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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Preclinical efficacy of the synthetic retinoid ST1926 for treating adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays an important role in ATL pathogenesis. ATL carries a poor prognosis due to chemotherapy resistance, stressing the need for alternative therapies. Here, we investigate the preclinical efficacy of the synthetic retinoid ST1926 in ATL and peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Clinically achievable concentrations of ST1926 induced a dramatic inhibition of cell proliferation in malignant T-cell lines and primary ATL cells with minimal effect on resting or activated normal lymphocytes. ST1926 induced apoptosis, DNA damage, and upregulation of p53 proteins in malignant T cells, whereas it caused an early downregulation of Tax proteins in HTLV-1-positive cells. In murine ATL, oral treatment with ST1926 prolonged survival and reduced leukemia cell infiltration, white blood cell counts, and spleen mass. In spleens of ST1926-treated animals, p53 and p21 proteins were upregulated, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was cleaved, and Tax transcripts were reduced. These results highlight the promising use of ST1926 as a targeted therapy for ATL.
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Alpha thalassemia allelic frequency in Lebanon.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Hemoglobinopathies are the most common reported monogenic disorders worldwide. It is well established that Mediterranean and Arab countries are high risk areas for thalassemia in general, and for alpha thalassemia in particular. Reports of alpha thalassemia gene mutations from the Lebanese population are limited.
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Characterization of Human Influenza Viruses in Lebanon during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 Post-Pandemic Seasons.
Intervirology
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Objective: To genetically characterize human influenza viruses and their susceptibilities to antivirals during two post-pandemic seasons in Lebanon. Methods: Influenza virus was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs that were obtained from patients with influenza-like illness during 2010-2012 and further analyzed both phenotypically and genotypically. Results: During the 2010-2011 season, both 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1p) and B viruses co-circulated with equal prevalence, while the H3N2 virus predominated during the 2011-2012 season. All H3N2 and H1N1 viruses were resistant to amantadine. Importantly, all viruses of the influenza A and B types were susceptible to the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir. Nonetheless, all 2011-2012 H1N1p isolates had three mutations (V241I, N369K, and N386S) in the NA gene that were suggested to be permissive of the H275Y mutation, which confers resistance to oseltamivir. We also detected one H1N1p virus during the 2010-2011 season with a 4-fold decrease in susceptibility to oseltamivir due to an NA-S247N mutation. This isolate was phylogenetically distinct from other H1N1p viruses that were isolated in other regions. Conclusions: Influenza A viruses with reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir and mutations permissive for acquiring NA resistance-conferring mutation with minimal burden on their fitness were isolated in Lebanon. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Review of meningococcal vaccines with updates on immunization in adults.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Meningococcal disease is a serious and global life-threatening disease. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) account for the majority of meningococcal disease worldwide. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines were introduced several decades ago and have led to the decline in the burden of disease. However, polysaccharide vaccines have several limitations, including poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers, short-lived protection, lack of immunologic memory, negligible impact on nasopharyngeal carriage, and presence of hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses. The chemical conjugation of plain polysaccharide vaccines has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines include the quadrivalent vaccines (MenACWY-DT, MenACWY-CRM, and MenACWY-TT) as well as the monovalent A and C vaccines. These conjugate vaccines were shown to elicit strong immune response in adults. This review addresses the various aspects of meningococcal disease, the limitations posed by polysaccharide vaccines, the different conjugate vaccines with their immunogenicity and reactogenicity in adults, and the current recommendations in adults.
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Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease.
Infect Drug Resist
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines - MenACWY-DT (Menactra(®)) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo(®)) - using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix(®)) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks.
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Prospects and challenges in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines in the extended middle East and north Africa region.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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The development of effective and safe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides a great opportunity to prevent a devastating disease, cervical cancer, and a host of other related diseases. However, the introduction of these vaccines has been slow in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. Only one country has introduced the vaccine and few countries plan HPV vaccine introduction in the coming 5 years. Several factors influence the slow uptake in the region, including financial constraints, weak infrastructure for adolescent vaccine delivery, competition with high priority vaccines, and lack of reliable data on the burden of HPV disease. Other barriers include cultural and religious sensitivities, as the vaccines are offered to prevent a sexually transmitted disease in young girls. Recommendations to enhance HPV vaccine introduction in EMENA countries include establishing a regional joint vaccine procurement program, enhancing the adolescent vaccination platform, documenting the burden of cervical cancer, strengthening local National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups and designing Information, Education and Communication material that address cultural concerns. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
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Vaccine for prevention of mild and moderate-to-severe influenza in children.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Commonly used trivalent vaccines contain one influenza B virus lineage and may be ineffective against viruses of the other B lineage. We evaluated the efficacy of a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages.
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Quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT): a review.
Expert Opin Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Meningococcal disease poses serious health risks globally. The six Neisseria meningitidis serogroups responsible for most of the disease burden are A, B, C, W, X and Y. The case fatality rate remains high worldwide and prevention by vaccination remains the best strategy. Because polysaccharide vaccines are poorly immunogenic in young children, conjugated vaccines were developed to overcome this drawback. The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT), comprising the serogroups A, C, W and Y conjugated to tetanus toxoid carrier protein (marketed under the trade name Nimenrix ™), is the first quadrivalent vaccine to be approved in Europe as a single dose for ages 12 months and in Canada for ages 12 months to 55 years.
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Regulation of de novo ceramide synthesis: the role of dihydroceramide desaturase and transcriptional factors NFATC and Hand2 in the hypoxic mouse heart.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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We have previously shown that ceramide, a proapoptotic molecule decreases in the mouse heart as it adapts to hypoxia. We have also shown that its precursor, dihydroceramide, accumulates with hypoxia. This implicates the enzyme dihydroceramide desaturase (DHC-DS), which converts dihydroceramide to ceramide, in a potential regulatory checkpoint in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesised that the regulation of de novo ceramide synthesis plays an important role in the cardiomyocyte adaptation to hypoxia. We used an established mouse model to induce acute and chronic hypoxia. Cardiac tissues were extracted and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression levels of DHC-DS. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays (EMSAs) and qRT-PCR were used to evaluate the activity and expression levels of an array of transcription factors that might regulate DEGS1 gene expression. We demonstrated that DEGS1 mRNA levels decrease with time in hypoxic mice concurrent with the decrease in HAND2 transcripts. Interestingly, the DEGS1 promoter harbors overlapping sites for Hand2 and Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFATC) transcription factors. We have demonstrated a physical interaction between NFATC1 and the E-Box proteins with EMSA and coimmunoprecipitation assays. The regulation of de novo ceramide synthesis in response to hypoxia and this newly described interaction between E-box and NFATC transcription factors will pave the way to identify new pathways in the adaptation of the cardiomyocyte to stress. The elucidation of these pathways will in the long-term provide insights into potential targets for novel therapeutic regimens.
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Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) administered to adults aged 56 Years and older: results of an open-label, randomized, controlled trial.
Drugs Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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The burden of invasive meningococcal disease is substantial in older adults in whom the case fatality rate is high. Travelers to regions with high rates of meningococcal disease, such as Hajj pilgrims, are at increased risk of meningococcal infection, and disease transmission from travelers to their close contacts has been documented. In younger individuals, meningococcal conjugate vaccines offer advantages over polysaccharide vaccines in terms of duration of protection and boostability, and induction of herd immune effects through reductions in nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococci. To date, few data are available evaluating meningococcal conjugate vaccine use in adults >55 years of age.
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p53 and Ceramide as Collaborators in the Stress Response.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The sphingolipid ceramide mediates various cellular processes in response to several extracellular stimuli. Some genotoxic stresses are able to induce p53-dependent ceramide accumulation leading to cell death. However, in other cases, in the absence of the tumor suppressor protein p53, apoptosis proceeds partly due to the activity of this "tumor suppressor lipid", ceramide. In the current review, we describe ceramide and its roles in signaling pathways such as cell cycle arrest, hypoxia, hyperoxia, cell death, and cancer. In a specific manner, we are elaborating on the role of ceramide in mitochondrial apoptotic cell death signaling. Furthermore, after highlighting the role and mechanism of action of p53 in apoptosis, we review the association of ceramide and p53 with respect to apoptosis. Strikingly, the hypothesis for a direct interaction between ceramide and p53 is less favored. Recent data suggest that ceramide can act either upstream or downstream of p53 protein through posttranscriptional regulation or through many potential mediators, respectively.
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Evidence of infection with H4 and H11 avian influenza viruses among Lebanese chicken growers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Human infections with H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses are well documented. Exposure to poultry is the most important risk factor for humans becoming infected with these viruses. Data on human infection with other low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses is sparse but suggests that such infections may occur. Lebanon is a Mediterranean country lying under two major migratory birds flyways and is home to many wild and domestic bird species. Previous reports from this country demonstrated that low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses are in circulation but highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses were not reported. In order to study the extent of human infection with avian influenza viruses in Lebanon, we carried out a seroprevalence cross-sectional study into which 200 poultry-exposed individuals and 50 non-exposed controls were enrolled. We obtained their sera and tested it for the presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses types H4 through H16 and used a questionnaire to collect exposure data. Our microneutralization assay results suggested that backyard poultry growers may have been previously infected with H4 and H11 avian influenza viruses. We confirmed these results by using a horse red blood cells hemagglutination inhibition assay. Our data also showed that farmers with antibodies against each virus type clustered in a small geographic area suggesting that unrecognized outbreaks among birds may have led to these human infections. In conclusion, this study suggests that occupational exposure to chicken is a risk factor for infection with avian influenza especially among backyard growers and that H4 and H11 influenza viruses may possess the ability to cross the species barrier to infect humans.
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Immunogenicity of a single dose of tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y conjugate vaccine administered to 2- to 10-year-olds is noninferior to a licensed-ACWY polysaccharide vaccine with an acceptable safety profile.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Meningococcal disease remains an important cause of invasive bacterial infections in children less than 5 years of age. Immunogenicity and safety of the investigational ACWY vaccine conjugated with tetanus toxoid (ACWY-TT, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) were evaluated in 1501 healthy 2- to 10-year-old children in the Philippines, India, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia.
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Genetic diversity and antiviral drug resistance of pandemic H1N1 2009 in Lebanon.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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In June 2009, the World Health Organization announced the 21st centurys first influenza pandemic caused by pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 (H1N1 pdm).
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Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro-B cell stage and profound B cell lymphopenia, significant serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, and IgE and a high proportion of Ig-secreting cells were detected in mut/mut mice. Antibody responses to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll and production of high-affinity antibodies to TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin were severely impaired, even after adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4(+) T cells. Mut/mut mice produced high amounts of low-affinity self-reactive antibodies and showed significant lymphocytic infiltrates in peripheral tissues. Autoantibody production was associated with impaired receptor editing and increased serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF) concentrations. Autoantibodies and elevated BAFF levels were also identified in patients with Omenn syndrome and leaky SCID as a result of hypomorphic RAG mutations. These data indicate that the stochastic generation of an autoreactive B cell repertoire, which is associated with defects in central and peripheral checkpoints of B cell tolerance, is an important, previously unrecognized, aspect of immunodeficiencies associated with hypomorphic RAG mutations.
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Antiviral drug susceptibilities of seasonal human influenza viruses in Lebanon, 2008-09 season.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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The emergence of antiviral drug-resistant strains of the influenza virus in addition to the rapid spread of the recent pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus highlight the importance of surveillance of influenza in identifying new variants as they appear. In this study, genetic characteristics and antiviral susceptibility patterns of influenza samples collected in Lebanon during the 2008-09 season were investigated. Forty influenza virus samples were isolated from 89 nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from patients with influenza-like illness. Of these samples, 33 (82.5%) were A(H3N2), 3 (7.5%) were A(H1N1), and 4 (10%) were B. All the H3N2 viruses were resistant to amantadine but were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir; while all the H1N1 viruses were resistant to oseltamivir (possessed H275Y mutation, N1 numbering, in their NA) but were sensitive to amantadine and zanamivir. In the case of influenza B, both Victoria and Yamagata lineages were identified (three and one isolates each, respectively) and they showed decreased susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir when compared to influenza A viruses. Influenza circulation patterns in Lebanon were very similar to those in Europe during the same season. Continued surveillance is important to fully elucidate influenza patterns in Lebanon and the Middle East in general, especially in light of the current influenza pandemic.
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Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling by everolimus induces senescence in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and apoptosis in peripheral T-cell lymphomas.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-negative peripheral T-cell lymphomas carry poor prognosis mainly because of acquired resistance to chemotherapy. We have shown that this disease is responsive to the combination of zidovudine and interferon-?. However, long-term maintenance therapy with this combination is associated with side effects affecting patient quality of life and hence more tolerated alternatives are needed. In this submission, we explored the effect of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) on ATL and HTLV-negative malignant T-cell lines. We demonstrate that, at clinically achievable concentrations, long-term treatment with everolimus resulted in a dramatic inhibitory effect on the growth of HTLV-I-positive and -negative malignant T-cells, while normal resting or activated T-lymphocytes were resistant. Everolimus specifically induced oncoprotein Tax degradation and senescence in ATL cells and cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-I-negative malignant T-cells. Everolimus-mediated apoptosis was also associated with an upregulation of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA-?) proteins, an increase in Bax proteins and downregulation of Bcl-x(L) proteins in all tested HTLV-I-positive and -negative malignant cell lines. These results support a therapeutic role for everolimus, particularly as long-term maintenance therapy in patients with ATL and other HTLV-I-negative peripheral T-cell lymphomas.
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The tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine is immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in subjects previously vaccinated with a tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
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The immunogenicity and safety of the tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) were evaluated in subjects previously vaccinated with a tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and in subjects without previous meningococcal vaccination.
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DOCK8 functions as an adaptor that links TLR-MyD88 signaling to B cell activation.
Nat. Immunol.
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The adaptors DOCK8 and MyD88 have been linked to serological memory. Here we report that DOCK8-deficient patients had impaired antibody responses and considerably fewer CD27(+) memory B cells. B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production driven by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) were considerably lower in DOCK8-deficient B cells, but those driven by the costimulatory molecule CD40 were not. In contrast, TLR9-driven expression of AICDA (which encodes the cytidine deaminase AID), the immunoglobulin receptor CD23 and the costimulatory molecule CD86 and activation of the transcription factor NF-?B, the kinase p38 and the GTPase Rac1 were intact. DOCK8 associated constitutively with MyD88 and the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 in normal B cells. After ligation of TLR9, DOCK8 became tyrosine-phosphorylated by Pyk2, bound the Src-family kinase Lyn and linked TLR9 to a Src-kinase Syk-transcription factor STAT3 cascade essential for TLR9-driven B cell proliferation and differentiation. Thus, DOCK8 functions as an adaptor in a TLR9-MyD88 signaling pathway in B cells.
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Temporally distinct roles for tumor suppressor pathways in cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence in Cyclin D1-driven tumor.
Mol. Cancer
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Cellular senescence represents a tumor suppressive response to a variety of aberrant and oncogenic insults. We have previously described a transgenic mouse model of Cyclin D1-driven senescence in pineal cells that opposes tumor progression. We now attempted to define the molecular mechanisms leading to p53 activation in this model, and to identify effectors of Cyclin D1-induced senescence.
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The immunogenicity and safety of an investigational meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) compared with a licensed meningococcal tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine: a randomized, controlled non-inferiority stud
Hum Vaccin Immunother
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Immunogenicity and safety of ACWY-TT compared with licensed ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS) in healthy adults, and lot-to-lot consistency of three ACWY-TT lots were evaluated in a phase 3, open, controlled study. Adults aged 18-55 y were randomized to receive ACWY-TT (one of three lots) or MenPS. Serum bactericidal antibodies (rSBA) were measured pre- and 1 mo post-vaccination. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed 4 d (solicited symptoms) and 31 d (unsolicited symptoms) post-vaccination. Serious AEs were reported up to 6 mo after vaccination. The number of vaccinated subjects was 1247 (ACWY-TT, n = 935; MenPS, n = 312). ACWY-TT lot-to-lot consistency and non-inferiority of ACWY-TT as compared with MenPS groups were demonstrated according to pre-specified criteria. The percentages of subjects with a vaccine response (VR = rSBA titer ? 1:32 in initially seronegative; ? 4-fold increase in initially seropositive) to ACWY-TT vs. MenPS were 80.1%/69.8% (serogroup A), 91.5%/ 92.0% (C), 90.2%/85.5% (W-135), 87.0%/78.8% (Y). Exploratory analyses showed that for serogroups A, W-135 and Y, VR rates and GMTs were significantly higher for ACWY-TT compared with MenPS. For each serogroup, ? 98.0% of subjects had rSBA titers ? 1:128. Grade 3 solicited AEs were reported in ? 1.6% of subjects in any group. The immunogenicity of ACWY-TT vaccine was non-inferior to MenPS for all four serogroups in adults, with significantly higher VR rates to serogroups A, W-135 and Y and an acceptable safety profile. Consistency of 3 ACWY-TT production lots was demonstrated. These data suggest that, if licensed, ACWY-TT conjugate vaccine may be used for protection against invasive meningococcal disease in healthy adults.   This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00453986.
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The investigational meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) and the seasonal influenza virus vaccine are immunogenic and well-tolerated when co-administered in adults.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
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Co-administration of meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) with seasonal influenza vaccine was investigated in a subset of adults enrolled in a larger study evaluating lot-to-lot consistency of ACWY-TT and non-inferiority to licensed tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS). Subjects in this sub-study were randomized (3:1:1) to receive ACWY-TT alone (ACWY-TT group) or with seasonal influenza vaccine (Coad), or licensed MenPS alone. Serum bactericidal antibodies (rSBA) and serum haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 mo post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of the Coad group compared with ACWY-TT group was demonstrated in terms of rSBA geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) to serogroups A, W-135 and Y. For serogroup C the pre-defined non-inferiority limit was marginally exceeded. Post-vaccination rSBA GMTs were significantly higher (exploratory analysis) in the Coad group compared with the MenPS group for serogroups A, W-135, and Y and were similar to the MenPS group for serogroup C. Overall, > 97% of subjects achieved rSBA titers ? 1:128 for all serogroups. The Coad group met all criteria defined by the Committee on Human Medicinal Products (CHMP) for seroprotection, seroconversion and seroconversion factor for HI antibodies for all three influenza strains. Grade 3 solicited local/general symptoms were reported by ? 1.9% of subjects in any group. These data support the co-administration of ACWY-TT with seasonal influenza vaccine when protection is needed against both diseases. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00453986.
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Genotypes and serotype distribution of macrolide resistant invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Lebanon.
Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob.
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This study determined macrolide resistance genotypes in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from multiple medical centers in Lebanon and assessed the serotype distribution in relation to these mechanism(s) of resistance and the source of isolate recovery.
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