JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (Hspa5) is essential for pronephros formation by mediating retinoic acid signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (Hspa5) also known as binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip) or glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78), belongs to the heat shock protein 70kDa family. As a multifunctional protein, it participates in protein folding, calcium homeostasis and serves as an essential regulator of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. It has also been implicated in signal transduction by acting as a receptor or co-receptor residing at the plasma membrane. Its function during embryonic development, however, remains largely elusive. In this study, we used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO) to knockdown Hspa5 activity in Xenopus embryos. In Hspa5 morphants, pronephros formation was strongly inhibited with the reduction of pronephric marker genes lhx1, pax2 and atp1b1. Pronephros tissue is induced in vitro by treating animal caps with all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and activin. Depletion of Hspa5 in animal caps, however, blocked the induction of pronephros as well as reduced the expression of RA-responsive genes, suggesting that knockdown of Hspa5 attenuated RA signaling. Knockdown of Hspa5 in animal caps resulted in decreased expression of lhx1, a transcription factor directly regulated by RA signaling and essential for pronephros specification. Co-injection of Hspa5MO with lhx1 mRNA partially rescues the phenotype induced by Hspa5MO. These results suggest that the RA-lhx1 signaling cascade is involved in Hspa5MO induced pronephros malformation. This study shows that Hspa5, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response, plays an essential role in pronephros formation, which is mediated in part through RA signaling during early embryonic development.
Related JoVE Video
[Autologous peripheral blood CD34+ stem cells transplanted into 100 patients with advanced cirrhosis].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate whether transplantation of autologous peripheral blood CD34+ stem cells is a viable approach for treating patients with advanced cirrhosis,which is currently hindered by a shortage in liver donors.
Related JoVE Video
Radiofrequency catheter ablation at the non-coronary cusp for the treatment of para-hisian accessory pathways.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is well established as a definitive therapy of accessory pathways (APs). Successful RFCA of anteroseptal APs at the non-coronary cusp (NCC) have been reported in several case reports. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, safety, efficacy, and long-term outcome of RFCA at the NCC for the treatment of para-hisian APs.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-26b Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Transcription and Replication by Targeting the Host Factor CHORDC1.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans, and HBV infection is a major threat to global health. HBV replication is regulated by a series of host factors including microRNAs (miRNAs), which are highly conserved small noncoding RNAs that participate in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Here we report that a chemically synthesized mimic of miR-26b inhibited HBV antigen expression, transcription, and replication, whereas antisense knockdown of endogenous miR-26b enhanced HBV replication in HepG2 cells. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that miR-26b significantly decreased HBV enhancer/promoter activities. We identified cysteine and histidine-rich domain containing 1 (CHORDC1) as a novel host factor target of miR-26b. CHORDC1 protein but not mRNA was markedly decreased by miR-26b overexpression via base-pairing with complementary sequences in the 3'UTR of its mRNA. Overexpression and knockdown studies showed that CHORDC1 increased viral antigen expression, transcription, and replication by elevating HBV enhancer/promoter activities. Conversely, HBV infection suppressed miR-26b expression and increased CHORDC1 protein level in human liver cells. Another mature miRNA of the hsa-miR-26 family, miR-26a, had similar function as miR-26b in targeting CHORDC1 and affecting HBV production. These results suggest that suppression of miR-26b expression upregulates its target gene CHORDC1, which increases HBV enhancer/promoter activities and promotes viral transcription, gene expression, and replication. Our study could provide new insights into miRNA expression and the persistence of HBV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Tacrolimus Versus Cyclosporine as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tacrolimus and cyclosporine are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection, and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 6137 patients from 27 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of patient mortality, graft loss, acute rejection, and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of new-onset diabetes. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events following renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, new-onset diabetes should be closely monitored during the medication period.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of HIF-1? and CAIX in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and their correlation with patients' prognosis.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigates the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-l alpha (HIF-1?) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and their correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis in NPC patients. The expression of HIF-1? and CAIX proteins was detected by immunohistochemical staining in 129 samples of NPC and 20 samples of chronic nasopharyngitis. The correlations between the expression of these two proteins and clinicopathological features and prognosis were evaluated in NPC patients. Our results showed that the positive expression rates of HIF-1? and CAIX proteins in NPC were significantly higher than those in chronic nasopharyngitis (both P < 0.01). In addition, high HIF-1? protein expression was correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage for NPC patients (both P < 0.01), whereas there were no findings of correlations between CAIX protein expression and gender, age, T stage, node involvement and clinical stage (all P > 0.05). The Spearman analysis indicated that HIF-1? was positively correlated with CAIX expression (r = 0.249, P = 0.004). HIF-1? and CAIX co-expression was associated with the poor overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in NPC patients (P = 0.017, P = 0.022, P = 0.033, and P = 0.017, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that the positive expression of CAIX protein was an independent prognostic factor for PFS, LRRFS and DMFS. In conclusion, overexpression of HIF-1? and CAIX might be involved in the carcinogenesis and development of NPC and they were associated with patients' poor prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Perovskite PbTiO3 Nanosheets with Dominant (001) Facets.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Single-crystalline tetragonal perovskite lead titanate (PbTiO3) nanosheets with dominant (001) facets have been successfully synthesized by employing layered K2Ti6O13 nanofibers as titanium sources. The as-prepared PbTiO3 nanosheets were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and selected-area electron diffraction. In order to understand the formation mechanism of the PbTiO3 nanosheets, a series of time-dependent experiments were performed. Because of the substitution of Pb(2+) ions for K(+) ions, the TiO6 octahedral lamellas exfoliate from the layered K2Ti6O13 crystal structure. Then the exfoliated TiO6 octahedral lamellas as templates transform to lamellar PbTiO3 species by reacting with the dehydrated Pb(2+) ions. With hydrothermal treatment prolongation, the lamellar PbTiO3 species crystallize to single-crystalline PbTiO3 nanosheets. Moreover, the thickness of the synthesized single-crystalline PbTiO3 nanosheets can be tailored in the range of 10-50 nm by controlling the hydrothermal treatment time. In addition, the band gap and the optoelectronic properties of the single-crystalline PbTiO3 nanosheets are investigated by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical analysis of sinonasal hemangiopericytoma].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical features, therapeutic methods and therapeutic effects of sinonasal hemangiopericytoma.
Related JoVE Video
DEVELOPING AN INTERVENTION TO PREVENT ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY: USING THE PLAN, DO, STUDY, ACT (PDSA) SERVICE IMPROVEMENT APPROACH.
J Ren Care
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the UK, recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for acute kidney injury point to the need for interventions to help prevent this condition. Effective medicines management is of prime importance in reducing the risk of AKI. Part of this challenge is to increase patients' awareness of their medicines and the possible need to temporarily withhold certain medications when acutely unwell.
Related JoVE Video
Network-Based Robust H?/H? Control for Linear Systems With Two-Channel Random Packet Dropouts and Time Delays.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper focuses on the robust output feedback H?/H? control issue for a class of discrete-time networked control systems with uncertain parameters and external disturbance. Sensor-to-controller and controller-to-actuator packet dropouts and time delays are considered simultaneously. According to the stochastic characteristic of the packet dropouts and time delays, a model based on a Markov jump system framework is proposed to randomly compensate for the adverse effect of the two-channel packet dropouts and time delays. To analyze the robust stability of the resulting closed-loop system, a Lyapunov function is proposed, based on which sufficient conditions for the existence of the H?/H? controller are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities, ensuring robust stochastic stability as well as the prescribed H? and H? performance. Finally, an angular positioning system is exploited to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design strategy.
Related JoVE Video
Hyperuralones A and B, new acylphloroglucinol derivatives with intricately caged cores from Hypericum uralum.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperuralone A (1), a polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol possessing an unprecedented tetracyclo-[5.3.1.1(4,9).0(4,11)]-dodecane core, was characterized from Hypericum uralum together with hyperuralone B (2), a congener with another complex caged skeleton. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and ECD calculations. A plausible biosynthetic pathway of their intriguing architectures via intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions was also proposed. Compound 1 exhibited obviously cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines in vitro (IC50 4.6-14.4 ?M).
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical analysis of 5 cases with hemangiopericytoma in nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To improve the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment efficacy of hemangiopericytoma in nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
Related JoVE Video
Newly identified biomarkers for detecting circulating tumor cells in lung adenocarcinoma.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been implicated in cancer prognosis and follow up. Detection of CTCs was considered significant in cancer evaluation. However, due to the heterogeneity and rareness of CTCs, detecting them with a single maker is usually challenged with low specificity and sensitivity. Previous studies concerning CTCs detection in lung cancer mainly focused on non-small cell lung carcinoma. Currently, there is no report yet describing the CTC detection with multiple markers in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, by employing quantitative real-time PCR, we identified four candidate genes (mRNA) that were significantly elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and biopsy tissue samples from patients with lung adenocarcinoma: cytokeratin 7 (CK7), Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel-2 (CLCA2), hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR), and human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT). Then, the four markers were used for CTC detection; namely, positive detection was defined if at least one of the four markers was elevated. The positive CTC detection rate was 74.0% in patients with lung adenocarcinoma while 2.2% for healthy controls, 6.3% for benign lung disease, and 48.0% for non-adenocarcinoma non-small cell lung carcinoma. Furthermore, in a three-year follow-up study, patients with an increase in the detection markers of CTCs (CK7, CLCA2, HMMR or hTERT) on day 90 after first detection had shorter survival time compared to those with a decrease. These results demonstrate that the combination of the four markers with specificity and sensitivity is of great value in lung adenocarcinoma prognosis and follow up.
Related JoVE Video
Discrete potentials guided radiofrequency ablation for idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Discrete potentials (DPs) have been recorded and targeted as the site of ablation of the outflow tract arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of DPs with respect to mapping and ablation for idiopathic outflow tract premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardias (VTs).
Related JoVE Video
High-Order Statistics of Weber Local Descriptors for Image Representation.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Highly discriminant visual features play a key role in different image classification applications. This study aims to realize a method for extracting highly-discriminant features from images by exploring a robust local descriptor inspired by Weber's law. The investigated local descriptor is based on the fact that human perception for distinguishing a pattern depends not only on the absolute intensity of the stimulus but also on the relative variance of the stimulus. Therefore, we firstly transform the original stimulus (the images in our study) into a differential excitation-domain according to Weber's law, and then explore a local patch, called micro-Texton, in the transformed domain as Weber local descriptor (WLD). Furthermore, we propose to employ a parametric probability process to model the Weber local descriptors, and extract the higher-order statistics to the model parameters for image representation. The proposed strategy can adaptively characterize the WLD space using generative probability model, and then learn the parameters for better fitting the training space, which would lead to more discriminant representation for images. In order to validate the efficiency of the proposed strategy, we apply three different image classification applications including texture, food images and HEp-2 cell pattern recognition, which validates that our proposed strategy has advantages over the state-of-the-art approaches.
Related JoVE Video
A feasible approach toward bioactive glass nanofibers with tunable protein release kinetics for bone scaffolds.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A range of fine bioactive glass (BG) fibers with different hydrolysis degree were synthesized via a sol-gel and electrospinning approach. Due to the increased water/TEOS ratio (X ratio) from 2 to 8, the SiOSi network integrity of BG fibers was dramatically enhanced. With a designed protein loading method using simulated body fluid (SBF)/bovine serum albumin (BSA) mixture solution, the tunable protein releasing was successfully achieved. The varied hydrolysis degree of BG fibers was found to induce distinctive releasing behavior. The protein release kinetics intends to present a more controlled and sustained manner with the decreased X ratio from 8 to 2, and such phenomenon is mainly attributed to the 'anchoring' effect of the crystalline apatite mineral layers formed at the fiber surface. This study has therefore offered another way of thinking in the investigation of feasible multifunctionalization strategies for bioactive glasses, and thus provided an impetus to the current research for future advanced BG scaffold materials.
Related JoVE Video
[Immune mechanism and clinical significance of infection immunity activation for medullary hematopoietic injury of immune-related hematocytopenia syndrome].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the pathologic effects of marrow hematopoietic cell with immunologic injury induced by infection immunity activation in patients with immune related hematocytopenia syndrome (IRHS) and elucidate its immunologic mechanism and clinical significance.
Related JoVE Video
Prussian blue-Au nanocomposites actuated hemin/G-quadruplexes catalysis for amplified detection of DNA, Hg2+ and adenosine triphosphate.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme (HRP-DNAzyme) and Prussian blue (PB)-gold (Au) nanocomposites were designed as versatile electrochemical sensing platforms for the amplified detection of DNA, Hg(2+) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). By the conjugation of the target probe with the capture probe, a conformational change resulted in the formation of HRP-DNAzyme on the PB-Au modified electrode. The redox of HRP-DNAzyme (red) was efficiently carried out in the presence of H2O2, in which PB acted as a mediator stimulating the biocatalytic functions of HRP-DNAzyme and actuated a catalytic cycle bringing an amplified signal. Specific recognition of the target DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP allowed selective amperometric detection of the target molecule. The detection limits of DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP were 50 nM, 30 pM and 3 nM, respectively. The highlight of this work is that the catalytic cycle between PB-Au nanocomposites and HRP-DNAzyme was adequately utilized in the amplification platform for versatile sensing. The novel electrocatalytic biosensor involving only one-step incubation exhibited a wide linear range, low detection limit, and satisfactory selectivity and operational stability. The proposed approach provided an ease-of-use and universal reporting system with a simple design and easy operations.
Related JoVE Video
Glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by up-regulating eNOS/iNOS.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into Sham group, IRI group and DEX group. The mice in IRI and DEX groups subjected to renal ischemia for 60 min, were treated with saline or DEX (4 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min prior to I/R. After 24 h of reperfusion, the renal function, renal pathological changes, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and the levels of iNOS and eNOS were detected. The results showed DEX significantly decreased the damage to renal function and pathological changes after renal IRI. Pre-treatment with DEX reduced ERK activation and down-regulated the level of iNOS, whereas up-regulated the level of eNOS after renal IRI. DEX could further promote the activation of GR. These findings indicated GR activation confers preconditioning-like protection against acute IRI partially by up-regulating the ratio of eNOS/iNOS.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of PI3K/AKT pathway on cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accumulating evidences indicate that aberrant activation of PI3K/AKT pathway in non-small cell lung cancer plays a vital role in tumor cell proliferation,apoptosis, and survival including drug resistance. Cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy are in widespread clinical use in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, however, the development of cisplatin resistance significantly impedes its clinic efficacy. Cisplatin resistance is a complicated process that various mechanisms participating in to interact, of which PI3K/AKT pathway keeping sustained activated is one of the most important reasons. This article reviewed the progress of research on the relationship between PI3K/AKT pathway and cisplatin resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Generalized description of spectral incoherent solitons.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spectral incoherent solitons (SIS) refer to an incoherent solitonic structure that only can be identified in the frequency domain and which is sustained by noninstantaneous Raman-like nonlinearities. We provide a generalized formulation of SIS by considering the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We show that nonlinear dispersive effects (e.g., self-steepening) dramatically affect the structure of SIS, in particular by significantly decelerating their spectral velocity in frequency space. The wave turbulence description of the problem reveals an underlying self-organization process: the soliton trajectory in frequency space is selected in such a way that it allows the system to self-organize into a stationary SIS state.
Related JoVE Video
Selenium-enriched Spirulina protects INS-1E pancreatic beta cells from human islet amyloid polypeptide-induced apoptosis through suppression of ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and PI3/AKT pathway.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation is linked to loss of pancreatic beta cells in type 2 diabetes, in part due to oxidative stress. Currently, little is known about the effects of selenium-enriched Spirulina on beta cells with the presence of hIAPP. In this study, INS-1E rat insulinoma cells were used as a model to evaluate in vitro protective effects of Se-enriched Spirulina extract (Se-SE) against hIAPP-induced cell death, as well as the underlying mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
A DAQ-device-based continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy system for measuring human functional brain activity.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the last two decades, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is getting more and more popular as a neuroimaging technique. The fNIRS instrument can be used to measure local hemodynamic response, which indirectly reflects the functional neural activities in human brain. In this study, an easily implemented way to establish DAQ-device-based fNIRS system was proposed. Basic instrumentation components (light sources driving, signal conditioning, sensors, and optical fiber) of the fNIRS system were described. The digital in-phase and quadrature demodulation method was applied in LabVIEW software to distinguish light sources from different emitters. The effectiveness of the custom-made system was verified by simultaneous measurement with a commercial instrument ETG-4000 during Valsalva maneuver experiment. The light intensity data acquired from two systems were highly correlated for lower wavelength (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.92, P < 0.01) and higher wavelength (r = 0.84, P < 0.01). Further, another mental arithmetic experiment was implemented to detect neural activation in the prefrontal cortex. For 9 participants, significant cerebral activation was detected in 6 subjects (P < 0.05) for oxyhemoglobin and in 8 subjects (P < 0.01) for deoxyhemoglobin.
Related JoVE Video
Antitumor platinum(II) complexes of N-monoalkyl 1R,2R-diamino-cyclohexanes with 3-(nitrooxy)cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate as a leaving group.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of platinum(II) complexes of N-monoalkyl-1R,2R-diaminocylclohexanes with 3-(nitrooxy)cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate as a leaving group were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H, (13)C and (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy together with ESI-MS spectrometer. In vitro cytotoxicity study on these complexes indicated they have considerable cytotoxicity against the tested cancer cell lines. Notably, complexes 2, 4, 6 and 8 showed high cytotoxicity against human A549 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. The DNA binding of the platinum-based complexes 1 and 3-5 studied by agarose gel electrophoresis was in accordance with cytotoxicity to some extent. Reactions between the corresponding aqua analogues of the resulting complexes and glutathione (GSH) were studied by kinetics method under pseudo-first-order conditions using UV-Vis spectrophotometric technique. The results indicated that the introduction of alkyl moieties in 1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane (1R,2R-DACH) decreased the reaction rates of the aqua analogues of complexes 3-5 and GSH under the tested condition. Moreover, the stability of complex 8 was investigated by HPLC-MS technique at different time in 36 h.
Related JoVE Video
Unfolded protein response is required for the definitive endodermal specification of mouse embryonic stem cells via Smad2 and ?-catenin signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tremendous efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control the specification of definitive endoderm cell fate in gene knockout mouse models and ES cell (ESC) differentiation models. However, the impact of the unfolded protein response (UPR), because of the stress of the endoplasmic reticulum on endodermal specification, is not well addressed. We employed UPR-inducing agents, thapsigargin and tunicamycin, in vitro to induce endodermal differentiation of mouse ESCs. Apart from the endodermal specification of ESCs, Western blotting demonstrated the enhanced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear translocation of ?-catenin in ESC-derived cells. The inclusion of the endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid to the induction cultures prevented the differentiation of ESCs into definitive endodermal cells even when Activin A was supplemented. Also, the addition of the TGF-? inhibitor SB431542 and the Wnt/?-catenin antagonist IWP-2 negated the endodermal differentiation of ESCs mediated by thapsigargin and tunicamycin. These data suggest that the activation of the UPR appears to orchestrate the induction of the definitive endodermal cell fate of ESCs via both the Smad2 and ?-catenin signaling pathways. The prospective regulatory machinery may be helpful for directing ESCs to differentiate into definitive endodermal cells for cellular therapy in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Use of an artificial neural network to predict risk factors of nosocomial infection in lung cancer patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Statistical methods to analyze and predict the related risk factors of nosocomial infection in lung cancer patients are various, but the results are inconsistent. A total of 609 patients with lung cancer were enrolled to allow factor comparison using Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney test or the Chi-square test. Variables that were significantly related to the presence of nosocomial infection were selected as candidates for input into the final ANN model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the performance of the artificial neural network (ANN) model and logistic regression (LR) model. The prevalence of nosocomial infection from lung cancer in this entire study population was 20.1% (165/609), nosocomial infections occurring in sputum specimens (85.5%), followed by blood (6.73%), urine (6.0%) and pleural effusions (1.82%). It was shown that long term hospitalization (? 22 days, P= 0.000), poor clinical stage (IIIb and IV stage, P=0.002), older age (? 61 year old, P=0.023), and use the hormones were linked to nosocomial infection and the ANN model consisted of these four factors .The artificial neural network model with variables consisting of age, clinical stage, time of hospitalization, and use of hormones should be useful for predicting nosocomial infection in lung cancer cases.
Related JoVE Video
Oxymatrine extracted from Sophora flavescens inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells in vitro.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxymatrine, one of the most active components of the ethanol extracts from Sophora flavescens, is known for its potent antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of its action in mediating the cell apoptosis remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the proliferation inhibitory and apoptotic activities of oxymatrine against human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. The compound was found to markedly and dose-dependently inhibit the cell proliferation determined by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation. Oxymatrine also induced the cell apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner as showed by the annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and TUNEL assay. Furthermore, a disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and an up-regulation of cleaved caspases-3, and-9 and downregulation of Bax/Bcl-2 was evidenced in the oxymatrine-treated cells. These proteins have been known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of apoptosis. In conclusion, these observations indicate of the oxymatrine potential as an effective antitumor agent against osteosarcoma. Moreover, the compound appears to exert its anti-tumor action by stimulating the caspase-triggered signaling pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Chronic mountain sickness in Chinese Han males who migrated to the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau: application and evaluation of diagnostic criteria for chronic mountain sickness.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic mountain sickness (CMS), originally characterized by excess hemoglobin (Hb), is currently diagnosed using score-based diagnostic criteria combined with excessive erythrocytosis and clinical symptoms. However, the current criteria have limited applicability. We applied these criteria to 1,029 Chinese Han males migrated to and have been stayed at the Qinghai-Tibet plateau (3,700-5,000 m) for 2-96 months to investigate the prevalence of CMS and its correlations with Hb concentration, altitude, and the length of residence.
Related JoVE Video
Growth and bending-sensitive photoluminescence of a flexible PbTiO?/ZnO nanocomposite.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A brushlike PbTiO3 (PTO)/ZnO nanocomposite with ZnO nanowires (NWs) grown epitaxially on the surface of single-crystal ferroelectric tetragonal PTO NWs is successfully fabricated onto a flexible substrate via a two-step hydrothermal process. In this nanocomposite, a ZnO NW grew along [0001] on the (101) plane of the core PTO NW with a lattice mismatch of 1.06% to form an effective ferroelectric/semiconductor interface. It is found that the ultraviolet photoluminescence emission of the nanocomposite could be easily tuned by its bending curvatures at room temperature. This intriguing phenomenon can be understood by the bending-induced polarization field from the PTO NW, which could reduce the bending degree of the energy band of the ZnO NWs through the interface. Throughthe design of an effective interface, this kind of ferroelectric/semiconductor nanocomposite may find potential applications in sensor and piezophotonic nanodevices.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on decoction's effect of different processed rhizomes of Cibotium barometz on retinoic acid induced male rats osteoporosis].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study compared the decoction's HPLC figures of the different processed rhizomes of Cibotium barometz including the raw, the sand-baked, the wined, the steamed and the salted, on the basis of which, with the sand-baked Drynaria fortunei decoction as the positive control group, comparingall groups' decoction, concentration of which was 104.2 g x L(-1), for 4 weeks, by their effects (s-TRAP and total scores of OPG, Ca, P, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1) on retinoic acid induced male rats osteoporosis. The experiment results showed the sand-baked and the wined were better than the steamed, the salted and the raw;in the processing methods' selection, the sand-baked was a better heating method than the steamed and the rice wine was the better excipient than the salt. It provided a reference to explain the processing principle of rhizomes of C. barometz and work mechanism of anti-osteoporosis.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic efficacy of IL-17A antibody injection in preventing the development of colitis associated carcinogenesis in mice.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic inflammation increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Proinflammatory cytokines play a critical role in mediating the development of colitis associated cancer (CAC). In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of anti-interleukin (IL)-17A by anti-IL-17A antibody injection on the development of CAC was assessed in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) plus dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced CAC mouse model. The results showed that mice dosed with DMH plus DSS for 10 weeks evoked high degree dysplastic lesion in the large bowel that accompanied with significant increased IL-17A expression, proliferation index and inflammation degree in mice. After anti-IL-17A antibody injection for 2 weeks, the number of tumors, proliferation index and the expression level of IL-17A protein in the large bowel tissues were significantly decreased. Therefore, we concluded that the anti-IL-17A blockade can suppress the development of CAC and is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of CAC in colitis mice.
Related JoVE Video
Simvastatin inhibits inflammation in ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is associated with leukocyte accumulation and tissue injury. The aim of this research was to investigate the protective effect of simvastatin on hind limb I/R inflammation and tissue damage. Mice were subjected to hind limb ischemic insult for 2 h and were simultaneously administered an intraperitoneal injection of simvastatin (5 mg/kg); this was followed by 36 h of reperfusion. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the muscles of the hind limb were determined. CXC chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and P-selectin, were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Leukocyte rolling and adhesion in vitro was assessed to indicate leukocyte recruitment at the site of inflammation. Quantitative measurement of skeletal muscle tissue injury was performed. The fluorescent dye level in tissue and serum was used to determine hind limb vascular leakage and tissue edema after I/R. Systemic and differentiated leukocytes were also counted. Simvastatin significantly reduced MIP-2, KC, TNF-?, MPO, IL-6, and P-selectin levels compared to the sham group and I/R plus pretreatment with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (P<0.05). Compared to the sham group and I/R plus PBS group, the I/R plus simvastatin group had attenuated inflammation, vascular leakage, and muscular damage (P<0.05). Simvastatin also significantly inhibited leukocyte rolling and adhesion compared to PBS (P<0.05). Our results suggest that simvastatin may be an effective protectant against tissue injury associated with I/R.
Related JoVE Video
A new strategy for difficult airway management with visual needle cricothyroidotomy: a manikin study.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Conventional needle cricothyroidotomy uses blind manipulation. We investigated the feasibility and efficiency of a new visually guided needle cricothyroidotomy technique.
Related JoVE Video
Investigation of the chemical compositions in tobacco of different origins and maturities at harvest by GC-MS and HPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tobacco samples of a same cultivar grown in different plantations in China were evaluated for their chemical compositions at different maturities for the first time. This was accomplished by a comprehensive and reliable method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS) to analyze the fat-soluble and polar components in 12 batches of tobacco samples of three origins and four maturities. The GC-MS analyses showed that tobacco samples harvested at 40 days after transplantation exhibited more fat-soluble components, while those harvested at 100 days after transplantation exhibited the least fat-soluble components. Tentatively, identification of the main components as well as quantitative analyses of eight reference compounds, including five alkaloids, two polyphenols, and a coumarin, was performed by the developed HPLC-QTOF-PDA method. Results showed significant differences among origins and maturities in the contents of these compounds. The nicotine contents showed great variety among the 12 tobacco samples. The highest nicotine content were found in a sample from Zhengzhou harvested at 40 days after transplantation (ZZ-T with 25399.39 ± 308.95 ?g/g), and the lowest nicotine level was detected in a sample from Zunyi harvested at 60 days after transplantation (ZY-X with 1654.49 ± 34.52 ?g/g). The highest level of rutin was found in a Jiangchuan sample harvested at 60 days after transplantation (JC-X with 725.93 ± 40.70 ?g/g), and the lowest rutin content was detected in a Zunyi tobacco sample harvested at 60 days after transplantation (ZY-X with 87.42 ± 2.78 ?g/g). The developed method provided a convenient approach which might be applied for rapid maturity evaluation and tobacco flavor identification and also holds the potential for analysis of compounds present in other plants.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of different acupuncture and moxibustion methods on ultrastructure of gastrocnemius in rats].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the efficacy differences in early intervention of different acupuncture and moxibustion methods on gastrocnemius fatigue in rats induced by electrical stimulation.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants on Anti-insulin Resistance Bioactivity of DXMS-Induced Insulin Resistant HepG2 Cells.
Nat Prod Bioprospect
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Medicinal plants have a long history of use in China to treat diabetic symptoms. Ancient Chinese medical manuscripts and ethnobotanical surveys document plant remedies that continue to be actively used in China for the treatment of diabetic symptoms. Based on a systematic ancient Chinese medical manuscripts review in combination with ethnobotanical survey, 16 medicinal plants for the traditional treatment of diabetic symptoms were identified for the evaluation of anti-insulin resistance bioactivity. The biological activity of 16 medicinal plants was tested on dexamethasone (DXMS)-induced insulin resistant HepG2 cells. The result shows that 11 of the 16 medicinal plants enhanced glucose uptake of DXMS-induced insulin resistant HepG2 cells, thereby demonstrating their ability to increase insulin sensitivity, other five medicinal plants including Astragalus membranaceus were found ineffective. The study shows that ancient Chinese medical manuscripts and ethnobotanical surveys on plants for the prevention and treatment of diabetic symptoms provide a promising knowledge base for drug discovery to mitigate the global diabetes epidemic.
Related JoVE Video
Photochromic hybrid containing in situ-generated benzyl viologen and novel trinuclear [Bi3Cl14]5-: improved photoresponsive behavior by the ?···? interactions and size effect of inorganic oligomer.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two new member of (V)((2n+2)/2)[Bi(2n)Cl(8n+2)] series hybrids, (BzV)2[Bi2Cl10] (1) and (BzV)5[Bi3Cl14]2·(C6H5CH2)2O (2) (where BzV(2+) = N,N'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium and (C6H5CH2)2O = dibenzyl ether) have been obtained, and compound 2 contains an unprecedented discrete trimer [Bi3Cl14](5-) counterion. The novel in situ-synthesized symmetric viologen cation with aromatic groups on both sides of 4,4'-bipy would provide more opportunities to create ?···? interactions to optimize the photochromic property of the hybrid, and different bismuthated-halide oligomers enable us to discuss the size effect in this series of compounds. Both 1 and 2 are photochromic, and their photoresponsive rate is faster than that of reported viologen-metal halide hybrids. Experimental and theoretical data illustrated that the size of the inorganic oligomer can significantly influence the photoresponsive rate of the viologen dication, and the ?···? interaction behaves as not only a powerful factor to stabilize the viologen monocation radical but also the second electron-transfer pathway, from a ?-conjugated substituent to a viologen cation, for the photochromic process.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-221 accentuates IFN?s anti-HCV effect by downregulating SOCS1 and SOCS3.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MiR-221 was reported to be upregulated and play roles in tumorigenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of miR-221 in HCV infection remains unknown. In this study, it was found that miR-221 was upregulated in serum of HCV chronic hepatitis patients and Huh7.5.1 cells infected with HCVcc. Further studies indicated that miR-221 mimic could accentuate anti-HCV effect of IFN-? in HCVcc model, miR-221 mimic could further repressed 10% HCV RNA expression and 35-42% HCV core or NS5A protein expression in HCVcc infected Huh7.5.1 cells treated with 100IU/mL IFN-?, and miR-221 inhibitor resulted in the reverse effects. Furthermore, two members of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family, SOCS1 and SOCS3, which are well established inhibitory factors on IFN/JAK/STAT pathway, were identified as the targets of miR-221 and were involved in the effect of miR-221. In conclusion, miR-221 could accentuate IFN?s anti-HCV effect by targeting SOCS1 and SOCS3.
Related JoVE Video
Photocatalytic degradation of imidacloprid by composite catalysts H3PW12O40/La-N-TiO2 under visible light.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Catalysts H3PW12O40/La-N-TiO2 were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, SEM and UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectrum (DRS). It was demonstrated that Keggin structure of H3PW12O40 retained in composite materials by the FT-IR test; After doping La-N, the BET surface area of them is nearly 2 times as that of pure TiO2; the SEM images of the catalysts revealed that they were consist of relatively uniform spherical grains with good dispersion; UV-Vis DRS showed the photoresponse performance of the prepared composites for the visible light area were improved after doping La and N. The prepared composites were used as photocatalysts in degradation of pesticide imidacloprid. Results revealed that 30%H3 PW12O40/0.3%La-1.0%N-TiO2 possessed the best photocatalytic activity under visible light above 400 nm. Thus, imidacloprid were degraded 91.57% after 3 h irradiation. When 30% H3PW12O40/0.3%La-1.0%N-TiO2 was used as catalysts, degradation ration could even reach 98.89% after 6 h.
Related JoVE Video
Small nucleolar RNA 113-1 suppresses tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis. The roles of small nucleolar RNA 113-1 (SNORD113-1) on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Investigation of the epidermal growth factor receptor mutation rate in non-small cell lung cancer patients and the analysis of associated risk factors using logistic regression.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mutation rate of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to apply logistic regression analysis to investigate the factors associated with EGFR gene mutation to provide data for the treatment of NSCLC. Paraffin tissue, bronchoscopy or pleural effusion specimens were collected from 176 NSCLC patients following pathological diagnosis. The EGFR gene exon 19 delL747-S75linss and delL747-S752ins deletion mutations, and the exon 20 T790M and exon 21 L858R mutations were identified using amplification refractory mutation system analysis. The clinical data and laboratory results of the patients were collected, and the total mutation rate of the EGFR gene in exons 19, 20 and 21 in the 176 NSCLC patients was found to be 48.3% (85/176). In addition, the EGFR gene mutation rate in adenocarcinoma was found to be significantly higher than that in squamous cell and large cell carcinoma (?(2)=12.454; P=0.002). Furthermore, the mutation rate was found to be significantly higher in females than in males (?(2)=13.78; P=0.001). The rate of exon 19 mutation was 21.0% (37/176), whereas the rate of exon 20 T90M mutation was 1.7% (3/176) and that of exon 21 L858R mutation was 29.0% (51/176). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the female gender, adenocarcinoma, distant metastasis and chemotherapy are factors associated with EGFR gene mutation (P<0.05). The female gender resulted in an increased incidence (2.438 times that of males) of EGFR mutation. Similarly, adenocarcinoma, distant metastasis and chemotherapy exhibited an increase in EGFR mutation risk (by 2.571, 2.810 and 0.367 times, respectively). The rate of EGFR mutation was high in the NSCLC patients, predominantly in exons 21 and 19. Therefore, these factors (female gender, adenocarcinoma, distant metastasis and chemotherapy) may increase the probability of EGFR gene mutations.
Related JoVE Video
Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Salvia yunnanensis.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Forty-six abietane type diterpenoids possessing nine different fused ring systems were characterized from the roots of Salvia yunnanensis, six of which (salyunnanins A-F, 1-6) had different nor-abietane, homo-abietane, seco-abietane, and normal abietane architectures. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. The inhibitory activities of these isolates against six human tumor lines were tested in vitro. Several of the compounds exhibited substantial cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 0.86-10.1?M.
Related JoVE Video
Hexabromocyclododecanes in surface sediments from Shanghai, China: spatial distribution, seasonal variation and diastereoisomer-specific profiles.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The concentrations, spatial distribution, diastereoisomer-specific profiles of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in surface sediments from three major rivers in Shanghai as well as the seasonal variation of HBCDs were investigated. The concentrations of total HBCD diastereoisomers ranged from 0.05 to 6.87ngg(-1)dw. Significant spatial distribution of total HBCDs concentrations were observed. The mean concentration of total HBCDs followed the order of Suzhou Creek (2.00ngg(-1))>Huangpu River (1.59ngg(-1))>Yunzao Creek (0.77ngg(-1)). The concentration was a relatively low HBCDs level compared to levels measured in domestic and other parts of the world. The proportions of ?-HBCD in sediment samples were generally higher than that of commercial formulations. This might be due to thermal isomerization from ?-HBCD to ?-HBCD and slower degradation rate of ?-HBCD compared to ?-HBCD in anaerobic conditions. The concentrations of ?HBCD in the summer were significantly higher than those in the winter (paired t test, p<0.01). This seasonal variation could probably be attributed to a combined effect of temperature and wet deposition. Moreover, a poor and no significant correlation between ?HBCD levels and TOC content in sediments was observed, suggesting that the spatial distributions of HBCDs were not constrained by the TOC in sediments of Shanghai.
Related JoVE Video
Estrogen preserves split renal function in a chronic complete unilateral ureteral obstruction animal model.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Estrogen may help to preserve renal function in chronic kidney disease. This study examined whether estrogen administration or deprivation affected the split renal function in rats subjected to chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Fifteen adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Low- and high-estrogen groups were modeled by female castration or estrogen intraperitoneal injection, respectively, and the rats in the normal-estrogen group were untreated. Intermittent split renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR)] examination was performed on rats on days 2, 6 and 16 after UUO surgery via single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry, pathology examination and electron microscopy were performed to compare the histological differences. Low-, normal- and high-estrogen groups were successfully established (P<0.001). In the acute stage, the GFR of the contralateral healthy kidney showed a greater compensatory rise in the normal- and high-estrogen groups than in the low-estrogen group (P<0.05). In the chronic stage, the GFR of the obstructed kidney continued to decrease with the GFR of the high-estrogen group being significantly better preserved than that of the low-estrogen group (P<0.05). The GFR of the contralateral kidney compensated to the greatest extent in the high-estrogen group (P=0.01), and the total GFR was significantly superior (P<0.05). Routine H&E examination showed significant histological changes following surgery. The low-estrogen group had significant renal interstitial fibrosis compared with the normal- and high-estrogen groups (P<0.05), as observed by immunohistochemical (IHC) examination of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Electron-microscopic (EM) examination also differentiated between groups. In conclusion, estrogen administration and deprivation significantly affected renal function. Estrogen may preserve the split renal function (GFR) in rats with chronic UUO.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of long-chain non-encoding RNA differential expression in non-small cell lung cancer by microarray analysis and preliminary verification.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long?chain non?coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the roles of lncRNAs in NSCLC are not well understood. In this study, a high?throughput microarray was used to compare the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in NSCLC and normal tissue (NT) samples. Several candidate adenocarcinoma?associated lncRNAs were verified by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR). Using abundant and varied probes, we were able to assess 30,586 lncRNAs and 26,109 coding transcripts in our microarray. It was observed that 1,242 lncRNAs and 1,102 mRNAs were differentially expressed (?2?fold change) in NSCLC compared with NT samples, indicating that numerous lncRNAs were significantly upregulated or downregulated in NSCLC. We also observed via RT?qPCR that 10 lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in NSCLC compared with histologically matched normal lung tissues. Among these, RP11?385J1.2 and TUBA4B were the most aberrantly expressed lncRNAs, as estimated by RT?qPCR in 90 pairs of NSCLC and NT samples. In conclusion, the present study detected the lncRNA expression patterns in NSCLC by microarray. The results revealed that a number of lncRNAs were differentially expressed in NSCLC tissues, suggesting that they may play a key role in tumor development.
Related JoVE Video
Sterols and Terpenoids from Viburnum odoratissimum.
Nat Prod Bioprospect
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new stigmasterol type natural product, viburodorol A (1), along with eleven known sterols and terpenoids (2-12), were isolated from the aerial parts of Viburnum odoratissimum. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. It's noteworthy that compound 2, the major constituent of this plant, can significantly stimulate glucose absorption in insulin resistant HepG2 cells without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, this compound can also restore the glucose absorption in DXMS-induced insulin resistant 3T3-L1 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Development of an electrochemical sensor based on the catalysis of ferrocene actuated hemin/G-quadruplex enzyme for the detection of potassium ions.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sensitive and selective sensors need to be explored to detect the physiological potassium level due to its important role in the living organisms. In the present system, a novel electron transfer mediator actuated electrocatalytical biosensor was demonstrated to assay K(+) based on the conformational change of DNA. With the hybridization between the complementary bases and the self-folding of guanine-rich nucleic acid sequence, the horseradish peroxidase-mimicking enzyme (HRP-DNAzyme) was formed and brought to approach the ferrocene (Fc) unit on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Thus, in the system, Fc unit acted as the relay, stimulating the electrical contact of HRP-DNAzyme with the electrode to obtain the bioelectrocatalyze reduction signal. Under the Fc actuated catalysis of HRP-DNAzyme and amplification of Au nanoparticles, the obtained biosensor exhibited a sensitive detection for K(+). A satisfying result of a wide linear range and low detection limit were obtained with the novel electrocatalytical biosensor which was then applied in real samples.
Related JoVE Video
Synergic degradation of diesel by Scirpus triqueter and its endophytic bacteria.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The endophytic bacterium isolated from Scirpus triqueter was proved to be an oil-degraded bacterium. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the removal ratio of diesel under the combined effect of oil-degraded microorganism (Pseudomonas sp. J4AJ) and S. triqueter. The effect of diesel on plant growth parameters, soil enzymes and microbial community was assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the soils which were planted with S. triqueter and inoculated with J4AJ displayed the highest removal ratio (54.51 ± 0.15%) after 60-day experiment. However, the removal ratio of J4AJ-treated soils was 38.97 ± 0.55%. Diesel was toxic to S. triqueter, as evidenced by growth inhibition during the experimental period. However, the plant height and stem biomass in the soils inoculated with J4AJ significantly increased. The combined effect of S. triqueter and J4AJ improved the enzyme activities of the catalase and dehydrogenase in the contaminated soil. The diversity index in soils under the effect of S. triqueter combined with J4AJ was lower than that of the other soil samples. The principal analysis of phospholipid fatty acid signatures revealed that the combined effect of S. triqueter and J4AJ increased the differences of soil microbial community structure with the other treatments.
Related JoVE Video
Human behavior-based particle swarm optimization.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has attracted many researchers interested in dealing with various optimization problems, owing to its easy implementation, few tuned parameters, and acceptable performance. However, the algorithm is easy to trap in the local optima because of rapid losing of the population diversity. Therefore, improving the performance of PSO and decreasing the dependence on parameters are two important research hot points. In this paper, we present a human behavior-based PSO, which is called HPSO. There are two remarkable differences between PSO and HPSO. First, the global worst particle was introduced into the velocity equation of PSO, which is endowed with random weight which obeys the standard normal distribution; this strategy is conducive to trade off exploration and exploitation ability of PSO. Second, we eliminate the two acceleration coefficients c 1 and c 2 in the standard PSO (SPSO) to reduce the parameters sensitivity of solved problems. Experimental results on 28 benchmark functions, which consist of unimodal, multimodal, rotated, and shifted high-dimensional functions, demonstrate the high performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of convergence accuracy and speed with lower computation cost.
Related JoVE Video
Introducing a salt bridge into the lipase of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia results in a very large increase in thermal stability.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High thermostability of enzymes is a prerequisite for their biotechnological applications. An organic solvent-tolerant and cold-active lipase, from the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, was unstable above 40 °C in previous studies. To increase the enzyme stability, possible hydrogen-bond networks were simulated by the introduction of a salt bridge in a highly flexible region of the protein. Compared with the wild-type lipase, a mutant lipase (G165D and F73R) showed a >900-fold improvement in half-life at 50 °C, with the optimal activity-temperature increasing from 35 to 90 °C. Therefore, the hydrogen-bond strategy is a powerful approach for improving enzyme stability through the introduction of a salt bridge.
Related JoVE Video
miR-128 and miR-149 enhance the chemosensitivity of temozolomide by Rap1B-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling in glioblastoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most deadly diseases affecting humans, and is often characterized by poor survival and by high resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent which is widely used in the treatment of GBM following surgery. Although TMZ may restrain GBM growth, TMZ resistance is also common and accounts for numerous cases of treatment failure. Studies indicate that aberrant miRNA expression is associated with hallmark malignant properties of GBM. Thus, miRNA-based anticancer therapeutic approaches have been exploited, either alone or in combination with standard targeted therapies to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy agents. In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression of miR-128 and miR-149 was downregulated in glioblastoma, and their overexpression inhibited the invasion of glioblastoma cells by targeting Rap1B-mediated cytoskeletal and related molecular alterations. Moreover, miR-128 and miR-149 enhanced the chemosensitivity of glioblastoma cells to TMZ.
Related JoVE Video
Generation and electric control of spin-valley-coupled circular photogalvanic current in WSe2.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The valley degree of freedom in layered transition-metal dichalcogenides provides an opportunity to extend the functionalities of spintronics and valleytronics devices. The achievement of spin-coupled valley polarization induced by the non-equilibrium charge-carrier imbalance between two degenerate and inequivalent valleys has been demonstrated theoretically and by optical experiments. However, the generation of a valley and spin current with the valley polarization in transition-metal dichalcogenides remains elusive. Here we demonstrate a spin-coupled valley photocurrent, within an electric-double-layer transistor based on WSe2, whose direction and magnitude depend on the degree of circular polarization of the incident radiation and can be further modulated with an external electric field. This room-temperature generation and electric control of a valley and spin photocurrent provides a new property of electrons in transition-metal dichalcogenide systems, and thereby enables additional degrees of control for quantum-confined spintronic devices.
Related JoVE Video
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil and outdoor dust from a multi-functional area of Shanghai: Levels, compositional profiles and interrelationships.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners were investigated in soil and outdoor dust taken from Jiading District, Shanghai City. The concentrations of ?13PBDEs (BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-66, BDE-71, BDE-85, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-138, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183 and BDE-190) and BDE-209 ranged from 0.37 to 32.9ngg(-1) and 4.31 to 141.8ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil. Concentrations in outdoor dust ranged from 1.03 to 112.5ngg(-1) and 6.71 to 342.1ngg(-1) (dw) for ?13PBDEs and BDE-209. BDE-209 was the predominant congener both in soil and outdoor dust, but the BDE-209 contribution was much lower in dust compared with that in soil. A significant correlation between PBDEs congeners and specific land use type was observed, and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the major source of PBDE in samples was associated with prevalent use of technical Deca-BDE, which also suggested the contributions from Penta-BDE and Octa-BDE mixtures. Canonical correlation analysis suggested the two sets of PBDEs data (soil and outdoor dust) were uncorrelated, and Spearman correlation coefficient matrix implied that the degradation pathways of PBDEs were different between soil and outdoor dust.
Related JoVE Video
Additive effects of blood glucose lowering drugs, statins and renin-angiotensin system blockers on all-site cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of all-site cancer that may be mediated through activation of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme-A-reductase (HMGCR) pathways. We examined the joint associations of optimal glycemic control (HbA1c <7%), RAS inhibitors and HMGCR inhibitors on cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolomic study of raw and processed Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz by LC-MS.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bai-Zhu, the dried rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (AMK), is widely used as a tonic herbal in eastern Asia. It is commonly used as prepared slices in clinic by stir-frying with wheat bran (processed AMK). In the theories of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Bai-Zhu possesses significantly different therapeutic effects before and after processing. However, the molecular mechanics of this processing is still unknown. In this paper, the strategy of metabolomics was employed to investigate the changes of chemical constituents in Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz after processing. Meanwhile, the cell activity test variation of processed and unprocessed medicine was used to interpret the processing mechanism of AMK. Using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) with the method of multivariate statistic analyses including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, atractylenolide VI, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 8-?-methoxy atractylenolide I and Selina-4 (14), 7 (11)-dien-8-one were rapidly explored as the potential chemical markers of raw and processed AMK, respectively. Furthermore, it could be speculated that the processing mechanism of AMK was to increase the content of atractylenolide III which could strengthen the effect on gastrointestinal function.
Related JoVE Video
Hypercohones D-G, New Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinol Type Natural Products from Hypericum cohaerens.
Nat Prod Bioprospect
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol type metabolites, hypercohones D-G (1-4), along with four known analogues (5-8), were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum cohaerens. The structures of these isolates were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activities of these isolates against five human cancer cell lines in vitro were also tested.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood.
Related JoVE Video
Telmisartan protects 5/6 Nx rats against renal injury by enhancing nNOS-derived NO generation via regulation of PPAR? signaling.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rat model was employed to address the impact of telmisartan on CKD related renal injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. It was noted that telmisartan provided protection for rats against 5/6 Nx induced lethality. Telmisartan treated 5/6 Nx rats manifested improved renal function as characterized by the higher GFR but lower urinary albumin, BUN and Scr as compared with that of control rats. Telmisartan treatment also significantly decreased systolic blood pressure and alleviated glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that telmisartan possesses the capability to increase NO generation in the kidney. Further studies demonstrated that telmisartan promotes PPAR? expression, by which it specifically enhances nNOS expression in the kidneys after 5/6 Nx insult. Particularly, blockade of PPAR? signaling by GW9662 abolished the protective effect conferred by telmisartan, indicating that telmisartan induction of renal nNOS expression along with NO generation is dependent on PPAR? signaling. Together, our data support that telmisartan could be a promising drug for treatment of chronic kidney diseases in diverse clinical settings.
Related JoVE Video
Diabetes Promotes DMH-Induced Colorectal Cancer by Increasing the Activity of Glycolytic Enzymes in Rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between diabetes mellitus and colorectal carcinogenesis as well as the possible mechanism involved in this interaction. Diabetes rat models were induced with a low dose of STZ followed by a low dose of DMH to induce colorectal cancer. The formation of ACF in the colon and the incidence, number and size of tumors were measured. The activity of glycolytic enzymes in colonic tissues was also measured. The results demonstrated that both the total number of ACF and the number of foci that contain a different number of crypts were increased in diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental treatment, the incidence, number and size of tumors were also increased in diabetic rats. Overall, these data indicated that diabetes increased the risk of colorectal cancer. The activity of HK and PK in colonic tissues was increased in diabetic rats, whereas the activity of PDH was decreased. In addition, the activities of these enzymes in intratumor were higher than that of in peritumor. These data indicated that the high rate of glycolysis may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in diabetic rats.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of insufficient physical activity on mortality and life expectancy in jiangxi province of china, 2007-2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physical inactivity remains an under-researched field in terms of studying burden of disease at provincial level, and no studies have examined the effects of inactivity on life expectancy (LE) in China. The purpose of this study was to estimate mortality risk and LE effects associated with insufficient levels of physical activity in Jiangxi province.
Related JoVE Video
Long noncoding RNA expression profiles of lung adenocarcinoma ascertained by microarray analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of lung cancer. However, the roles of lncRNAs in lung cancer are not well understood.
Related JoVE Video
Sleep disturbances and health-related quality of life in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sleep disturbances are common in patients with chronic lung diseases, but little is known about the prevalence in patients with bronchiectasis. A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants associated with sleep disturbances, and the correlation between sleep disturbances and quality of life (QoL) in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis.
Related JoVE Video
Serum uric acid is associated with incident chronic kidney disease in middle-aged populations: a meta-analysis of 15 cohort studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mounting evidence indicates that elevated serum uric acid may increase the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our goal was to systematically evaluate longitudinal cohort studies for the association of serum uric acid levels and incident CKD.
Related JoVE Video
A "turn-on" carbon nanotube-Ag nanoclusters fluorescent sensor for sensitive and selective detection of Hg(2+) with cyclic amplification of exonuclease III activity.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With exonuclease III activity on DNA hybrids containing thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine, a label-free ultrasensitive "turn-on" fluorescent sensor involving "quenching" and "reappearing" processes based on a carbon nanotube-Ag nanoclusters system is demonstrated for amplified determination of Hg(2+).
Related JoVE Video
[Advances in osteogenic mechanism and osteogenic effects of bone morphogenetic protein 6].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To review the osteogenic mechanism and osteogenic effects of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) so as to provide the basis for further research of BMP-6.
Related JoVE Video
Renal Interstitial Infiltration and Tertiary Lymphoid Organ Neogenesis in IgA Nephropathy.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have identified inflammatory features that enable the prediction of renal outcome of IgA nephropathy (IgAN); however, validation of these findings is still needed. This prospective study was performed to determine the characteristics of renal interstitial infiltration and tertiary lymphoid organ (TLO) neogenesis in a cohort of Chinese patients with IgAN.
Related JoVE Video
A simple, fast, and sensitive assay for the detection of DNA, thrombin, and adenosine triphosphate based on dual-hairpin DNA structure.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, based on multifunctional Dual-Hairpin DNA structure, a simple, fast and high sensitive assay for the detection of DNA, thrombin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was demonstrated. DNA sequence labeled with methylene blue (MB), which was designed as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) matching with target DNA, thrombin, or ATP aptamer, hybridized to the adjunct probe and formed the dual-hairpin structure on the electrode. With the hybridization of adjunct probe and the hairpin-like capture probe in the stem region, the dual-hairpin was formed with outer and inner hairpins. By the conjugation of the target probe with the adjunct probe in the outer hairpin, the adjunct probe divorced from the dual-hairpin structure. The adjunct probe with signal molecules MB, attaching near or divorcing far from the electrode, produced electrochemical signal change and efficient electron transfer due to the fact that it was in proximity to the electrode. However, upon hybridization with the perfect match target, the redox label with the target probe was forced away from the modified electrode, thus resulting in the change of the Dual-Hairpin DNA conformation, which enables impedance of the efficient electron transfer of MB and, consequently, a detectable change of the electrochemical response. In addition, another highlight of this biosensor is its regenerability and stability owing to the merits of structure. Also, based on this Dual-Hairpin platform, the detection limits of DNA, thrombin, and ATP were 50 nM, 3 pM, and 30 nM, respectively. Moreover, this pattern also demonstrated excellent regenerability, reproducibility, and stability. Additionally, given to its ease-of-use, simplicity in design, easy operations, as well as regenerability and stability, the proposed approach may be applied as an excellent design prompter in the preparation of other molecular sensors.
Related JoVE Video
Fabrication of CuInS2-sensitized solar cells via an improved SILAR process and its interface electron recombination.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tetragonal CuInS2 (CIS) has been successfully deposited onto mesoporous TiO2 films by in-sequence growth of InxS and CuyS via a successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) process and postdeposition annealing in sulfur ambiance. X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements showed that the obtained tetragonal CIS consisted of a chalcopyrite phase and Cu-Au ordering, which related with the antisite defect states. For a fixed Cu-S deposition cycle, an interface layer of ?-In2S3 formed at the TiO2/CIS interface with suitable excess deposition of In-S. In the meantime, the content of the Cu-Au ordering phase decreased to a reasonable level. These facts resulted in the retardance of electron recombination in the cells, which is proposed to be dominated by electron transfer from the conduction band of TiO2 to the unoccupied defect states in CIS via exponentially distributed surface states. As a result, a relatively high efficiency of ~0.92% (V(oc) = 0.35 V, J(sc) = 8.49 mA cm(-2), and FF = 0.31) has been obtained. Last, but not least, with an overloading of the sensitizers, a decrease in the interface area between the sensitized TiO2 and electrolytes resulted in deceleration of hole extraction from CIS to the electrolytes, leading to a decrease in the fill factor of the solar cells. It is indicated that the unoccupied states in CIS with energy levels below EF0 of the TiO2 films play an important role in the interface electron recombination at low potentials and has a great influence on the fill factor of the solar cells.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.