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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Seroprevalence of alphavirus antibodies in a cross-sectional study in southwestern Tanzania suggests endemic circulation of chikungunya.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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To date, Alphavirus infections and their most prominent member, chikungunya fever, a viral disease which first became apparent in Tanzania in 1953, have been very little investigated in regions without epidemic occurrence. Few data exist on burden of disease and socio-economic and environmental covariates disposing to infection.
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Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.
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First detection of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes pavlovskyi and Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Novosibirsk region, Russia.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Kemerovo group viruses are tick-transmitted members of Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family that can cause infections of the central nervous system of humans. In this work, Kemerovo virus (KEMV) RNA was detected for the first time in Novosibirsk region of Western Siberia, Russia, in Ixodes pavlovskyi and Ixodes persulcatus ticks.
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Complete Genome Sequence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Strain A104 Isolated from a Yellow-Necked Mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) in Austria.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strain A104 was isolated from the brain of a yellow-necked mouse in Austria in 1990. The complete genome sequence was 11,097 nucleotides long. Comparison with TBEV prototype strain Neudoerfl showed 32 amino acid exchanges and the absence of an internal poly(A) stretch within the 3 noncoding region.
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Full genome sequences and preliminary molecular characterization of three tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from ticks and a bank vole in Slovak Republic.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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The full genome sequences of three tick-borne encephalitis virus strains, two isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks and one from the brain of a bank vole, Myodes glareolus, originating from the Slovak Republic were determined. Nucleotide sequences were found to be very similar (>99.5 % nt-identity) with only one distinct amino acid (aa) difference to each other. They all shared 30 aa-changes when compared to type strain Neudoerfl, isolated in neighboring Austria. An internal poly(A)-stretch similar to that of strain Neudoerfl was found only in TBEV strain 114 from a tick. Despite this heterogeneity in the 3-NCR, the high level of sequence identity was striking, indicating a low rate of nucleotide substitutions of TBEV strains in Slovakia and no obvious relation to the host species.
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Molecular phylogeography of tick-borne encephalitis virus in central Europe.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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In order to obtain a better understanding of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strain movements in central Europe the E gene sequences of 102 TBEV strains collected from 1953 to 2011 at 38 sites in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Germany were determined. Bayesian analysis suggests a 350-year history of evolution and spread in central Europe of two main lineages, A and B. In contrast to the east to west spread at the Eurasian continent level, local central European spreading patterns suggest historic west to east spread followed by more recent east to west spread. The phylogenetic and network analyses indicate TBEV ingressions from the Czech Republic and Slovakia into Germany via landscape features (Danube river system), biogenic factors (birds, red deer) and anthropogenic factors. The identification of endemic foci showing local genetic diversity is of paramount importance to the field as these will be a prerequisite for in-depth analysis of focal TBEV maintenance and long-distance TBEV spread.
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Actin assessment in addition to specific immuno-fluorescence staining to demonstrate rickettsial growth in cell culture.
Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Rickettsiae are able to spread within infected cell mono-layers by modifying intra-cellular actin formations. The study analyzes whether a visualization of actin modifications in addition to specific immuno-fluorescence staining of rickettsiae might facilitate the proof of rickettsial growth in cell culture. Cell mono-layers of Vero E6 und BGM cells were infected with Rickettsia honei. Intra-cellular actin was fluorescence stained with TRITC-(tetra-methyl-5,6-isothiocyanate)-labeled phalloidin in addition to specific immuno-fluorescence staining of rickettsiae with FITC-(fluorescein-isothiocyanate)-labeled antibodies. DNA of bacteria and cells was counter-stained with DAPI (4´,6-diamino-2-phenyl-indole). Cell cultures infected with Vaccinia virus were used as positive controls, cell cultures infected with Coxiella burnetii as negative controls. High concentrations of R. honei are necessary to demonstrate characteristic modifications of the intra-cellular actin. This effect is more pronounced in Vero E6 cells than in BGM cells. Actin staining with phalloidin is not suited for an early proof of rickettsial growth in cell culture but may confirm unclear findings in specific immuno-fluorescence staining in case of sufficient bacterial density.
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Comparison of different media for preservation and transport of viable rickettsiae.
Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Rickettsiae tend to have a rapid decrease of viability outside living cells. Therefore, the transport of samples containing viable rickettsiae for culturing in cell culture for diagnostic purposes is challenging. The viability of rickettsiae in different transport media (commercially available transport medium COPAN "UTM-RT transport medium for viruses, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and ureaplasma," minimal essential medium (MEM) with and without 10% foetal calf serum) at various time points at 4 °C and at ambient temperature (22 °C) was compared. Rickettsia honei was used as model organism. After 2 weeks of storage at room temperature, no viable rickettsiae were detectable any more while storage at 4 °C kept rickettsiae viable for up to 4 weeks. The commercially available COPAN medium showed similarly good or slightly better stabilizing effects on rickettsiae compared with MEM + 10% foetal calf serum, pure MEM demonstrated the poorest results. It is important to transport and store media with potentially rickettsiae-containing samples at 4 °C to prevent inactivation. MEM + 10% foetal calf serum can be used if no commercial medium is available with similarly good results.
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Inactivation of rickettsiae.
Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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A reliable and complete inactivation is an indispensable premise for any concentration of rickettsiae or for the development of diagnostic strategies based on their antigens. This study deals with the testing of methods to inactivate rickettsiae. Rickettsia honei was used as a model organism. The inactivating potency of formalin, Qiagen® antiviral lysozyme (AVL) buffer, heating to 56 °C, and ?-propiolactone was analyzed in cell culture. The inactivation limits for rickettsiae were 0.1% formalin about 10 min, Qiagen AVL buffer about 5 min, 56 °C about 5 min, 0.125% ?-propiolactone about 1 h, and 0.0125% ?-propiolactone overnight. The interpretation was limited by cytotoxic effects of the inactivation procedures and by the culturally achievable rickettsial density in the cell culture supernatants that were used for the inactivation experiments. Reliable modes of inactivation were identified, allowing for the secure handling of rickettsial antigens for diagnostic purposes.
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Viperin is an iron-sulfur protein that inhibits genome synthesis of tick-borne encephalitis virus via radical SAM domain activity.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Viperin is an interferon-induced protein with a broad antiviral activity. This evolutionary conserved protein contains a radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) domain which has been shown in vitro to hold a [4Fe-4S] cluster. We identified tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a novel target for which human viperin inhibits productionof the viral genome RNA. Wt viperin was found to require ER localization for full antiviral activity and to interact with the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly factor CIAO1. Radiolabelling in vivo revealed incorporation of (55) Fe, indicative for the presence of an Fe-S cluster. Mutation of the cysteine residues ligating the Fe-S cluster in the central radical SAM domain entirely abolished both antiviral activity and incorporation of (55) Fe. Mutants lacking the extreme C-terminal W361 did not interact with CIAO1, were not matured, and were antivirally inactive. Moreover, intracellular removal of SAM by ectopic expression of the bacteriophage T3 SAMase abolished antiviral activity. Collectively, our data suggest that viperin requires CIAO1 for [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly, and acts through an enzymatic, Fe-S cluster- and SAM-dependent mechanism to inhibit viral RNA synthesis.
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May early intervention with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin pose a potentially successful treatment for severe cases of tick-borne encephalitis?
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Arthropod-borne viral encephalitis of diverse origins shows similar clinical symptoms, histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging, indicating that the patho mechanisms may be similar. There is no specific therapy to date. However, vaccination remains the best prophylaxis against a selected few. Regardless of these shortcomings, there are an increasing number of case reports that successfully treat arboviral encephalitis with high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins.
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High seroprevalence for typhus group rickettsiae, southwestern Tanzania.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity.
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Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in ticks collected from European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus, Linnaeus, 1758).
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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The role of wild mammals in the dissemination and maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still under investigation. European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are often heavily infested by tick and flea species that are known to harbor and transmit different Rickettsia spp. We investigated ixodid ticks sampled from European hedgehogs for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 471 Ixodes ricinus and 755 I. hexagonus were collected from 26 German and 7 British European hedgehogs. These were tested by a genus-specific real-time PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). The rickettsia minimum infection rate was 11.7% with an increase detected with each parasitic tick stage. No significant difference in Rickettsia prevalence in the 2 Ixodes species was detected. Using sequencing of partial ompB, Rickettsia helvetica was the only species identified. More than half of the hedgehogs carried Rickettsia-positive ticks. In addition, tissue samples from 2/5 hedgehogs (where tissue DNA was available) were PCR-positive. These results show that European hedgehogs are exposed to R. helvetica via infected ticks and might be involved in the natural transmission cycle of this Rickettsia species.
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Genetic characterization of Tribe? virus and Kemerovo virus, two tick-transmitted human-pathogenic Orbiviruses.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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We determined the complete genome sequences of Tribe? virus (TRBV) and Kemerovo virus (KEMV), two tick-transmitted Orbiviruses that can cause diseases of the central nervous system and that are currently classified into the Great Island virus serogroup. VP2 proteins of TRBV and KEMV show very low sequence similarity to the homologous VP4 protein of tick-transmitted Great Island virus (GIV). The new sequence data support previous serological classification of these Orbiviruses into the Kemerovo serogroup, which is different from the Great Island virus serogroup. Genome segment 9 of TRBV and KEMV encodes several overlapping ORFs in the +1 reading frame relative to VP6(Hel). A co-phylogenetic analysis indicates a host switch from insect-borne Orbiviruses toward Ixodes species, which is in disagreement with previously published data.
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Tick-borne encephalitis virus in dogs--is this an issue?
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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The last review on Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in dogs was published almost ten years ago. Since then, this zoonotic tick-borne arbovirus has been geographically spreading and emerging in many regions in Eurasia and continues to do so. Dogs become readily infected with TBE virus but they are accidental hosts not capable to further spread the virus. They seroconvert upon infection but they seem to be much more resistant to the clinical disease than humans. Apart from their use as sentinels in endemic areas, however, an increasing number of case reports appeared during the last decade thus mirroring the rising public health concerns. Owing to the increased mobility of people travelling to endemic areas with their companion dogs, this consequently leads to problems in recognizing and diagnosing this severe infection in a yet non-endemic area, simply because the veterinarians are not considering TBE. This situation warrants an update on the epidemiology, clinical presentation and possible preventions of TBE in the dog.
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Fleas as parasites of the family Canidae.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Historically, flea-borne diseases are among the most important medical diseases of humans. Plague and murine typhus are known for centuries while the last years brought some new flea-transmitted pathogens, like R. felis and Bartonella henselae. Dogs may play an essential or an accidental role in the natural transmission cycle of flea-borne pathogens. They support the growth of some of the pathogens or they serve as transport vehicles for infected fleas between their natural reservoirs and humans. More than 15 different flea species have been described in domestic dogs thus far. Several other species have been found to be associated with wild canids. Fleas found on dogs originate from rodents, birds, insectivores and from other Carnivora. Dogs therefore may serve as ideal bridging hosts for the introduction of flea-borne diseases from nature to home. In addition to their role as ectoparasites they cause nuisance for humans and animals and may be the cause for severe allergic reactions.
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Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) acquired in Southwestern Germany.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) was first described in 1997 in a patient in France. The causative agent, Rickettsia slovaca, is transmitted by Dermacentor ticks.
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Clinical and laboratory findings of a sandfly fever Turkey Virus outbreak in Ankara.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Sandfly fever (SF) is an arthropod-borne disease, which has not yet been reported from Ankara. In the summer of 2007, the disease started to be seen in our region, surprisingly causing severe clinical presentations. This report reviews the clinical and laboratory findings of patients with sandfly virus infection of disease outbreaks in 2008 and 2009. A retrospective single-centre descriptive study was performed. Clinically suspected cases were defined on the basis of epidemiologic history and clinical and laboratory findings. The sera samples of the suspected patients were sent to Germany for diagnostic assistance. 50 patients were included in the study. Fever, headache, photophobia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, nausea, abdominal pain and anorexia were common symptoms. Although the fever lasted only 3-6 days, complete recovery required up to 30 days. Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated serum aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase levels were remarkable findings. The viral-load of Sandfly fever Turkey Virus (SFTV) was detected in the serum of acute patients ranged from 3.19×10(6) to 2.79×10(9) viral RNA molecules/ml. As a result we want to underline that the new type of sandfly virus causes a severe clinical picture with elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia, to an extent not described before in the literature, which might be due to the elevated viral-load observed.
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Phylogenetic analysis of Puumala virus subtype Bavaria, characterization and diagnostic use of its recombinant nucleocapsid protein.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2011
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Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant hantavirus species in Germany causing large numbers of mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). During an outbreak in South-East Germany in 2004 a novel PUUV subtype designated Bavaria was identified as the causative agent of HFRS in humans [1]. Here we present a molecular characterization of this PUUV strain by investigating novel partial and almost entire nucleocapsid (N) protein-encoding small (S-) segment sequences and partial medium (M-) segment sequences from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) trapped in Lower Bavaria during 2004 and 2005. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed their classification as subtype Bavaria, which is further subdivided into four geographical clusters. The entire N protein, harbouring an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag, of the Bavarian strain was produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and showed a slightly different reactivity with N-specific monoclonal antibodies, compared to the yeast-expressed N protein of the PUUV strain Vranica/Hällnäs. Endpoint titration of human sera from different parts of Germany and from Finland revealed only very slight differences in the diagnostic value of the different recombinant proteins. Based on the novel N antigen indirect and monoclonal antibody capture IgG-ELISAs were established. By using serum panels from Germany and Finland their validation demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity. In summary, our investigations demonstrated the Bavarian PUUV strain to be genetically divergent from other PUUV strains and the potential of its N protein for diagnostic applications.
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Rickettsia spp. in wild small mammals in Lower Bavaria, South-Eastern Germany.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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So far, data on the natural cycle of rickettsiae of the tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) in Central Europe are barely available. Some studies showed the occurrence of different Rickettsia species in their arthropod vectors, but it is unclear which animals might have any kind of reservoir function. This survey was therefore set up to provide information on the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in small mammals in Germany. A total of 124 rodents and insectivores were collected over a period of 3 years in Lower Bavaria, South-Eastern Germany. Screening for Rickettsia antibodies was performed using immunofluorescence with Rickettsia conorii and R. helvetica slides, and the comparability of sera and body fluids (transudates) was investigated in these assays. Further, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for screening of Rickettsial DNA in rodents and insectivores. Ear versus liver tissue was compared to evaluate the more suitable tissue for detection of specific DNA. Further, a new PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal nucleic acid was established as internal control. The results indicated that transudates are a sufficient alternative to proof infection in cases where no sera are available. Rickettsial DNA, that is, Rickettsia felis and R. helvetica, was found in seven animals with the ears proving to be a proper choice for PCR. Statistical analyses revealed that the presence of ectoparasites and the body size positively correlated with the occurrence of rickettsial DNA. Overall, our study suggests that rodents and other small mammals may act as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia. However, with the course of infection and its transmission in wild animals still unknown, further investigations are needed to better understand the natural cycle of SFG rickettsiae.
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Tick-borne encephalitis: pathogenesis and clinical implications.
Travel Med Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an important and severe neurological illness occurring in large areas of Europe and northern Asia. Only a small proportion of those infected develop clinical symptoms. The symptomatic cases are, however, characterized with fevers and debilitating encephalitis that might progress into chronic disease or fatal infections. This review summarizes data on clinical presentation, pathogenesis and pathology of TBE in humans, and of experimental TBE in animal models with the purpose to explain why is TBE such a severe disease clinically.
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Tick-borne encephalitis virus and the immune response of the mammalian host.
Travel Med Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is caused by Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Europe and in many parts of Asia. Transmission of TBEV to humans usually occurs by bite of an infected tick or rarely by ingestion of unpasteurized milk products of infected livestock. TBEV infection induces an innate and adaptive immune response, nevertheless it is able to replicate in several cell types of the immune system at the same time which probably contributes to the spread of the virus in the human host. Furthermore, TBEV can enter the central nervous system (CNS) by yet not well understood mechanisms via the blood brain barrier (BBB) or the olfactory neurons which leads to serious neurological disorders like meningitis, encephalitis or even meningoencephalitis. In this article we review the known facts and possible hypotheses of interaction of TBEV with components of the mammalian immune system and their implications for TBEV-mediated pathogenesis.
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Emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Arboviruses are transmitted in nature exclusively or to a major extend by arthropods. They belong to the most important viruses invading new areas in the world and their occurrence is strongly influenced by climatic changes due to the life cycle of the transmitting vectors. Several arboviruses have emerged in new regions of the world during the last years, like West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas, Usutu virus (USUV) in Central Europe, or Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the Arabian Peninsula. In most instances the ways of introduction of arboviruses into new regions are not known. Infections acquired during stays in the tropics and subtropics are diagnosed with increasing frequency in travellers returning from tropical countries, but interestingly no attention is paid on accompanying pet animals or the hematophagous ectoparasites that may still be attached to them. Here we outline the known ecology of the mosquito-borne equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV), WNV, USUV, RVFV, and Japanese Encephalitis virus, as well as Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus and its North American counterpart Powassan virus, and will discuss the most likely mode that these viruses could expand their respective geographical range. All these viruses have a different epidemiology as different vector species, reservoir hosts and virus types have adapted to promiscuous and robust or rather very fine-balanced transmission cycles. Consequently, these viruses will behave differently with regard to the requirements needed to establish new endemic foci outside their original geographical ranges. Hence, emphasis is given on animal trade and suitable ecologic conditions, including competent vectors and vertebrate hosts.
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Tick-borne encephalitis in the age of general mobility.
Wien Med Wochenschr
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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The 11th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) was conducted under the title of, "From childhood to golden age: increased mobility - increased risk of contracting TBE?" Participants from 26 countries, including the United States of America and China, presented reports on the latest developments and trends in local TBE cases, vaccination coverage and risk factors. In particular, the situation of children and the elderly (the "golden agers") was discussed. As the current evidence suggests, the location and extension of endemic areas for TBE have changed over the last few years, along with global warming and the shift of infected ticks to higher altitudes. The increased mobility of the human population adds to the heightened exposure; outdoor activities and international travel are on the rise also, and especially, amongst the 50+ generation, who are already per se at higher risk of disease manifestation, complications and case fatality. Most Europeans travel within Europe, often without sufficient awareness of endemic areas. Only high immunization rates can ensure low disease rates in the long run. To achieve this goal, public education is the sole effective approach for raising the level of awareness. Overall, the risk of any given person to contract TBE should not be regarded as a fixed entity, but rather it must be estimated individually, on the basis of knowledge of the TBE virus endemic areas and risk factors.
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Isolation and molecular characterization of a tick-borne encephalitis virus strain from a new tick-borne encephalitis focus with severe cases in Bavaria, Germany.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral infection transmitted by ticks in Central Europe. In Germany, where TBE was classified as a notifiable disease in 2001, a highly variable number of clinically apparent human cases was reported in the last few years, ranging from the lowest number of 238 in 2007 to a maximum of 546 in 2006. The dynamics of the virus and its vector tick remain poorly understood. We investigated a highly active TBE focus in south-eastern Germany where from 2003 to 2008 a total of 9 clinical human cases was diagnosed. Three out of these 9 cases were fatal indicating an unusually high mortality rate possibly due to a highly virulent TBEV strain. From 2005 till 2008, 2150 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and tested for the presence of TBE virus. Five TBEV-positive ticks were detected by real-time RT-PCR. A viable virus strain was isolated from one of the positive ticks sampled in 2005. This is the first TBE virus isolate from a tick in Germany for 30 years. Sequencing of the full-length genome of this virus strain (AS33) revealed 2 unique amino acid substitutions in the envelope protein known to play a role in the pathogenicity of TBE virus. Amplification of the envelope gene using 2 TBEV-PCR-positive ticks from 2006 also showed these particular mutations indicating that this TBE virus strain was present in at least 2 consecutive years. The entire sampling area was divided into smaller sectors for the exact location of TBEV-positive ticks. Virus-positive ticks were found to be randomly distributed throughout the investigated focus, which is used as recreational area by the local people.
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[What comes after bluetongue--Europe as target for exotic arboviruses].
Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Many factors led to the situation in which we fear the appearance of yet another exotic microbe simply demonstrating our vulnerability to new invaders and the shrinking of the globe. Beside the tremendous increase in international travel and trade, climatic changes are a crucial factor for exotic arboviruses to establish endemic transmission cycles in Europe. Certain temperatures, humidity and--at least for mosquitoes--suitable water bodies are required for the respective species to develop and become abundant. Increasing temperatures reduce the overall time of the mosquito life cycle because the aquatic developmental stages are completed faster, and secondly, the time span required for the mosquito to be capable to transmit the acquired arbovirus to another susceptible host is shortened. Thus the chances for an exotic arbovirus to establish an autochtonous transmission cycle are increasing. Here, a review is provided on the known factors that determine vector competence for mosquitoes and a particular arbovirus. The comparison of the closely related West Nile and Usutu viruses in Europe and North America further demonstrates how different and unpredictable the epidemiology of such arboviruses can be. Time will answer the question on who is going to be the next arboviral intruder into Europe. But it is today that we can bring ourselves into a good position to conquer the next "alien" by setting up interdisciplinary networks to promote research on these "exotic" and thus neglected pathogens thereby enhancing our understanding on their transmission and the factors and mechanisms required for this.
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Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2009
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Tick-borne flaviviruses are among the medically most important arboviruses in Europe and Asia. Tick-borne encephalitis causes between 10,000 and 15,000 human cases every year in both continents. Besides this disease there are several other tick-borne flaviviruses which may be of local medical importance, and which are less known, but may be important as differential diagnosis. Among them are louping-ill disease which is present mainly on the British Islands, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, which is prevalent in parts of Russia, Kyasanur Forest Disease, which is distributed in parts of India, Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever, occurring in Saudi Arabia, Powassan encephalitis, which is known to be the only tick-borne flavivirus of human pathogenicity so far detected in North America and some other flaviviruses. Most of these viruses are also more or less important for veterinary medicine. Several other tick-borne flaviviruses so far have neither been associated with human nor animal diseases, and their potential pathogenicity for humans and animals is unknown. Changes in human behaviour, land use, or climate may change the actual geographical distribution and transmission intensity so that tick-borne flaviviruses are potential winners of the changing environment and may increase in medical and veterinary importance.
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Seroepidemiological study in a Puumala virus outbreak area in South-East Germany.
Med. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Puumala virus (PUUV) is the cause of the majority of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases in Germany. In 2004, a nephropathia epidemica outbreak was recorded in Lower Bavaria, South-East Germany. For a seroepidemiological study in this region including the resident population at four locations (n = 178) and soldiers from one location (n = 208) indirect immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunoblot tests based on a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein were established. The validation using human serum panels originating from Germany revealed a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 98/100% for the IgM ELISA, 99/99% for the IgG ELISA, 99/100% for the IgM immunoblot test and 100/96% for the IgG immunoblot test. Using the novel IgG assays as well as a commercial IgG ELISA and an immunofluorescence assay for the resident population an average prevalence of 6.7% (12 of 178) with a range of 0% (0 of 21) to 11.9% (7 of 59) was observed. Positive serological results were equally distributed between males and females with an average age of 63 for males and 52 for females. The seroprevalence in the soldier group was found to be about 1% with one positive male of 203 (age 46 years) and one positive female of five (age 47 years). In conclusion, the PUUV seroprevalence in the residents of the outbreak region in Lower Bavaria was found to be up to fivefold higher than the average hantavirus seroprevalence of the German population.
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Genetic characterization of Erve virus, a European Nairovirus distantly related to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Virus Genes
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Erve virus (ERVEV) is a European Nairovirus that is suspected to cause severe headache (thunderclap headache) and intracerebral hemorrhage. The mode of transmission to humans (ticks or mosquitoes) is still unknown. Currently, no standardized testing method for ERVEV exists and only a small partial sequence of the polymerase gene is available. Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of ERVEV S, M, and L segments. Phylogenetic comparison of the amino acid sequence of the L-protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) revealed only 48 % homology to available L-protein sequences of other Nairoviruses like Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus, Hazara virus, Kupe virus, and Dugbe virus. Among themselves, these Nairoviruses show 62-89 % homology in the L-protein sequences. Therefore, ERVEV seems to be only distantly related to other Nairoviruses. The new sequence data can be used for the development of diagnostic methods and the identification of the natural vector.
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Isolation, preliminary characterization, and full-genome analyses of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Mongolia.
Virus Genes
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Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, namely severe encephalitis in Europe and Asia. Since the 1980s tick-borne encephalitis is known in Mongolia with increasing numbers of human cases reported during the last years. So far, however, data on TBEV strains are still sparse. We herein report the isolation of a TBEV strain from Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Mongolia in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the E-gene classified this isolate as Siberian subtype of TBEV. The Mongolian TBEV strain showed differences in virus titers, plaque sizes, and growth properties in two human neuronal cell-lines. In addition, the 10,242 nucleotide long open-reading frame and the corresponding polyprotein sequence were revealed. The isolate grouped in the genetic subclade of the Siberian subtype. The strain Zausaev (AF527415) and Vasilchenko (AF069066) had 97 and 94 % identity on the nucleotide level. In summary, we herein describe first detailed data regarding TBEV from Mongolia. Further investigations of TBEV in Mongolia and adjacent areas are needed to understand the intricate dispersal of this virus.
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Rickettsia raoultii, the predominant Rickettsia found in Mongolian Dermacentor nuttalli.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
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Since the year 2005, clinical patterns resembling tick-borne rickettsioses have been noticed in Mongolia. Epidemiological data regarding species of the aetiological agent, tick vector, prevalence, and distribution as well as incidence of human cases throughout Mongolia are still sparse to date. In order to identify Rickettsia species occurring in Mongolia, we investigated Dermacentor nuttalli (n=179) and Ixodes persulcatus (n=374) collected in 4 selected provinces. Rickettsia raoultii was the predominant Rickettsia (82% prevalence) found in D. nuttalli and was also detected in I. persulcatus (0.8%). The Rickettsia prevalence in D. nuttalli from different provinces varied between 70% and 97%. In addition, R. sibirica was identified in approximately 4% of D. nuttalli, but solely from Arkhanghai province. The results of this study extend the common knowledge about the geographic distribution of R. raoultii and its high prevalence in D. nuttalli. Although the pathogenicity of this Rickettsia is still unclear, it should be considered in Mongolian patients suspected of having tick-borne rickettsiosis.
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Epidemiology and distribution of tick-borne encephalitis.
Wien Med Wochenschr
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Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the main tick-borne virus infection in Eurasia. It is prevalent across the entire continent from Japan to France and occurs in endemic foci. Expansion of prevalence in areas including northern Russia, Sweden, and Finland has been observed in recent years. Ticks are the most important vectors and may transmit the TBE virus to animals and humans. TBE can also be transmitted to humans in milk containing the virus. TBE has been implicated as a travel-acquired illness and there are isolated reports of its occurrence in countries outside the known areas of prevalence. Therefore, TBE should be included in the differential diagnosis for all central nervous system diseases inside or outside endemic areas.
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High seroprevalence of Rift Valley FEVER AND EVIDENCE FOR ENDEMIC circulation in Mbeya region, Tanzania, in a cross-sectional study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne phlebovirus. RVFV mostly causes outbreaks among domestic ruminants with a major economic impact. Human infections are associated with these events, with a fatality rate of 0.5-2%. Since the virus is able to use many mosquito species of temperate climates as vectors, it has a high potential to spread to outside Africa.
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Two laboratory-confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis imported to Germany by travelers returning from Southeast Asia.
J. Clin. Virol.
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Japanese encephalitis virus is the leading cause of encephalitis in Asia and parts of the Pacific. Despite the high number of symptomatic infections in endemic countries, clinical disease in travelers is rare. However, an increasing number of imported infections from popular holiday destinations in Southeast Asia have been recorded in the past few years, including serious disease courses in short-term travelers. Here we report two severe, non-fatal cases in tourists, who returned from a long-time stay in Thailand and a short-term trip to Bali, Indonesia, respectively. Recommendations for vaccination and pre-travel advice are discussed.
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Vector-borne diseases--constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum.
Parasit Vectors
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The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankinds history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, mans relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs).The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population.Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians.In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France) in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world.As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.