Lysobacter enzymogenes is a bacterial biological control agent emerging as a new source of antibiotic metabolites, such as heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and the antibacterial factor WAP-8294A2. The regulatory mechanism(s) for antibiotic metabolite biosynthesis remains largely unknown in L. enzymogenes. Clp, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-receptor-like protein, is shown to function as a global regulator in modulating biocontrol-associated traits in L. enzymogenes. However, the genetic basis of Clp signaling remains unclear. Here, we utilized transcriptome/microarray analysis to determine the Clp regulon in L. enzymogenes. We showed that Clp is a global regulator in gene expression, as the transcription of 775 genes belonging to 19 functional groups was differentially controlled by Clp signaling. Analysis of the Clp regulon detected previously characterized Clp-modulated functions as well as novel loci. These include novel loci involved in antibiotic metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in L. enzymogenes. We further showed experimentally that Clp signaling played a positive role in regulating the biosynthesis of HSAF and WAP-8294A2, as well as surface motility which is a type-IV-pilus-dependent trait. The regulation by Clp signaling of antibiotic (HSAF and WAP-8294A2) biosynthesis and surface motility was found to be independent. Importantly, we identified a factor Lysobacter acetyltransferase (Lat), a homologue of histone acetyltransferase Hpa2, which was regulated by Clp and involved in HSAF biosynthesis, but not associated with WAP-8294A2 production and surface motility. Overall, our study provided new insights into the regulatory role and molecular mechanism of Clp signaling in L. enzymogenes.
Fertility and flower development are both controlled in part by jasmonates, fatty acid-derived mediators produced via the activity of 13-lipoxygenases (13-LOXs). The Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 reference genome is predicted to encode four of these enzymes and it is already known that one of these, LOX2, is dispensable for fertility. In this study, the roles of the other three 13-LOXs (LOX3, LOX4 and LOX6) were investigated in single and double mutants. Four independent lox3 lox4 double mutants assembled with different mutated lox3 and lox4 alleles had fully penetrant floral phenotypes, displaying abnormal anther maturation and defective dehiscence. The plants were no longer self-fertile and pollen was not viable. Fertility in the double mutant was restored genetically by complementation with either the LOX3 or the LOX4 cDNAs and biochemically with exogenous jasmonic acid. Furthermore, deficiency in LOX3 and LOX4 causes developmental dysfunctions, compared to wild type; lox3 lox4 double mutants are taller and develop more inflorescence shoots and flowers. Further analysis revealed that developmental arrest in the lox3 lox4 inflorescence occurs with the production of an abnormal carpelloid flower. This distinguishes lox3 lox4 mutants from the wild type where developmentally typical flower buds are the terminal inflorescence structures observed in both the laboratory and in nature. Our studies of lox3 lox4 as well as other jasmonic acid biosynthesis and perception mutants show that this plant hormone is not only required for male fertility but also involved in global proliferative arrest.
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