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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A subset of circulating blood mycobacteria-specific CD4 T cells can predict the time to Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum culture conversion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated 18 HIV-negative patients with MDR-TB for M. tuberculosis (Mtb)- and PPD-specific CD4 T cell responses and followed them over 6 months of drug therapy. Twelve of these patients were sputum culture (SC) positive and six patients were SC negative upon enrollment. Our aim was to identify a subset of mycobacteria-specific CD4 T cells that would predict time to culture conversion. The total frequency of mycobacteria-specific CD4 T cells at baseline could not distinguish patients showing positive or negative SC. However, a greater proportion of late-differentiated (LD) Mtb- and PPD-specific memory CD4 T cells was found in SC positive patients than in those who were SC negative (p?=?0.004 and p?=?0.0012, respectively). Similarly, a higher co-expression of HLA-DR+ Ki67+ on Mtb- and PPD-specific CD4 T cells could also discriminate between sputum SC positive versus SC negative (p?=?0.004 and p?=?0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that baseline levels of Ki67+ HLA-DR+ Mtb- and PPD-specific CD4 T cells were predictive of the time to sputum culture conversion, with area-under-the-curve of 0.8 (p?=?0.027). Upon treatment, there was a significant decline of these Ki67+ HLA-DR+ T cell populations in the first 2 months, with a progressive increase in mycobacteria-specific polyfunctional IFN?+ IL2+ TNF?+ CD4 T cells over 6 months. Thus, a subset of activated and proliferating mycobacterial-specific CD4 T cells (Ki67+ HLA-DR+) may provide a valuable marker in peripheral blood that predicts time to sputum culture conversion in TB patients at the start of treatment.
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Emergence and spread of extensively and totally drug-resistant tuberculosis, South Africa.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Factors driving the increase in drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, are not understood. A convenience sample of 309 drug-susceptible and 342 multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB isolates, collected July 2008-July 2009, were characterized by spoligotyping, DNA fingerprinting, insertion site mapping, and targeted DNA sequencing. Analysis of molecular-based data showed diverse genetic backgrounds among drug-sensitive and MDR TB sensu stricto isolates in contrast to restricted genetic backgrounds among pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR) TB and XDR TB isolates. Second-line drug resistance was significantly associated with the atypical Beijing genotype. DNA fingerprinting and sequencing demonstrated that the pre-XDR and XDR atypical Beijing isolates evolved from a common progenitor; 85% and 92%, respectively, were clustered, indicating transmission. Ninety-three percent of atypical XDR Beijing isolates had mutations that confer resistance to 10 anti-TB drugs, and some isolates also were resistant to para-aminosalicylic acid. These findings suggest the emergence of totally drug-resistant TB.
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Comparison of laboratory costs of rapid molecular tests and conventional diagnostics for detection of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay and the GenoType MTBDRplus have been implemented into reference laboratories for diagnosis of TB and drug-resistance, but their costs have not been fully elucidated.
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Programmatically selected multidrug-resistant strains drive the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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South Africa shows one of the highest global burdens of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). Since 2002, MDR-TB in South Africa has been treated by a standardized combination therapy, which until 2010 included ofloxacin, kanamycin, ethionamide, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Since 2010, ethambutol has been replaced by cycloserine or terizidone. The effect of standardized treatment on the acquisition of XDR-TB is not currently known.
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Population structure of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in South Africa.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Genotyping of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from tuberculosis (TB) patients in four South African provinces (Western Cape, Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, and Gauteng) revealed a distinct population structure of the MDR strains in all four regions, despite the evidence of substantial human migration between these settings. In all analyzed provinces, a negative correlation between strain diversity and an increasing level of drug resistance (from MDR-TB to extensively drug-resistant TB [XDR-TB]) was observed. Strains predominating in XDR-TB in the Western and Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces were strongly associated with harboring an inhA promoter mutation, potentially suggesting a role of these mutations in XDR-TB development in South Africa. Approximately 50% of XDR-TB cases detected in the Western Cape were due to strains probably originating from the Eastern Cape. This situation may illustrate how failure of efficient health care delivery in one setting can burden health clinics in other areas.
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Mutations in the rrs A1401G gene and phenotypic resistance to amikacin and capreomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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The aminoglycosides amikacin (AMK)/kanamycin (KAN) and the cyclic polypeptide capreomycin (CAP) are important injectable drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Cross-resistance among these drug classes occurs and information on the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), above the normal wild-type distribution, may be useful in identifying isolates that are still accessible to drug treatment. Isolates from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were subjected to DNA sequencing of the rrs (1400-1500 region) and tlyA genes. Sequencing data were compared with (i) conventional susceptibility testing at standard critical concentrations (CCs) on Middlebrook 7H11 agar and (ii) MGIT 960-based MIC determinations to assess the presence of AMK- and CAP-resistant mutants. Isolates with an rrs A1401G mutation showed high-level resistance to AMK (>20?mg/L) and decreased phenotypic susceptibility to CAP (MICs 10-15?mg/L). The MICs of CAP were below the bioavailability of the drug, which suggests that it may still be effective against multi- or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis [M(X)DR-TB]. Agar-based CC testing was found to be unreliable for resistance recognition of CAP in particular.
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Epidemic levels of drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR and XDR-TB) in a high HIV prevalence setting in Khayelitsha, South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2010
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Although multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is emerging as a significant threat to tuberculosis control in high HIV prevalence countries such as South Africa, limited data is available on the burden of drug resistant tuberculosis and any association with HIV in such settings. We conducted a community-based representative survey to assess the MDR-TB burden in Khayelitsha, an urban township in South Africa with high HIV and TB prevalence.
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The impact of expanded testing for multidrug resistant tuberculosis using genotype [correction of geontype] MTBDRplus in South Africa: an observational cohort study.
PLoS ONE
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Globally, multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains underdiagnosed. The Genotype MTBDRplus®, a rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) assay used to detect resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin in the diagnosis of MDR-TB, has good diagnostic accuracy, but its impact on patient outcomes in routine practice is unproven. We assessed the clinical impact of routine DST using MTBDRplus in a single health district in South Africa.
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How many sputum culture results do we need to monitor multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients during treatment?
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Discharge of a hospital patient after a single negative sputum culture may save money when treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. However, after initial sputum conversion in 336 South Africans, 11.6% and 5.4% reconverted after 1 and 2 months, respectively. These findings endorse the WHO definitions of 2 negative cultures taken ? 30 days apart after sputum culture conversion.
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Genotype MTBDRsl line probe assay shortens time to diagnosis of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-throughput diagnostic laboratory.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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Conventional culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) for the second-line antituberculosis drugs is slow, leading to diagnostic delay with associated exacerbation of transmission, amplification of resistance, and increased mortality.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.