats. We also observed that the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and its target genes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-capital I, Ukrainian (CPT-capital I, Ukrainian) and medium-chain acyl-COA dehydrogenases (MCAD), were down-regulated, and the fatty acid oxidation was decreased in TAC rats. Treatment of TAC animals with 5-aminoimidazole 1 carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR, 0.5 mg/g body wt), a specific activator of AMPK, inhibited cardiac hypertrophy in TAC and reversed PPARalpha, CPT-I and MCAD expression and fatty acid oxidation. Similar observations were made in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes induced by phenylephrine in vitro. Treatment of hypertrophied cardiomyocytes with Compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, showed an effect opposite to that of AICAR. The effect of AICAR on cardiac hypertrophy was blocked after PPARalpha was silenced by transfection of cardiomyocytes with PPARalpha-siRNA. Luciferase activity assay suggested that AICAR elevates PPARalpha transcriptional activity. These results indicate that AMPK plays an important role in the inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy by activating the PPARalpha signaling pathway.
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Insights into MHC class I peptide loading from the structure of the tapasin-ERp57 thiol oxidoreductase heterodimer.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Tapasin is a glycoprotein critical for loading major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules with high-affinity peptides. It functions within the multimeric peptide-loading complex (PLC) as a disulfide-linked, stable heterodimer with the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57, and this covalent interaction is required to support optimal PLC activity. Here, we present the 2.6 A resolution structure of the tapasin-ERp57 core of the PLC. The structure revealed that tapasin interacts with both ERp57 catalytic domains, accounting for the stability of the heterodimer, and provided an example of a protein disulfide isomerase family member interacting with substrate. Mutational analysis identified a conserved surface on tapasin that interacted with MHC class I molecules and was critical for peptide loading and editing functions of the tapasin-ERp57 heterodimer. By combining the tapasin-ERp57 structure with those of other defined PLC components, we present a molecular model that illuminates the processes involved in MHC class I peptide loading.
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[Quantitative method for detection of plasma lumbrokinase content and its assessment].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
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This study was aimed to set up and evaluate a quantitative method for detecting lumbrokinase level in plasma. The lumbrokinase was used to immunize rabbit and BALB/c mouse for preparation of rabbit or mouse-derived polyclonal antibodies, and then the standard curves were drawn up by detecting the lumbrokinase diluted in PBS using the double antibody sandwich ELISA. This method further was analyzed for its specificity, precision and recovery rate. This established double antibody sandwich ELISA was used to assay the lumbrokinase in human plasma, and the assayed results were assessed. The results showed that a double antibody sandwich ELISA for the detection of lumbrokinase has been established. And the standard curve fitting R value > 0.99, the precision assessment showed that the measured values of coefficient of variation (CV) in 3 batches were all < 15%; recovery assessment in 3 batches showed that all the measured recovery rates were > 80%; the quantitative low limit was assessed as 5 ng/ml (precision CV < 15%, recovery rate > 85%). It is concluded that this method is consistent with the criteria stipulated by the Pharmacopeia, which provides a reliable measurement method for quantitative detection of plasma lumbrokinase in clinical trials.
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Improved blood pressure control with nifedipine GITS/valsartan combination versus high-dose valsartan monotherapy in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients from Asia: results from the ADVISE study, a randomized trial.
Cardiovasc Ther
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ADVISE was a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, prospective, open-label, parallel-group study comparing combination therapy of nifedipine GITS 30 mg plus valsartan 80 mg (N + V) with high-dose valsartan (160 mg) monotherapy (V160) in Asian patients with hypertension.
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SAS-6 coiled-coil structure and interaction with SAS-5 suggest a regulatory mechanism in C. elegans centriole assembly.
EMBO J.
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The centriole is a conserved microtubule-based organelle essential for both centrosome formation and cilium biogenesis. Five conserved proteins for centriole duplication have been identified. Two of them, SAS-5 and SAS-6, physically interact with each other and are codependent for their targeting to procentrioles. However, it remains unclear how these two proteins interact at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the short SAS-5 C-terminal domain (residues 390-404) specifically binds to a narrow central region (residues 275-288) of the SAS-6 coiled coil. This was supported by the crystal structure of the SAS-6 coiled-coil domain (CCD), which, together with mutagenesis studies, indicated that the association is mediated by synergistic hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The crystal structure also shows a periodic charge pattern along the SAS-6 CCD, which gives rise to an anti-parallel tetramer. Overall, our findings establish the molecular basis of the specific interaction between SAS-5 and SAS-6, and suggest that both proteins individually adopt an oligomeric conformation that is disrupted upon the formation of the hetero-complex to facilitate the correct assembly of the nine-fold symmetric centriole.
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Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant human angiogenin in Pichia pastoris.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
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The potential of angiogenin (Ang) for clinical use has been highlighted in view of its important roles in inducing angiogenesis, facilitating cell proliferation, and inhibiting cell apoptosis. To produce soluble, correctly folded recombinant protein with a high yield, a DNA fragment encoding human Ang was inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pPIC9 and transformed into Pichia pastoris. The expression of recombinant human Ang (rhAng) accounted for about 70% of total secreted proteins. Purifying the Ang from the culture supernatant yielded 30 mg/L at 90% purity by chromatography with a SP Sepharose FF column. Biological assays indicated that rhAng can induce new blood-vessel formation, promote HeLa cell proliferation, increase Erk1/2 phosphorylation, and upregulate c-myc expression. Preparation of bioactive rhAng might lay the basis for further functional study, and might provide an effective strategy for large-scale production of soluble human Ang.
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Endothelin 1 activation of endothelin A receptor/NADPH oxidase pathway and diminished antioxidants critically contribute to endothelial progenitor cell reduction and dysfunction in salt-sensitive hypertension.
Hypertension
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Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are reduced in hypertension, which inversely correlates with its mortality. Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension features elevated endothelin (ET) 1 and oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that ET-1 induces EPC dysfunction by elevating oxidative stress through the ET(A)/NADPH oxidase pathway in salt-sensitive hypertension. Both ET(A) and ET(B) receptors were expressed in EPCs, but only ET(A) receptors were significantly increased in EPCs of DOCA-salt rats. EPC number and function were reduced in DOCA-salt rats compared with sham controls, and both were reversed by in vivo blockade of ET(A) receptors or NADPH oxidase. The enzymatic activities of NAPDH oxidase and its subunits gp91(phox), p22(phox), and Rac1 were augmented in EPCs of DOCA-salt rats, with concomitantly decreased antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase 1. Reactive oxygen species level was elevated in EPCs from DOCA-salt rats, accompanied by increased EPC telomerase inactivation, senescence, and apoptosis, which were rescued by ET(A) or NADPH oxidase blockade. Cell therapy of normal or treated DOCA EPCs, but not untreated DOCA EPCs, significantly increased capillary density and blood perfusion in ischemic hindlimbs of DOCA-salt rats. p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were increased in EPCs of DOCA-salt rats, which were reversed by ET(A) antagonist, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, or polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase. Finally, in ET(B)-deficient rats, plasma ET-1 was elevated, and EPC number and telomerase activity were diminished. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that both ET-1 activation of ET(A)/NADPH oxidase pathway and diminished antioxidants critically contribute to EPC reduction and dysfunction via increased oxidative stress in salt-sensitive hypertension.
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Morphology of the trypanosome bilobe, a novel cytoskeletal structure.
Eukaryotic Cell
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The trypanosome bilobe is a cytoskeletal structure of unclear function. To date, four proteins have been shown to localize stably to it: TbMORN1, TbLRRP1, TbCentrin2, and TbCentrin4. In this study, a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy was used to explore the morphology of the bilobe and its relationship to other nearby cytoskeletal structures in the African trypanosome procyclic trypomastigote. The use of detergent/salt-extracted flagellum preparations was found to be an effective way of discerning features of the cytoskeletal ultrastructure that are normally obscured. TbMORN1 and TbCentrin4 together define a hairpin structure comprising an arm of TbCentrin4 and a fishhook of TbMORN1. The two arms flank a specialized microtubule quartet and the flagellum attachment zone filament, with TbMORN1 running alongside the former and TbCentrin4 alongside the latter. The hooked part of TbMORN1 sits atop the flagellar pocket collar marked by TbBILBO1. The TbMORN1 bilobe occasionally exhibits tendrillar extensions that seem to be connected to the basal and probasal bodies. The TbMORN1 molecules present on these tendrils undergo higher rates of turnover than those for molecules on the main bilobe structure. These observations have been integrated with previous detailed descriptions of the cytoskeletal elements in trypanosome cells.
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