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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparison of microscopy, nested-PCR, and Real-Time-PCR assays using high-throughput screening of pooled samples for diagnosis of malaria in asymptomatic carriers from areas of endemicity in Myanmar.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Asymptomatic infection is an important obstacle for controlling disease in countries where malaria is endemic. Because asymptomatic carriers do not seek treatment for their infections, they can have high levels of gametocytes and constitute a reservoir available for new infection. We employed a sample pooling/PCR-based molecular detection strategy for screening malaria infection in residents from areas of Myanmar where malaria is endemic. Blood samples (n = 1,552) were collected from residents in three areas of malaria endemicity (Kayin State, Bago, and Tanintharyi regions) of Myanmar. Two nested PCR and real-time PCR assays showed that asymptomatic infection was detected in about 1.0% to 9.4% of residents from the surveyed areas. The sensitivities of the two nested PCR and real-time PCR techniques were higher than that of microscopy examination (sensitivity, 100% versus 26.4%; kappa values, 0.2 to 0.5). Among the three regions, parasite-positive samples were highly detected in subjects from the Bago and Tanintharyi regions. Active surveillance of residents from regions of intense malaria transmission would reduce the risk of morbidity and mitigate transmission to the population in these areas of endemicity. Our data demonstrate that PCR-based molecular techniques are more efficient than microscopy for nationwide surveillance of malaria in countries where malaria is endemic.
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On the road to eliminate malaria in Sri Lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, Sri Lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. This article reviews the historical milestones associated with the malaria eradication programme that failed subsequently and the events that led to the launch of the ongoing malaria elimination plans at national-level and its strategies that are operational across the entire country. The existing gaps in knowledge are also discussed together with the priority areas for research to fill in these gaps that are posing as challenges to the envisaged goal of wiping out malaria from this island nation.
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Primaquine for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria treated with chloroquine.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Plasmodium vivax infections are an important contributor to the malaria burden worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends a 14-day course of primaquine (0.25 mg/kg/day, giving an adult dose of 15 mg/day) to eradicate the liver stage of the parasite and prevent relapse of the disease. Many people find a 14-day primaquine regimen difficult to complete, and there is a potential risk of haemolytic anaemia in people with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase enzyme (G6PD) deficiency. This review evaluates primaquine in P. vivax, particularly alternatives to the standard 14-day course.
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Active case detection for malaria elimination: a survey among Asia Pacific countries.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Moving from malaria control to elimination requires national malaria control programmes to implement strategies to detect both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases in the community. In order to do this, malaria elimination programmes follow up malaria cases reported by health facilities to carry out case investigations that will determine the origin of the infection, whether it has been imported or is due to local malaria transmission. If necessary, the malaria programme will also carry out active surveillance to find additional malaria cases in the locality to prevent further transmission. To understand current practices and share information on malaria elimination strategies, a survey specifically addressing country policies on case investigation and reactive case detection was carried out among fourteen countries of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN).
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Irregular Migration as a Potential Source of Malaria Reintroduction in Sri Lanka and Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests at Point-of-Entry Screening.
Case Rep Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Background. We describe an irregular migrant who returned to Sri Lanka after a failed people smuggling operation from West Africa. Results. On-arrival screening by Anti-Malaria Campaign (AMC) officers using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (CareStart Malaria HRP2/PLDH) indicated a negative result. On day 3 after arrival, he presented with fever and chills but was managed as dengue (which is hyperendemic in Sri Lanka). Only on day 7, diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was made by microcopy and CareStart RDT. The initially negative RDT was ascribed to a low parasite density. Irregular migration may be an unrecognized source of malaria reintroduction. Despite some limitations in detection, RDTs form an important point-of-entry assessment. As a consequence of this case, the AMC is now focused on repeat testing and close monitoring of all irregular migrants from malaria-endemic zones. Conclusion. The present case study highlights the effective collaboration and coordination between inter-governmental agencies such as IOM and the Ministry of Health towards the goals of malaria elimination in Sri Lanka.
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Malaria is an important differential diagnosis in visitors returning from Sri Lankan National Safari Parks.
J Travel Med
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Diagnostic confusion may occur between dengue and malaria when febrile patients with thrombocytopenia return from travel to previous malaria endemic areas. Laboratory tests should include blood smear examination for malaria parasites even though current malaria endemicity in Sri Lanka is low.
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Trends in malaria research in 11 Asian Pacific countries: an analysis of peer-reviewed publications over two decades.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Quantitative data are lacking on published malaria research. The purpose of the study is to characterize trends in malaria-related literature from 1990 to 2009 in 11 Asian-Pacific countries that are committed to malaria elimination as a national goal.
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Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (H(E)) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.
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Absence of asymptomatic malaria infections in previously high endemic areas of Sri Lanka.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
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As the goal of malaria elimination from Sri Lanka is currently being pursued, this study was planned to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infections. Five health areas in Trincomalee and Kurunegala districts that reported high prevalence in the recent past were purposively selected. The smallest administrative units (GN divisions) having high malaria risk within each area were identified. From these divisions, 20% of the population was randomly selected for blood smear examination and in a 50% sub-sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was performed. A population of 3,730 from 13 GN divisions was sampled. Thick and thin Giemsa-stained blood smears were negative for malaria parasites. The PCR carried out in 50% of the study sample was also negative for malaria parasites. The findings illustrate the absence of asymptomatic carriers in previously high transmission areas and it appears that achieving malaria elimination in Sri Lanka by 2015 is feasible.
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Knowledge, attitudes and practices relevant to malaria elimination amongst resettled populations in a post-conflict district of northern Sri Lanka.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Malaria-related knowledge, preventative methods and treatment-seeking behaviours were investigated in a post-conflict district of Sri Lanka in order to guide the development of components of malaria interventions and to support future programme evaluation.
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Malaria control and elimination in Sri Lanka: documenting progress and success factors in a conflict setting.
PLoS ONE
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Sri Lanka has a long history of malaria control, and over the past decade has had dramatic declines in cases amid a national conflict. A case study of Sri Lankas malaria programme was conducted to characterize the programme and explain recent progress.
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Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination.
Malar. J.
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Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.