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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Younger pubertal age is associated with allergy and other atopic conditions in girls.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Early menarche is linked to higher incidence of adult asthma suggesting that earlier puberty may influence type 2 immune responses characteristic of allergic diseases. We examined the hypothesis that timing of breast and pubic hair development, which precede menarche, are associated with increased childhood atopic conditions.
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Particulate Matter Exposure, Prenatal and Postnatal Windows of Susceptibility, and Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Recent studies suggest that exposure to traffic-related air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), is associated with autism spectrum disorder (autism).
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Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay (n = 45), and general population controls (GP) (n = 149). Samples were retrieved from prenatal and newborn screening specimen archives. Adjusted logistic regression models showed inverse associations between ASD and log transformed TSH levels in maternal serum samples (ASD vs. GP: OR [95 % CI] 0.33 [0.12-0.91], Early Onset ASD vs. GP: 0.31 [0.10-0.98]). Results for thyroid levels in newborn blood samples were similar though not significant (ASD vs. GP: 0.61 [0.18-2.04]).
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Maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy predicts adiposity of the offspring.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To investigate associations between maternal pregnancy hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and offspring adiposity.
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A multilevel model of postmenopausal breast cancer incidence.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Breast cancer has a complex etiology that includes genetic, biologic, behavioral, environmental, and social factors. Etiologic factors are frequently studied in isolation with adjustment for confounding, mediating, and moderating effects of other factors. A complex systems model approach may present a more comprehensive picture of the multifactorial etiology of breast cancer.
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Familial Recurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evaluating Genetic and Environmental Contributions.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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This study was designed to examine the pattern of familial recurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in terms of genetic and environmental contributions related to timing of birth.
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Evidence of reproductive stoppage in families with autism spectrum disorder: a large, population-based cohort study.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Few studies have examined the curtailment of reproduction (ie, stoppage) after the diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
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Breastfeeding Versus Formula-Feeding and Girls' Pubertal Development.
Matern Child Health J
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood.
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Dietary predictors of urinary environmental biomarkers in young girls, BCERP, 2004-7.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Exposures of children to phthalates, parabens, and bisphenol-A (BPA) are of concern because of their hormonal potential. These agents are found in a wide range of foods and packaging. We investigated whether intake of certain foods predict exposures to these chemicals in young girls.
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Prenatal and neonatal peripheral blood mercury levels and autism spectrum disorders.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Prenatal and early-life exposures to mercury have been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).
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Coccidioidomycosis among cast and crew members at an outdoor television filming event--California, 2012.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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In March 2013, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) identified two Doctor's First Reports of Occupational Injury or Illness (DFRs) regarding Los Angeles County residents who had worked at the same jobsite in January 2012 and had been evaluated for possible work-associated coccidioidomycosis (valley fever). Occupational exposure to Coccidioides, the causative fungi, typically is associated with soil-disrupting activities. The physicians noted that both workers were cast or crew members filming a television series episode, and the site of possible exposure was an outdoor set in Ventura County, California. On the basis of their job titles, neither would have been expected to have been engaged in soil-disrupting activities. Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) conducted an outbreak investigation by using CDPH-provided occupational surveillance records, traditional infectious disease surveillance, and social media searches. This report describes the results of that investigation, which identified a total of five laboratory-confirmed and five probable cases linked to this filming event. The employer and site manager were interviewed. The site manager stated that they would no longer allow soil-disruptive work at the site and would incorporate information about the potential risk for Coccidioides exposure onsite into work contracts. Public health professionals, clinicians, and the television and film industry should be aware that employees working outdoors in areas where Coccidioides is endemic (e.g., central and southern California), even those not engaged in soil-disruptive work, might be at risk for coccidioidomycosis.
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Differences in ovarian hormones in relation to parity and time since last birth.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To examine ovarian function in relation to parity and time since last birth.
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Autism and developmental screening in a public, primary care setting primarily serving Hispanics: challenges and results.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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We implemented screening of children 16-30 months of age (n = 1,760) from a typically under-served, primarily Hispanic, population, at routine pediatric appointments using the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) and Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Screen positive rates of 26 and 39%, respectively, were higher than previous reports. Hispanics were more likely to score M-CHAT positive than non-Hispanics (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4), as were those screened in Spanish. About 30% of screen-positive children were referred for further assessment, but only half were seen. Thus screening in this population is feasible, but may require additional resources. Attention to the cultural applicability of screening instruments, as well as to explaining the results or need for additional services to parents, is critical to serve the growing Hispanic population.
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Onset of breast development in a longitudinal cohort.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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There is growing evidence of pubertal maturation occurring at earlier ages, with many studies based on cross-sectional observations. This study examined age at onset of breast development (thelarche), and the impact of BMI and race/ethnicity, in the 3 puberty study sites of the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program, a prospective cohort of >1200 girls.
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Serum biomarkers of polyfluoroalkyl compound exposure in young girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6-8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12-19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens.
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Dietary flavonol intake is associated with age of puberty in a longitudinal cohort of girls.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Lignans and flavonols are dietary phytoestrogens found at high concentrations in the Western Diet. They have potential to influence the timing of puberty. We hypothesized that greater consumption of these 2 phytoestrogens would be related to later age at pubertal onset among girls. Pubertal assessment and 24-hour diet recall data were available for 1178 girls, ages 6 to 8 years (mean 7.3 years) in the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project Puberty Study. Lignan and flavonol intakes were mainly derived from fruit and vegetable consumption. Average consumption was 6.5 mg/d for flavonols and 0.6 mg/d for lignans. Highest flavonol consumption (>5 mg/d) was associated with later breast development (adjusted hazards ratio [HR]: 0.74, 95% CI: [0.61-0.91]) compared to 2 to 5 mg/d (adjusted HR: 0.84, 95% CI: [0.70-1.0]) and <2 mg/d (referent group; P-trend = .006). Flavonol intake was not associated with pubic hair development. Lignan intake was not associated with either breast or pubic hair development. Dietary intake was only weakly correlated with urinary enterolactone, a biomarker for lignans (RS = 0.13). Consistent with biologic properties of phytoestrogens that indicate hormonal activity, their consumption may be associated with reproductive end points, even in childhood.
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Use of birth certificates to examine maternal occupational exposures and autism spectrum disorders in offspring.
Autism Res
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The continuing rise in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has led to heightened interest in the role of nongenetic factors, including exogenous exposures, but little research has been conducted. To explore a possible role in autism etiology, we used data available from our prior studies to examine potential occupational exposures, as these may occur at higher levels than environmental exposures. Parental occupation was obtained from birth certificates for 284 children with autism and 659 controls, born in 1994 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Self-reported occupation and industry were coded into eight exposure/chemical groups based on potential neurotoxicity or reprotoxicity by a board-certified physician in occupational medicine and an industrial hygienist blinded to case-control status. Mothers of autistic children were twice as likely to work in occupations considered exposed (14.4%) as mothers of controls (7.2%) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.3-4.2]). The exposure categories of the greatest frequency among case mothers were exhaust and combustion products (AOR = 12.0 [95% CI 1.4-104.6]) and disinfectants (AOR = 4.0 [95% CI 1.4-12.0]). Paternal occupational exposure was not associated with autism, potentially consistent with a direct in-utero exposure effect. There are several limitations of this hypothesis-generating study, including lack of detail on workplace and job duties, leading to possible misclassification and low proportion exposed. However, this misclassification would not be biased by case-control status and is unlikely to explain the associations we did find, suggesting that further research on exogenous exposures may yield useful etiologic clues.
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A genome-wide survey of transgenerational genetic effects in autism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Effects of parental genotype or parent-offspring genetic interaction are well established in model organisms for a variety of traits. However, these transgenerational genetic models are rarely studied in humans. We have utilized an autism case-control study with 735 mother-child pairs to perform genome-wide screening for maternal genetic effects and maternal-offspring genetic interaction. We used simple models of single locus parent-child interaction and identified suggestive results (P<10(-4)) that cannot be explained by main effects, but no genome-wide significant signals. Some of these maternal and maternal-child associations were in or adjacent to autism candidate genes including: PCDH9, FOXP1, GABRB3, NRXN1, RELN, MACROD2, FHIT, RORA, CNTN4, CNTNAP2, FAM135B, LAMA1, NFIA, NLGN4X, RAPGEF4, and SDK1. We attempted validation of potential autism association under maternal-specific models using maternal-paternal comparison in family-based GWAS datasets. Our results suggest that further study of parental genetic effects and parent-child interaction in autism is warranted.
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Are thyroid hormone concentrations at birth associated with subsequent autism diagnosis?
Autism Res
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Thyroid hormones substantially influence central nervous system development during gestation. We hypothesized that perturbations of early thyroid profiles may contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thyroid pathways could provide a mechanism by which environmental factors that affect the thyroid system may impact autism occurrence or phenotypic expression. We investigated whether thyroxine (T4) levels at birth are associated with subsequent ASD, using two existing California study groups in multivariate analysis. One study group included children born in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1994, with cases identified through the California Department of Developmental Services (DDS) and/or the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California (244 cases, 266 controls); the other included children born in California in 1995, with cases identified through DDS (310 cases, 518 controls). Matched controls were selected from birth certificate records. This exploratory analysis suggested that infants with very low T4 (<3rd percentile) may have higher ASD risk, although results reached statistical significance only for the 1995 study group (1995: OR = 2.74 (95% CI 1.30-5.75; 1994: OR = 1.71 (95% CI 0.57-5.19). A variety of alternate analyses were conducted with available data, without further resolution of the difference between the two study groups. The results of our study indicate that further studies are warranted to investigate whether thyroid hormone perturbations play a role in the development of ASD by evaluating additional potential confounders and genotype or phenotype in larger studies.
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Birth prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in the San Francisco Bay area by demographic and ascertainment source characteristics.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Using standardized methods for multi-source surveillance, we calculated the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) among children born in a racially diverse region in 1994 or 1996 as 4.7/1000 live births. Children with ASD before age 9 were identified through chart abstraction at health-related sources; three-quarters were being served by the state-wide Department of Developmental Services. In adjusted models, we found a male:female ratio of 6:1, a doubling of ASD prevalence among children of older mothers (40+), and lower prevalence with lower paternal education. Children of Black or Hispanic mothers had lower prevalence than those of White, non-Hispanic mothers, but these differences were attenuated after adjustment. Prevalence in children of Asian mothers was similar to Whites. Potential under-counting is discussed.
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Pubertal assessment method and baseline characteristics in a mixed longitudinal study of girls.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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The objective of this study was to describe the assessment methods and maturation status for a multisite cohort of girls at baseline recruitment and at ages 7 and 8 years.
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Industry-wide medical surveillance of California flavor manufacturing workers: Cross-sectional results.
Am. J. Ind. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans in flavor manufacturing workers prompted California health and labor agencies to initiate industry-wide surveillance.
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Investigation of relationships between urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols and pubertal stages in girls.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Hormonally active environmental agents may alter the course of pubertal development in girls, which is controlled by steroids and gonadotropins.
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Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function.
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Risk of autism and increasing maternal and paternal age in a large north American population.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2009
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Previous studies are inconsistent regarding whether there are independent effects of maternal and paternal age on the risk of autism. Different biologic mechanisms are suggested by maternal and paternal age effects. The study population included all California singletons born in 1989-2002 (n = 7,550,026). Children with autism (n = 23,311) were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services and compared with the remainder of the study population, with parental ages and covariates obtained from birth certificates. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the risk of autism associated with increasing maternal and paternal age. In adjusted models that included age of the other parent and demographic covariates, a 10-year increase in maternal age was associated with a 38% increase in the odds ratio for autism (odds ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 1.44), and a 10-year increase in paternal age was associated with a 22% increase (odds ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.26). Maternal and paternal age effects were seen in subgroups defined by race/ethnicity and other covariates and were of greater magnitude among first-born compared with later-born children. Further studies are needed to help clarify the biologic mechanisms involved in the independent association of autism risk with increasing maternal and paternal age.
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Autism spectrum disorders in relation to parental occupation in technical fields.
Autism Res
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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A previous study reported that fathers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were more likely to work as engineers, requiring "systemizing skills," and suggesting a distinct phenotype, but alternatively this may have been related to selection biases. We conducted a population-based study to explore whether fathers, or mothers, of children with ASD are over-represented in fields requiring highly technical skills. Subjects included 284 children with ASD and 659 gender-matched controls, born in 1994 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Parental occupation and industry were abstracted verbatim from birth certificates. Engineering, computer programming, and science were examined as highly technical occupations. To limit bias by parental socio-economic status, we selected a referent group of occupations that seemed professionally similar but of a less technical nature. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for parental age, education, and child race. Mothers of cases were somewhat more likely to work in hi-tech occupations (6.7%) than mothers of controls (4.0%, P=0.07), but little difference was observed among fathers, nor for engineering separately. Compared to parents in other "white collar" occupations, the adjusted OR for highly technical occupations among mothers was 2.5 (95% CI: 1.2-5.3) and among fathers was 1.3 (95% CI: 0.79-2.1), with no evidence of a joint effect observed. Our results regarding maternal occupation in technical fields being associated with ASD in offspring suggest further study to distinguish parental occupation as a phenotypic marker of genetic loading vs. other social or exposure factors.
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Residential exposure to traffic and spontaneous abortion.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2009
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Studies have shown associations between air pollution or traffic exposure and adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight. However, very few studies have examined the effect of traffic emissions on spontaneous abortion (SAB).
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The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): a multisite epidemiologic study of autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) network.
J Autism Dev Disord
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The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multisite investigation addressing knowledge gaps in autism phenotype and etiology, aims to: (1) characterize the autism behavioral phenotype and associated developmental, medical, and behavioral conditions and (2) investigate genetic and environmental risks with emphasis on immunologic, hormonal, gastrointestinal, and sociodemographic characteristics. SEED uses a case-control design with population-based ascertainment of children aged 2-5 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children in two control groups-one from the general population and one with non-ASD developmental problems. Data from parent-completed questionnaires, interviews, clinical evaluations, biospecimen sampling, and medical record abstraction focus on the prenatal and early postnatal periods. SEED is a valuable resource for testing hypotheses regarding ASD characteristics and causes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.