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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhanced performance of PTB7:PC71BM solar cells via different morphologies of gold nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) incorporated in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy] benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithiophene-2, 6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexy)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophened iyl]] (PTB7): [6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) based solar cells are being systematically investigated in terms of the optical properties, electrical properties and photovoltaic performance. The impacts of AuNPs on the optical response of the devices are modeled by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The size of the AuNPs used in this work is around 50-70 nm, so that 10-20 nm penetrated from the HTL into the active layer. We found that the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the devices with AuNPs are significantly enhanced from 7.5%, for the control device, to 8.0%, 8.1% and 8.2% for Au nanosphere-, nanorod- and nanocube-incorporated devices respectively. Among the photovoltaic parameters of the AuNP devices, the short circuit current density (JSC) exhibits the largest improvement, which can be attributed to the improved optical properties of the devices. Based on the calculation results, the scattering cross section for the samples in the presence of AuNPs can be enhanced by a factor of ~1010-1013 and Au nanocubes exhibit superior scattering cross section compared to the Au nanospheres and nanorods with the same linear dimension. From the experimental impedance spectroscopy results, we found that the addition of AuNPs had little effect on the electrical properties of the device. The device performance is also found to be sensitive to the concentration and morphology of the AuNPs.
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Color switchable, emission enhanced fluorescence realized by engineering C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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This paper reports the preparation and properties of color-switchable fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-dots). C-dots that emit dark turquoise and green-yellow fluorescence under 365 nm UV illumination were obtained from the hydrothermal decomposition of citric acid. Dark green fluorescent C-dots were obtained by conjugating prepared C-dots to form C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles. After successful conjugation of the C-dots, the fluorescence emission undergoes a blue shift of nearly 20 nm (?0.15 eV) under UV excitation at 370 nm. The C-dots emit golden rod, green-yellow, and gold light under excitation at 455 nm, which shows that the prepared C-dots are color-switchable. Furthermore, conjugation of the C-dots results in enhanced, red-shifted absorption of the ?-?* transition of the aromatic sp2 domains due to the conjugated ?-electron system. N incorporation in the carbon structure leads to a degree of dipoles for all the aromatic sp2 bonds. The enhanced absorption in a wide range from 226 to 601 nm indicates extended conjugation in the C-dot@C-dot structure. The time-resolved average lifetimes for the three different types of C-dots prepared in this study are 7.10, 7.65, and 4.07 ns. The radiative rate (reduced decay lifetime) increases when the C-dots are conjugated in the C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles, leading to the enhanced fluorescence emission. The fluorescence emission of the C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles can be used in applications such as flow cytometry and cell imaging.
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Microengineered in vitro model of cardiac fibrosis through modulating myofibroblast mechanotransduction.
Biofabrication
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Cardiac fibrosis greatly impairs normal heart function post infarction and there is no effective anti-fibrotic drug developed at present. The current therapies for cardiac infarction mainly take effect by eliminating occlusion in coronary artery by thrombolysis drugs, vascular stent grafting or heart bypass operation, which are capable to provide sufficient blood flow for intact myocardium yet showed subtle efficacy in ameliorating fibrosis condition. The advances of in vitro cell/tissue models open new avenues for drug assessment due to the low cost, good controllability and availability as well as the convenience for operation as compared to the animal models. To our knowledge, no proper biomimetic in vitro cardiac fibrosis model has been reported yet. Here we engineered an in vitro cardiac fibrosis model using heart-derived fibroblasts, and the fibrogenesis was recapitulated by patterning the substrate rigidity which mimicked the mechanical heterogeneity of myocardium post-infarction. Various biomarkers for cardiac fibrosis were assayed to validate the biomimicry of the engineered platform. Subsequent addition of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway inhibitor reduced the ratio of myofibroblasts, indicating the feasibility of applying this platform in screening anti-fibrosis drugs.
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Diastereo- and enantioselective propargylation of benzofuranones catalyzed by pybox-copper complex.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Diastereo- and enantioselective preparation of 2,2-disubstituted benzofuran-3(2H)-one has been realized by a pybox-copper catalyzed reaction between 2-substituted benzofuran-3(2H)-one and propargyl acetate. The utility of this method was demonstrated by further transformation of the terminal alkyne into a methyl ketone without loss of enantiomeric purity.
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Experimental evaluation of myocardial fibrosis in a rapid atrial pacing model in New Zealand rabbits using quantitative analysis of ultrasonic backscatter.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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The aim of this study was the establishment of a rapid atrial pacing (RAP)-induced atrial fibrillation (AF) model with electrophotoluminescence and the application of ultrasonic backscatter quantitative analysis of the degree of myocardial fibrosis in New Zealand white rabbits.
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Diffuse Hepatic Amebiasis Detected by FDG PET/CT.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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A 39-year-old man presented with sudden decreased visual acuity in his left eye. Orbital CT and MRI revealed a soft tissue lesion in his left orbital apex. FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake by the left orbital lesion, abnormal focal FDG uptake in the soft tissues of the external ears, and abnormal heterogeneous FDG activity throughout the liver. Percutaneous liver biopsy, external auditory canal discharge, and stool specimens revealed amebiasis. The patient responded to antiamebic therapy, and his lesions improved. The case demonstrates that during its early stage, hepatic amebiasis may be associated with a relatively heterogeneous pattern of FDG uptake.
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3'-Deoxy-3'-[(18)F]-fluorothymidine PET/CT in early determination of prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer : Comparison with [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The purpose of this work was to investigate the prognostic value of response analysis using early 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) PET/CT in esophageal squamous cancer patients and make a comparison with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT.
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[Decreased hypoxic ventilatory chemoresponsiveness and clinical features in patients with narcolepsy cataplexy].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To explore the relationship between hypoxic responsiveness of the patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy and their clinical features.
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Effect of rosuvastatin on hyperuricemic rats and the protective effect on endothelial dysfunction.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, renal injuries and hypertension induced by hyperuricemia. Therapies targeting uric acid (UA) may be beneficial in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the effect of rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, was investigated to determine whether rosuvastatin improves endothelial dysfunction via the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) pathway and delays the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. A total of 72 Sprague-Dawley rats (age, 8 weeks) were randomly divided into six groups (12 rats per group), including the control, model, 2.5 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin, 5 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin, 10 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin and 53.57 mg/kg/day allopurinol groups. The model, rosuvastatin and allopurinol rats were subjected to hyperuricemia, induced by the administration of yeast extract powder (21 g/kg/day) and oxonic acid potassium salt (200 mg/kg/day). The hyperuricemic rats were treated with 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin orally for six weeks, while rats treated with allopurinol (53.57 mg/kg/day) were used as a positive control. The serum levels of NO and the gene expression levels of endothelial NO synthase in the aortic tissue increased, whereas the serum levels of UA, endothelin-1 and angiotensin II decreased in the hyperuricemic rats treated with rosuvastatin, particularly at a high rosuvastatin dose (10 mg/kg/day). In addition, the curative effect of the 10 mg/kg/day rosuvastatin group was evidently higher compared with the allopurinol group. Therefore, rosuvastatin may be a novel drug candidate for the treatment of hyperuricemia due to its endothelial protective properties.
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Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of gliomas using chlorotoxin-based bioconjugates.
Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Malignant gliomas, especially glioblastoma multiforme, are the most widely distributed and deadliest brain tumors because of their resistance to surgical and medical treatment. Research of glioma-specific bioconjugates for diagnosis and therapy developed rapidly during the past several years. Many studies have demonstrated that chlorotoxin (CTX) and Buthus martensii Karsch chlorotoxin (BmK CT) specifically inhibited glioma cells growth and metastasis, and accelerated tumor apoptosis. The bioconjugates of CTX or BmK CT with other molecules have played an increasing role in diagnostic imaging and treatment of gliomas. To date, CTX-based bioconjugates have achieved great success in phase I/II clinical trials about safety profiles. Here, we will provide a review on the important role of ion channels in the underlying mechanisms of gliomas invasive growth and how CTX suppresses gliomas proliferation and migration. We will summarize the recent advances in the applications of CTX bioconjugates for gliomas diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we will review recent studies on BmK CT bioconjugates and compare their efficacies with CTX derivatives. Finally, we will address advantages and challenges in the use of CTX or BmK CT bioconjugates as specific agents for theranostic applications in gliomas.
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Retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is common in eye disorders. Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are reported to initiate sterile inflammatory response. The role of PRRs in retinal IR injury is currently unknown. Thus, we investigated the expression and function of membrane and cytoplasmic PRRs during retinal IR.
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Environment-dependent photon emission from solid state carbon dots and its mechanism.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) have received great research interest in recent years, with applications in areas such as bio-imaging and chemical sensing. However, solid state photoluminescence of CDs and its related applications (e.g. optoelectronics) is a less explored territory. Here, we have systematically studied the photo emission of CDs in solid state. We found that their blue emission is highly dependent on whether the environment contains polar groups or not. Mechanism studies show that the blue emission of CDs may come from their C=O bonds conjugated with aromatic carbons, and the interaction between polar groups in environment and C=O bonds in CDs is responsible for the environment-dependent photo emission. Our conclusion here should assist the development of CDs' solid state applications.
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Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent evolutionary genetic changes on the trait development. Here, we compared the salt tolerance of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat (neo-6x) with its tetraploid (T. turgidum; BBAA) and diploid (Aegilops tauschii; DD) parents, as well as a natural hexaploid bread wheat (nat-6x). We studied 92 morphophysiological traits and analyzed homeologous gene expression of a major salt-tolerance gene High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1;5 (HKT1;5). We observed that under salt stress, neo-6x exhibited higher fitness than both of its parental genotypes due to inheritance of favorable traits like higher germination rate from the 4x parent and the stronger root Na(+) retention capacity from the 2x parent. Moreover, expression of the D-subgenome HKT1;5 homeolog, which is responsible for Na(+) removal from the xylem vessels, showed an immediate transcriptional reprogramming following allohexaploidization, i.e., from constitutive high basal expression in Ae. tauschii (2x) to salt-induced expression in neo-6x. This phenomenon was also witnessed in the nat-6x. An integrated analysis of 92 traits showed that, under salt-stress conditions, neo-6x resembled more closely the 2x than the 4x parent, suggesting that the salt stress induces enhanced expressivity of the D-subgenome homeologs in the synthetic hexaploid wheat. Collectively, the results suggest that condition-dependent functionalization of the subgenomes might have contributed to the wide-ranging adaptability of natural hexaploid wheat.
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Large-Scale Horizontally Aligned ZnO Microrod Arrays with Controlled Orientation, Periodic Distribution as Building Blocks for Chip-in Piezo-Phototronic LEDs.
Small
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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A novel method of fabricating large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation and periodic distribution via combing technology is introduced. Horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with uniform orientation and periodic distribution can be realized based on the conventional bottom-up method prepared vertically aligned ZnO microrod matrix via the combing method. When the combing parameters are changed, the orientation of horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays can be adjusted (? = 90° or 45°) in a plane and a misalignment angle of the microrods (0.3° to 2.3°) with low-growth density can be obtained. To explore the potential applications based on the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods on p-GaN layer, piezo-phototronic devices such as heterojunction LEDs are built. Electroluminescence (EL) emission patterns can be adjusted for the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs by applying forward bias. Moreover, the emission color from UV-blue to yellow-green can be tuned by investigating the piezoelectric properties of the materials. The EL emission mechanisms of the LEDs are discussed in terms of band diagrams of the heterojunctions and carrier recombination processes.
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Generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene-targeted pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The domestic pig has been widely used as an important large animal model. Precise and efficient genetic modification in pig provides a great promise in biomedical research. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has been successfully used to produce many gene-targeted animals. However, these animals have been generated by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into one-cell stage embryos, which mostly resulted in mosaicism of the modification. One or two rounds of further breeding should be performed to obtain homozygotes with identical genotype and phenotype. To address this issue, gene-targeted somatic cells can be used as donor for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce gene-targeted animals with single and identical mutations. In this study, we applied Cas9/sgRNAs to effectively direct gene editing in porcine fetal fibroblasts and then mutant cell colonies were used as donor to generate homozygous gene-targeted pigs through single round of SCNT. As a result, we successfully obtained 15 tyrosinase (TYR) biallelic mutant pigs and 20 PARK2 and PINK1 double-gene knockout (KO) pigs. They were all homozygous and no off-target mutagenesis was detected by comprehensive analysis. TYR (-/-) pigs showed typical albinism and the expression of parkin and PINK1 were depleted in PARK2 (-/-)/PINK1 (-/-) pigs. The results demonstrated that single- or double-gene targeted pigs can be effectively achieved by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT without mosaic mutation and detectable off-target effects. This gene-editing system provides an efficient, rapid, and less costly manner to generate genetically modified pigs or other large animals.
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Acceleration of tissue plasminogen activator-mediated thrombolysis by magnetically powered nanomotors.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Dose control and effectiveness promotion of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for thrombolysis are vitally important to alleviate serious side effects such as hemorrhage in stroke treatments. In order to increase the effectiveness and reduce the risk of stroke treatment, we use rotating magnetic nanomotors to enhance the mass transport of t-PA molecules at the blood clot interface for local ischemic stroke therapy. The in vitro experiments demonstrate that, when combined with magnetically activated nanomotors, the thrombolysis speed of low-concentration t-PA (50 ?g mL(-1)) can be enhanced up to 2-fold, to the maximum lysis speed at high t-PA concentration. Based on the convection enhanced transport theory due to rotating magnetic nanomotors, a theoretical model is proposed and predicts the experimental results reasonably well. The validity and efficiency of this enhanced treatment has been demonstrated in a rat embolic model.
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[Investigation of exogenous stimulus effect on the interaction of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots/TiO2 nanocomposites with human serum albumin by resonance light scattering].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The interaction between CdSe/ZnS(quantum dots)/TiO2 nanocomposites and human serum albumin(HSA) was investigated by resonance light scattering (RLS) spectroscopic methods under approximate physiological conditions. Much important information of the interaction between CdSe/ZnS(Quantum Dots)/TiO2 nanocomposites and HSA was obtained by studying comprehensively the Exogenous influence factors of nanocomposites concentration, pH, NaCl concentration, reaction temperature, detection time, coexisting ions, surfactants, sequence of adding to the sample etc. It was showed that the new formation of complex system is likely to enhance the protein hydrophobic cavity and tend to focus the hydrophobic interface in aqueous solution, resulting in strengthening the intensity of resonance light scattering; Also it is very sensitive to the changes in the pH value in the system; The sensitivity of I(RLS) in system can be increased by the appropriate NaCl concentration; The value of IRLS in system would be changed with the change in the concentration of coexisting ions; The value of I(RLS) in system is basically stable when the reaction time reaches 5 min; The value of I(RLS) in system is not exactly the same with a surfactant, and strong electrostatic interaction has occurred between oppositely charged surfactant and nano composites; It is obvious that the value of I(RLS) in complex system is affected by the sequence of adding to sample; It has the incomplete monotonically increasing trend with the changes in temperature. The information is useful for providing theoretical supporting for the mechanism of interaction between nanomaterials and bio-macromolecule, and for understanding the biocompatibility and safety of nano-materials.
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LSM14A inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication by activating IFN-? signaling pathway in Marc-145.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered as a significant contributor to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, one of the most economically important diseases for the pig industry worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that pattern recognition receptors play key roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a novel pattern recognition receptor LSM14A in regulating PRRSV replication. Results in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) indicated that overexpression of porcine LSM14A effectively inhibited the replication of PRRSV, and knockdown of LSM14A by siRNA enhanced the replication of PRRSV. Mechanistically, LSM14A up-regulated the activities of IFN-? and ISRE promoters, enhanced the production of IFN-?, RIG-I, and ISGs, and inhibited the production of the inflammatory cytokines of TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA. Additionally, the expression pattern of LSM14A during the infection of PRRSV in Tongcheng and Large White pigs was suppressed by the PRRSV challenge. Taken together, our results suggest that LSM14A is an important PRR that inhibits PPRSV replication by inducing IFN-? signaling and restraining inflammatory responses. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LSM14A by PRRSV might represent an important mechanism by which PRRSV invades the host. Our study sheds light on the possibility of developing a new strategy to control this disease.
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The fabrication of three-dimensional plasmonic chiral structures by dynamic shadowing growth.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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As chiral metamaterials become increasingly more technologically relevant, scalable, yet proficient nanofabrication methods will be needed for their production. Dynamic shadowing growth (DSG) that takes advantage of the vapor shadowing effect during physical vapor deposition is a simple and powerful tool to produce chiral nanostructures. In this report we describe several new DSG strategies for the scalable production of chiral plasmonic thin films with significant optical activity in the visible and near-infrared wavelength region. Specifically, we demonstrate that by use of metal composite (Ti/Ag) and metal/dielectric composite materials (Ag/MgF2), nanoscale helices can be fabricated using DSG at room temperature. Additionally, we show how self-assembled colloidal monolayers of nanospheres can serve as effective templates for the production of a wide variety of highly chiral films. These films can be used to construct chiral metamaterial-based devices for future applications.
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RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research.
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Application of sequential (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans for concurrent chemoradiotherapy of non-surgical squamous cell esophageal carcinoma.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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To explore the values of sequential (18)F-FDG PET/CT scanning in patients with non-surgical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).
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Serum miR-9 as a prognostic biomarker in patients with osteosarcoma.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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To quantify microRNA-9 (miR-9) concentrations in the serum of patients with osteosarcoma; to explore its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of osteosarcoma.
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Sequencing-based approach identified three new susceptibility loci for psoriasis.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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In a previous large-scale exome sequencing analysis for psoriasis, we discovered seven common and low-frequency missense variants within six genes with genome-wide significance. Here we describe an in-depth analysis of noncoding variants based on sequencing data (10,727 cases and 10,582 controls) with replication in an independent cohort of Han Chinese individuals consisting of 4,480 cases and 6,521 controls to identify additional psoriasis susceptibility loci. We confirmed four known psoriasis susceptibility loci (IL12B, IFIH1, ERAP1 and RNF114; 2.30 × 10(-20)?P?2.41 × 10(-7)) and identified three new susceptibility loci: 4q24 (NFKB1) at rs1020760 (P=2.19 × 10(-8)), 12p13.3 (CD27-LAG3) at rs758739 (P=4.08 × 10(-8)) and 17q12 (IKZF3) at rs10852936 (P=1.96 × 10(-8)). Two suggestive loci, 3p21.31 and 17q25, are also identified with P<1.00 × 10(-6). The results of this study increase the number of confirmed psoriasis risk loci and provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
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[Positivity analysis of human leukocyte histocompatibility antigen-DQB1*0602 allele in Chinese patients with narcolepsy].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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To explore the association of narcolepsy with human leukocyte histocompatibility antigen (HLA)-DQB1*0602 allele in Chinese narcoleptic patients and examine its relationship with different phenotypes.
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Serine 249 phosphorylation by ATM protein kinase regulates hepatocyte nuclear factor-1? transactivation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1?) exerts important effects on gene expression in multiple tissues. Several studies have directly or indirectly supported the role of phosphorylation processes in the activity of HNF1?. However, the molecular mechanism of this phosphorylation remains largely unknown. Using microcapillary liquid chromatography MS/MS and biochemical assays, we identified a novel phosphorylation site in HNF1? at Ser249. We also found that the ATM protein kinase phosphorylated HNF1? at Ser249 in vitro in an ATM-dependent manner and that ATM inhibitor KU55933 treatment inhibited phosphorylation of HNF1? at Ser249 in vivo. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association between HNF1? and ATM. Moreover, ATM enhanced HNF1? transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the ATM kinase-inactive mutant did not. The use of KU55933 confirmed our observation. Compared with wild-type HNF1?, a mutation in Ser249 resulted in a pronounced decrease in HNF1? transactivation, whereas no dominant-negative effect was observed. The HNF1?Ser249 mutant also exhibited normal nuclear localization but decreased DNA-binding activity. Accordingly, the functional studies of HNF1?Ser249 mutant revealed a defect in glucose metabolism. Our results suggested that ATM regulates the activity of HNF1? by phosphorylation of serine 249, particularly in glucose metabolism, which provides valuable insights into the undiscovered mechanisms of ATM in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
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Cx37 C1019T polymorphism may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies to evaluate whether Cx37 C1019T (rs1764391 C>T) polymorphism may be implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD).
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[Value of transcutaneous monitoring of CO2 pressure in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep and breathing disorders].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To evaluate the clinical value of transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO2) measurement during sleep respiratory monitoring.
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Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3?M bp) and Mongolian horse (2?M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsonian translocation event through the wild horse's chromosomes 23 and 24, which contained sequences that were highly homologous with those on the domestic horse's chromosome 5. The four main types of rearrangement, insertion of unknown origin, inserted duplication, inversion, and relocation, are not evenly distributed on all the chromosomes, and some chromosomes, such as the X chromosome, contain more rearrangements than others, and the number of inversions is far less than the number of insertions and relocations in the horse genome. Furthermore, we discovered the percentages of LINE_L1 and LTR_ERV1 are significantly increased in rearrangement regions. The analysis results of the two representative Equus species genomes improved our knowledge of Equus chromosome rearrangement and karyotype evolution.
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Preliminary investigation on hemocompatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane grafted with acryloylmorpholine via ATRP.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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This work provides a promising way to improve the hemocompatibility of PVDF membrane. An amphiphilic copolymer (PVDF-g-PACMO) having PVDF backbones and poly(N-acryloylmorpholine) (PACMO) side chains was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). It is found that the grafting degree of the PACMO increases linearly with the increase of ACMO concentration in the reaction solution. The PVDF-g-PACMO membrane was prepared via immersed phase inversion method. The structure and performances were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle, and filtration experiment. The hemocompatibility of the membranes were preliminarily investigated by protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, anticoagulant evaluation and hemolysis test. The results indicate that the PVDF membrane functionalized by PACMO can suppress the protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, and shows an improved hemocompatibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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Sustainability and Substitutability.
Bull. Math. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Developing a quantitative science of sustainability requires bridging mathematical concepts from fields contributing to sustainability science. The concept of substitutability is central to sustainability but is defined differently by different fields. Specifically, economics tends to define substitutability as a marginal concept while fields such as ecology tend to focus on limiting behaviors. We explain how to reconcile these different views. We develop a model where investments can be made in knowledge to increase the elasticity of substitution. We explore the set of sustainable and optimal trajectories for natural capital extraction and built and knowledge capital accumulation. Investments in substitutability through knowledge stock accumulation affect the value of natural capital. Results suggest that investing in the knowledge stock, which can enhance substitutability, is critical to desirable sustainable outcomes. This result is robust even when natural capital is not managed optimally. This leads us to conclude that investments in the knowledge stock are of first order importance for sustainability.
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Gene silencing of heparanase results in suppression of invasion and migration of hepatoma cells.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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This study investigated the effect of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of the heparanase gene on hepatoma SMCC-7721 cells.
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Different hereditary contribution of the CFH gene between polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and age-related macular degeneration in Chinese Han people.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To investigate whether 11 variants in complement factor H gene contributed differently in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) of Chinese descent.
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Occurrence, sources, and potential human health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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A comprehensive investigation of the levels, distribution patterns, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. A total of 247 samples collected from agricultural soils from the area were analyzed for sixteen PAHs, including highly carcinogenic isomers. The PAH concentrations had a range of n.d. to 782ngg(-1), with a mean value of 202ngg(-1). The two-three ring PAHs were the dominant species, making up 60 percent of total PAHs. Compared with the pollution levels and carcinogenic potential risks reported in other studies, the soil PAH concentrations in the study area were in the low to intermediate range. A positive matrix factorization model indicates that coal/biomass combustion, coal and oil combustion, and coke ovens are the primary PAH sources, accounting for 33 percent, 26 percent, and 24 percent of total PAHs, respectively. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentrations had a range of n.d. to 476ngg(-1) for PAH7c, with a mean value of 34ngg(-1). The BaPeq concentrations of PAH7c accounted for more than 99 percent of the ?PAH16, which suggests that seven PAHs were major carcinogenic contributors of ?PAH16. According to the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines, only six of the soil samples had concentrations above the safe BaPeq value of 600ngg(-1); the elevated concentrations observed at these sites can be attributed to coal combustion and industrial activities. Exposure to these soils through direct contact probably poses a significant risk to human health as a result of the carcinogenic effects of PAHs.
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CA72-4 combined with CEA, CA125 and CAl9-9 improves the sensitivity for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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To determine whether the combination of tumor markers (CA72-4, CA125, CA19-9 and CEA) could increase the sensitivity and accuracy for in the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC).
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Tunable three-dimensional helically stacked plasmonic layers on nanosphere monolayers.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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We report a simple and scalable method to fabricate helical chiral plasmonic nanostructures using glancing angle deposition on self-assembled nanosphere monolayers. By controlling the azimuthal rotation of substrates, Ag and SiO2 layers can be helically stacked in left-handed and right-handed fashions to form continuous helices. Finite-difference time-domain simulations confirm the experimental results that show that these plasmonic helices exhibit strong chiroptical responses in the visible to near-IR region, which can be tuned by changing the diameter of nanospheres. With such flexibility in the design, helically stacked plasmonic layers may act as tunable chiral metamaterials, as well as serve as different building blocks for chiral assemblies.
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Detection of metronidazole and ronidazole from environmental samples by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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In this study, the surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of two prohibited veterinary drugs, metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ), have been acquired, and compared to the theoretically calculated spectra using density function theory (DFT). The experimental Raman and SERS spectra of MNZ and RNZ exhibit high resemblance with the DFT calculations. SERS detection of MNZ and RNZ from standard solutions as well as real environmental samples (tap, lake, swamp waters and soil) was performed on highly sensitive and reproducible silver nanorod array substrates. The limits of detection for MNZ and RNZ are 10 and 1 µg/mL in methanol and ultra-pure water, respectively, and 10-50 µg/mL in the environmental samples. The SERS-based method demonstrates its potential as a rapid, simple, and inexpensive means for the onsite screening of banned antibiotics from the aquatic and sediment environments, with minimal requirement for sample pretreatment.
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Emerging new trends in neurosurgical technologies.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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There has been tremendous progress in the modern day technologies causing a rapid evolution in the field of neurosurgery. The neurosurgeons have been equipped with the latest advancements such as the use of robotics in surgery, the image-guided neurosurgical procedures, and the stereotactic neurosurgery. In addition, the preoperative screening techniques have drastically improved the success of the surgical procedure. Neuronavigation has allowed the precise localization of the deep-seated brain structures thereby helping in the accurate operation of the affected regions without stirring the normal brain tissues. Such preciseness has helped in the improvement of the patient outcome. All these aspects have been discussed in detail in this review with a focus on their developmental background.
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Pre-treatment metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis are useful prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell cancer patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To study application of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) with 18F-FDG PET/CT for predicting prognosis of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESC) patients.
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Reactive oxygen species-dependent JNK downregulated olaquindox-induced autophagy in HepG2 cells.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Autophagy plays an important role in response to intracellular and extracellular stress to sustain cell survival. However, dysregulated or excessive autophagy may lead to cell death, known as "type II programmed cell death," and it is closely associated with apoptosis. In our previous study, we proposed that olaquindox induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through a caspase-9 dependent mitochondrial pathway. In this study, we investigated autophagy induced by olaquindox and explored the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in olaquindox-treated HepG2 cells. Olaquindox-induced autophagy was demonstrated by the accumulation of monodansylcadervarine, as well as elevated expression of autophagy-related MAP-LC3 and Beclin 1 proteins. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine significantly increased the apoptotic rate induced by olaquindox, which was correlated with increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. The further studies showed that olaquindox increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) effectively blocked the accumulation of ROS but failed to block autophagy. Moreover, olaquindox induced the activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and JNK inhibitor SP600125 failed to block autophagy. Instead, olaquindox-induced autophagy was enhanced by NAC or SP600125. Meanwhile, JNK activation was remarkably blocked by NAC, indicating that ROS may be the upstream signaling molecules of JNK activation and involved in the negative regulation of olaquindox-induced autophagy. These results suggest that olaquindox induces autophagy in HepG2 cells and that olaquindox-induced apoptosis can be enhanced by 3-methyladenine. Olaquindox-induced autophagy in HepG2 cells is upregulated by Beclin 1 but downregulated by ROS-dependent JNK. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The differential expression of microRNA-143,145 in endometriosis.
Iran J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Background: Recent studies showed that inappropriate expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is strongly associated with tumor-related processes in humans (2-9,11-17). Objective: To understand the changes of miRNAs in endometriosis. Materials and Methods: With real-time RT-PCR, we investigated the miR-143 and miR-145 expression in eutopic (EU, n=2) and ectopic endometrium (EC, n=11) (from women with endometriosis) (as well as EU+EC, n=11), along with the normal endometrium (EN, n=22) (from women without endometriosis, but with leiomyoma). Results: We did not find that the expression of miR-143 and/or miR-145 in EN or EC changed with menstrual cycle. But our results showed the miR-143 was up-regulated in EC (p=0.000) compared to EN. The miR-143 was also up-regulated in EU, but the difference did not reach statistically significance (p=0.053). Compared to EU, the expression of miR-143 in EC was up-regulated (p=0.016). MiR-145 had the similar characteristic to miR-143. The miR-145 was up-regulated in both EU (p=0.004) and EC (p=0.000) in compared to EN group. When compared with EU, the miR-145 in EC was up-regulated (p=0.008). Conclusion: In conclusion, the miR-143 and miR-145 may play a certain role in the development and progression of endometriosis.
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?-Radiolysis of ionic liquid irradiated with helium ion beam and the influence of radiolytic products on Dy3+ extraction.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Helium ion (He(+)) beam produced by a heavy ion linear accelerator was used to simulate ?-rays for studying the radiation effect on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid ([C4mim][NTf2]). The water-soluble radiolytic products of [C4mim][NTf2] under He(+) beam irradiation were analysed, and it was found that they were similar to those by ?-ray irradiation, but their amount was much less than that by ?-ray irradiation, which was attributed to the recombination of [C4mim][NTf2] radical cations in track by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations of the He(+) beam. The extracting behaviour of Dy(3+) using irradiated [C4mim][NTf2] in combination with alkylated bis-triazinyl-pyridine (CA-BTP) was assessed, and found that the influence of He(+) beam on the extraction was less than that of ?-ray irradiation. In addition, radiolytic products have a different influence on Dy(3+) extraction at different doses; Dy(3+) partitioning decreases at 50 kGy due to the protonation of CA-BTP and the inhibition of cation exchange mechanism by radiation-formed hydrogen ions. The abnormal increase of Dy(3+) partitioning at 100 kGy is mainly attributed to the precipitation formed between Dy(3+) and radiolytic products (F(-) and SO3(2-)).
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Degradation of 1,4-dioxane in water with heat- and Fe(2+)-activated persulfate oxidation.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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This research investigated the 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) degradation efficiency and rate during persulfate oxidation at different temperatures, with and without Fe(2+) addition, also considering the effect of pH and persulfate concentration on the oxidation of 1,4-D. Degradation pathways for 1,4-D have also been proposed based on the decomposition intermediates and by-products. The results indicate that 1,4-D was completely degraded with heat-activated persulfate oxidation within 3-80 h. The kinetics of the 1,4-D degradation process fitted well to a pseudo-first-order reaction model. Temperature was identified as the most important factor influencing the 1,4-D degradation rate during the oxidation process. As the temperature increased from 40 to 60 °C, the degradation rate improved significantly. At 40 °C, the addition of Fe(2+) also increased the 1,4-D degradation rate. Interestingly, at 50 and 60 °C, the 1,4-D degradation rate decreased slightly with the addition of Fe(2+). This reduced degradation rate may be attributed to the rapid conversion of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) and the production of an Fe(OH)3 precipitate which limited the ultimate oxidizing capability of persulfate with Fe(2+) under higher temperatures. Higher persulfate concentrations led to higher 1,4-D degradation rates, but pH adjustment had no significant effect on the 1,4-D degradation rate. The identification of intermediates and by-products in the aqueous and gas phases showed that acetaldehyde, acetic acid, glycolaldehyde, glycolic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ion were generated during the persulfate oxidation process. A carbon balance analysis showed that 96 and 93% of the carbon from the 1,4-D degradation were recovered as by-products with and without Fe(2+) addition, respectively. Overall, persulfate oxidation of 1,4-D is promising as an economical and highly efficient technology for treatment of 1,4-D-contaminated water.
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Culture-free diagnostics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by silver nanorod array based SERS from clinical sputum samples.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause major infection in immunocompromised patients, and successful antibiotic treatment of the infection relies on accurate and rapid identification of the infectious agents. Here, we reported a culture-free diagnostic method based on the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of pyocyanin (PCN), a major biomarker of P. aeruginosa. This platform can detect PCN as low as 5 ppb or 2.38×10(-8)molL(-1) in both aqueous solutions and spiked clinical sputum samples. It has also been used to dynamically monitor the excretion of PCN by P. aeruginosa during its growth. The presence of PCN has been detected by SERS in 15 clinical sputum samples, which indicates P. aeruginosa infection, with 95.6% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity. The system can advantageously process multiple specimens rapidly, overcomes the need for bacterial culture and diagnostic microbiology assays, and have widespread implications in the early detection of P. aeruginosa infection.
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Autophagy prevents doxorubicin?induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Autophagy is a process of selective degradation of cellular components. Autophagy is an adaptive process in the majority of tumor cells; it provides sufficient nutrients by degrading cellular components to enhance the survival of tumors. Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Identification of an improved therapeutic strategy for the treatment of osteosarcoma is urgently required. Osteosarcoma has been primarily treated by chemotherapy and the phenomena of resistance to the therapy has become increasingly common. Doxorubicin (Dox) is a classic chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of osteosarcoma, and certain studies have suggested that Dox induces autophagy. On the basis of the protective effect of autophagy for tumors, the present study investigated whether U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells activate autophagy to reduce Dox-induced apoptosis. Dox was observed to inhibit the growth of U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of the western blot analysis demonstrated that Dox induced increased expression levels of the apoptosis-related proteins cleaved caspase-3 and cytochrome c and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in the U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, the results of the western blot analysis also revealed that Dox increased the expression levels of the autophagy-related protein microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and reduced those of p62 in the U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells. In order to determine the effect of autophagy on the apoptosis induced by Dox in the U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells, autophagy-related protein (Atg)7 small interfering (si) RNA or the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) alone or combined with Dox was used in U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells. The results identified that Atg7 siRNA and the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA significantly elevated the levels of growth inhibition by Dox and markedly increased the expression levels of the apoptosis?related proteins cleaved caspase-3 and cytochrome c, and reduced the levels of MMP in the U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells, which were treated with Dox. These results indicated that autophagy was the protective mechanism used by U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma against Dox-induced apoptosis. The inhibition of autophagy notably increases the levels of apoptosis induced by Dox. This suggested that Dox used in combination with autophagy inhibitors may effectively treat osteosarcoma.
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Process and outcome for international reliability in sleep scoring.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The aim was to evaluate the inter-rater reliability in scoring sleep stages in two sleep labs in Berlin Germany and Beijing China.
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Anatomical and functional volume concordance between FDG PET, and T2 and diffusion-weighted MRI for cervical cancer: a hybrid PET/MR study.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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To evaluate the concordance among (18)F-FDG PET imaging, MR T2-weighted (T2-W) imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging in cervical cancer using hybrid whole-body PET/MR.
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Species-dependent neuropathology in transgenic SOD1 pigs.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Mutations in the human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It remains unknown whether large animal models of ALS mimic more pathological events seen in ALS patients via novel mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of transgenic pigs expressing mutant G93A hSOD1 and showing hind limb motor defects, which are germline transmissible, and motor neuron degeneration in dose- and age-dependent manners. Importantly, in the early disease stage, mutant hSOD1 did not form cytoplasmic inclusions, but showed nuclear accumulation and ubiquitinated nuclear aggregates, as seen in some ALS patient brains, but not in transgenic ALS mouse models. Our findings revealed that SOD1 binds PCBP1, a nuclear poly(rC) binding protein, in pig brain, but not in mouse brain, suggesting that the SOD1-PCBP1 interaction accounts for nuclear SOD1 accumulation and that species-specific targets are key to ALS pathology in large mammals and in humans.
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Notch signaling regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation during zebrafish heart regeneration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The human heart's failure to replace ischemia-damaged myocardium with regenerated muscle contributes significantly to the worldwide morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. Remarkably, certain vertebrate species, including the zebrafish, achieve complete regeneration of amputated or injured myocardium through the proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes. Nonetheless, the genetic and cellular determinants of natural cardiac regeneration remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report that cardiac regeneration in zebrafish relies on Notch signaling. Following amputation of the zebrafish ventricular apex, Notch receptor expression becomes activated specifically in the endocardium and epicardium, but not the myocardium. Using a dominant negative approach, we discovered that suppression of Notch signaling profoundly impairs cardiac regeneration and induces scar formation at the amputation site. We ruled out defects in endocardial activation, epicardial activation, and dedifferentiation of compact myocardial cells as causative for the regenerative failure. Furthermore, coronary endothelial tubes, which we lineage traced from preexisting endothelium in wild-type hearts, formed in the wound despite the myocardial regenerative failure. Quantification of myocardial proliferation in Notch-suppressed hearts revealed a significant decrease in cycling cardiomyocytes, an observation consistent with a noncell autonomous requirement for Notch signaling in cardiomyocyte proliferation. Unexpectedly, hyperactivation of Notch signaling also suppressed cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration. Taken together, our data uncover the exquisite sensitivity of regenerative cardiomyocyte proliferation to perturbations in Notch signaling.
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rs4711751 and rs1999930 are not associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in the Chinese population.
Ophthalmic Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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rs1999930 and rs4711751 have recently been identified as novel variants associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in populations of European ancestry. We aimed to investigate whether these two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with neovascular AMD (nAMD) or with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), a variant of AMD in Asians, using a Chinese case-control study.
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A preliminary report on adjuvant analgesic efficacy of HANS in opioid tolerant patients with cancer pain.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To observe the adjuvant analgesic efficacy of Han's Acupoint Nerve Stimulator (HANS) in opioid tolerant patients with cancer pain.
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Neuromechanism Study of Insect-Machine Interface: Flight Control by Neural Electrical Stimulation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The insect-machine interface (IMI) is a novel approach developed for man-made air vehicles, which directly controls insect flight by either neuromuscular or neural stimulation. In our previous study of IMI, we induced flight initiation and cessation reproducibly in restrained honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) via electrical stimulation of the bilateral optic lobes. To explore the neuromechanism underlying IMI, we applied electrical stimulation to seven subregions of the honeybee brain with the aid of a new method for localizing brain regions. Results showed that the success rate for initiating honeybee flight decreased in the order: ?-lobe (or ?-lobe), ellipsoid body, lobula, medulla and antennal lobe. Based on a comparison with other neurobiological studies in honeybees, we propose that there is a cluster of descending neurons in the honeybee brain that transmits neural excitation from stimulated brain areas to the thoracic ganglia, leading to flight behavior. This neural circuit may involve the higher-order integration center, the primary visual processing center and the suboesophageal ganglion, which is also associated with a possible learning and memory pathway. By pharmacologically manipulating the electrically stimulated honeybee brain, we have shown that octopamine, rather than dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, plays a part in the circuit underlying electrically elicited honeybee flight. Our study presents a new brain stimulation protocol for the honeybee-machine interface and has solved one of the questions with regard to understanding which functional divisions of the insect brain participate in flight control. It will support further studies to uncover the involved neurons inside specific brain areas and to test the hypothesized involvement of a visual learning and memory pathway in IMI flight control.
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Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of ?-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10-3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.
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Berberine Improves Kidney Function in Diabetic Mice via AMPK Activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPK?2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice.
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Production of transgenic pigs over-expressing the antiviral gene Mx1.
Cell Regen (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The myxovirus resistance gene (Mx1) has a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. It is therefore an interesting candidate gene to improve disease resistance in farm animals. In this study, we report the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic pigs over-expressing the Mx1 gene. These transgenic pigs express approximately 15-25 times more Mx1 mRNA than non-transgenic pigs, and the protein level of Mx1 was also markedly enhanced. We challenged fibroblast cells isolated from the ear skin of transgenic and control pigs with influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus (CFSV). Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed a profound decrease of influenza A proliferation in Mx1 transgenic cells. Growth kinetics showed an approximately 10-fold reduction of viral copies in the transgenic cells compared to non-transgenic controls. Additionally, we found that the Mx1 transgenic cells were more resistant to CSFV infection in comparison to non-transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that the Mx1 transgene can protect against viral infection in cells of transgenic pigs and indicate that the Mx1 transgene can be harnessed to develop disease-resistant pigs.
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Semaphorin 3A blocks the formation of pathologic choroidal neovascularization induced by transforming growth factor beta.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of vision loss in retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previously, we demonstrated that semaphorin3A (Sema3A), which is a chemorepellent guidance molecule, inhibited the formation of retina neovascularization. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic effects of Sema3A on transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) in vitro and in vivo.
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Formation of worm-like micelles in mixed N-hexadecyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide-based cationic surfactant and anionic surfactant systems.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Through the descriptive and rheological characterization of worm-like micelles formed by N-hexadecyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide and sodium laurate, the formation and properties of the worm-like micelles were affected by the concentrations of sodium laurate and temperature. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further validated the formation of worm-like micelles.
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Investigation of the profile control mechanisms of dispersed particle gel.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dispersed particle gel (DPG) particles of nano- to micron- to mm-size have been prepared successfully and will be used for profile control treatment in mature oilfields. The profile control and enhanced oil recovery mechanisms of DPG particles have been investigated using core flow tests and visual simulation experiments. Core flow test results show that DPG particles can easily be injected into deep formations and can effectively plug the high permeability zones. The high profile improvement rate improves reservoir heterogeneity and diverts fluid into the low permeability zone. Both water and oil permeability were reduced when DPG particles were injected, but the disproportionate permeability reduction effect was significant. Water permeability decreases more than the oil permeability to ensure that oil flows in its own pathways and can easily be driven out. Visual simulation experiments demonstrate that DPG particles can pass directly or by deformation through porous media and enter deep formations. By retention, adsorption, trapping and bridging, DPG particles can effectively reduce the permeability of porous media in high permeability zones and divert fluid into a low permeability zone, thus improving formation profiles and enhancing oil recovery.
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Filaggrin gene mutation c.3321delA is associated with various clinical features of atopic dermatitis in the Chinese Han population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We confirmed that the filaggrin gene mutation c.3321delA is associated with atopic dermatitis in our previous genome wide association study of the Chinese Han population. c.3321delA is the most common filaggrin gene mutation in Chinese atopic dermatitis patients but is not present in European populations.
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Megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells induced by PMA reduced the activity of respiratory chain complex IV.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mitochondria are involved in the regulation of cell differentiation processes, but its function changes and molecular mechanisms are not yet clear. In this study, we found that mitochondrial functions changed obviously when K562 cells were induced to megakaryocytic differentiation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). During the cell differentiation, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was increased, mitochondrial membrane potential declined and respiratory chain complex IV activity was decreased. Treatment with specific inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV led to a significant inhibition in mitochondrial membrane potential and reduction of PMA-induced cell differentiation. However, treatment with cyclosporine A, a stabilization reagent of mitochondrial membrane potential, did not improve the down-regulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV induced by PMA. Furthermore, we found that the level of the complex IV core subunit COX3 and mitochondrial transport-related proteins Tim9 and Tim10 were decreased during the differentiation of K562 cells induced by PMA, suggesting an important role of these factors in mitochondrial functional changes. Our results suggest that changes in mitochondrial functions are involved in the PMA-induced K562 cell differentiation process, and the maintenance of the steady-state of mitochondrial functions plays a critical role in the regulation of cell differentiation.
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Radiolabeled nanoparticles for multimodality tumor imaging.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Each imaging modality has its own unique strengths. Multimodality imaging, taking advantages of strengths from two or more imaging modalities, can provide overall structural, functional, and molecular information, offering the prospect of improved diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring abilities. The devices of molecular imaging with multimodality and multifunction are of great value for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and greatly accelerate the development of radionuclide-based multimodal molecular imaging. Radiolabeled nanoparticles bearing intrinsic properties have gained great interest in multimodality tumor imaging over the past decade. Significant breakthrough has been made toward the development of various radiolabeled nanoparticles, which can be used as novel cancer diagnostic tools in multimodality imaging systems. It is expected that quantitative multimodality imaging with multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles will afford accurate and precise assessment of biological signatures in cancer in a real-time manner and thus, pave the path towards personalized cancer medicine. This review addresses advantages and challenges in developing multimodality imaging probes by using different types of nanoparticles, and summarizes the recent advances in the applications of radiolabeled nanoparticles for multimodal imaging of tumor. The key issues involved in the translation of radiolabeled nanoparticles to the clinic are also discussed.
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Hidden chirality in superficially racemic patchy silver films.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Chiral patchy particle films where morphological enantiomers exist in equal proportion are found to have significant circular dichroism. It is determined that the rotation direction during glancing angle deposition breaks the racemic symmetry, resulting in a distribution of material which enhances the chirality of one set of enantiomers relative to the other. Microscopic analysis and geometric chirality calculations reveal that the chirality of the bulk film results from incomplete cancellations of even stronger local chiralities.
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[Daytime hypercapnia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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To evaluate the incidence and factors related to daytime CO2 retention (PaCO2 ? 45 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) in Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.
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TNFRSF10A-LOC389641 rs13278062 But Not REST-C4orf14-POLR2B-IGFBP7 rs1713985 Was Found Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Chinese Population.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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To reassess the association between TNFRSF10-LOC389641 rs13278062 and REST-C4orf14-POLR2B-IGFBP7 rs1713985 with the risk of AMD in a Chinese case-control collection.
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Ag Nanoparticle Embedded TiO2 Composite Nanorod Arrays Fabricated by Oblique Angle Deposition: Toward Plasmonic Photocatalysis.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Using a unique oblique angle co-deposition technique, well-aligned arrays of Ag nanoparticle embedded TiO2 composite nanorods have been fabricated with different concentrations of Ag. The structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of the composite nanostructures are investigated using a variety of experimental techniques and compared with those of pure TiO2 nanorods fabricated similarly. Ag nanoparticles are formed in the composite nanorods, which increase the visible light absorbance due to localized surface plasmon resonance. The Ag concentrations and the annealing conditions are found to affect the size and the density of Ag nanoparticles and their optical properties. The Ag nanoparticle embedded TiO2 nanostructures exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO2 under visible- or UV-light illumination. Ag plays different roles in assisting the photocatalysis with different light sources. Ag can be excited and can inject electrons to TiO2, working as an electron donor under visible light. While under UV illumination, Ag acts as an electron acceptor to trap the photogenerated electrons in TiO2. Due to the opposite electron transfer direction under UV and visible light, the presence of Ag may not result in a greater enhancement in the photocatalytic performance.
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[Value of cerebral spinal fluid measurement of hypocretin-1 in the diagnosis of Chinese patients with narcolepsy].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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To evaluate the diagnostic value of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) measurement of hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) in Chinese patients with narcolepsy.
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Buckle-driven delamination of hydrophobic micro-, nano-, and heterostructured membranes without a sacrificial layer.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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A fabrication method, based on thin film buckling, is demonstrated to form unique membranes that can be used for applications in optics and biosensing. This method should be applicable to a variety of material systems, which, along with its simplicity and compatibility with different film architectures, allows for widespread implementation.
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Genome wide analysis of narcolepsy in China implicates novel immune loci and reveals changes in association prior to versus after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Previous studies in narcolepsy, an autoimmune disorder affecting hypocretin (orexin) neurons and recently associated with H1N1 influenza, have demonstrated significant associations with five loci. Using a well-characterized Chinese cohort, we refined known associations in TRA@ and P2RY11-DNMT1 and identified new associations in the TCR beta (TRB@; rs9648789 max P = 3.7 × 10(-9) OR 0.77), ZNF365 (rs10995245 max P = 1.2 × 10(-11) OR 1.23), and IL10RB-IFNAR1 loci (rs2252931 max P = 2.2 × 10(-9) OR 0.75). Variants in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)- DQ region were associated with age of onset (rs7744020 P = 7.9×10(-9) beta -1.9 years) and varied significantly among cases with onset after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic compared to previous years (rs9271117 P = 7.8 × 10(-10) OR 0.57). These reflected an association of DQB1*03:01 with earlier onset and decreased DQB1*06:02 homozygosity following 2009. Our results illustrate how genetic association can change in the presence of new environmental challenges and suggest that the monitoring of genetic architecture over time may help reveal the appearance of novel triggers for autoimmune diseases.
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Effects of the epigenetic drug MS-275 on the release and function of exosome-related immune molecules in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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Tumor-derived exosomes have been viewed as a source of tumor antigens that can be used to induce anti-tumor immune responses. In the current study, we aim to investigate the regulatory effect of the epigenetic drug MS-275 on hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cell-derived exosomes, especially for their immunostimulatory properties and alteration of some non-specific immune protein expression, such as heat shock protein (HSP) 70, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) and MICB.
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Study of micelle formation by fluorocarbon surfactant N-(2-hydroxypropyl)perfluorooctane amide in aqueous solution.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Micelles formed by fluorocarbon surfactant N-(2-hydroxypropyl)perfluorooctane amide in aqueous solution were studied through surface tension, dynamic light scatting (DLS), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and dissipative particle dynamic (DPD) simulations. Through surface tension measurements, the effectiveness of surface tension reduction, the maximum surface excess concentration, and the minimum area occupied per surfactant molecule at the air/water interface were investigated. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) at different temperatures and a series of thermodynamic parameters (?G(m)0, ?H(m)0, ?S(m)0, ?G(ads)0, ?H(m)(A) and ?C(p(m))0) of micellization were evaluated. The thermodynamic parameters showed that the micelle formation was entropy-driven. The micelle formation was also confirmed by ITC and DLS. In addition, the DPD simulations were conducted to simulate the whole process of micelle formation to make micelle formation better understood.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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