JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Corrigendum: Cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by a dental infection: a case report.
J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
[This corrects the article on p. 195 in vol. 40, PMID: 25247150.].
Related JoVE Video
IKK ? -Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Butanol Fraction of Artificially Cultivated Cordyceps pruinosa Fruit Bodies.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The inhibitory activities of the Cordyceps pruinosa butanol fraction (Cp-BF) were investigated by determining inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells and by evaluating HCl/ethanol (EtOH)-triggered gastric ulcers in mice. The molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of Cp-BF were investigated by identifying target enzymes using biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Cp-BF strongly inhibited the production of NO and TNF-?, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagocytic uptake of FITC-dextran, and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-? in activated RAW264.7 cells. Cp-BF also strongly downregulated the NF-?B pathway by suppressing IKK? according to luciferase reporter assays and immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, Cp-BF blocked both increased levels of NF-?B-mediated luciferase activities and phosphorylation of p65/p50 observed by IKK? overexpression. Finally, orally administered Cp-BF was found to attenuate gastric ulcer and block the phosphorylation of I?B? induced by HCl/EtOH. Therefore, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cp-BF may be mediated by suppression of IKK? and its downstream NF-?B activation. Since our group has established the mass cultivation conditions by developing culture conditions for Cordyceps pruinosa, the information presented in this study may be useful for developing new anti-inflammatory agents.
Related JoVE Video
Cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by a dental infection: a case report.
J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cavernous sinus thrombosis not only presents with constitutional symptoms including fever, pain and swelling but also with specific findings such as proptosis, chemosis, periorbital swelling, and cranial nerve palsies. It is known to occur secondary to the spread of paranasal sinus infections in the nose, ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses. However, paranasal sinus infection of dental origin is rare. The following is a case of cavernous sinus thrombosis due to the spread of an abscess in the buccal and pterygomandibular spaces via buccal mucosal laceration.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-influenza effect of Cordyceps militaris through immunomodulation in a DBA/2 mouse model.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The immune-modulatory as well as anti-influenza effects of Cordyceps extract were investigated using a DBA/2 mouse model. Three different concentrations of Cordyceps extract, red ginseng extract, or drinking water were orally administered to mice for seven days, and then the mice were intranasally infected with 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 virus. Body weight changes and survival rate were measured daily post-infection. Plasma IL-12, TNF-?, and the frequency of natural killer (NK) cells were measured on day 4 post-infection. The DBA/2 strain was highly susceptible to H1N1 virus infection. We also found that Cordyceps extract had an anti-influenza effect that was associated with stable body weight and reduced mortality. The anti-viral effect of Cordyceps extract on influenza infection was mediated presumably by increased IL-12 expression and greater number of NK cells. However, high TNF-? expression after infection of H1N1 virus in mice not receiving treatment with Cordyceps extract suggested a two-sided effect of the extract on host immune regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Dioscin induces caspase-independent apoptosis through activation of apoptosis-inducing factor in breast cancer cells.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dioscin, a saponin extracted from the roots of Polygonatum zanlanscianense, shows several bioactivities such as antitumor, antifungal, and antiviral properties. Although, dioscin is already known to induce cell death in variety cancer cells, the molecular basis for dioscin-induced cell death was not definitely known in cancer cells. In this study, we found that dioscin treatment induced cell death in dose-dependent manner in breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, and T47D cells. Dioscin decreased expressions of Bcl-2 and cIAP-1 proteins, which were down-regulated at the transcriptional level. Conversely, Mcl-1 protein level was down-regulated by facilitating ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated Mcl-1 degradation in dioscin-treated cells. Pretreatment with z-VAD fails to attenuate dioscin-induced cell death as well as caspase-mediated events such as cleavages of procaspase-3 and PARP. In addition, dioscin treatment increased the population of annexin V positive cells and induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was released from the mitochondria and translocated to the nucleus. Suppression in AIF expression by siRNA reduced dioscin-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that dioscin-induced cell death was mediated via AIF-facilitating caspase-independent pathway as well as down-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, cIAP-1, and Mcl-1 in breast cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetic-based nomenclatural proposals for Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales) with new combinations in Tolypocladium.
IMA Fungus
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ophiocordycipitaceae is a diverse family comprising ecologically, economically, medicinally, and culturally important fungi. The family was recognized due to the polyphyly of the genus Cordyceps and the broad diversity of the mostly arthropod-pathogenic lineages of Hypocreales. The other two cordyceps-like families, Cordycipitaceae and Clavicipitaceae, will be revised taxonomically elsewhere. Historically, many species were placed in Cordyceps, but other genera have been described in this family as well, including several based on anamorphic features. Currently there are 24 generic names in use across both asexual and sexual life stages for species of Ophiocordycipitaceae. To reflect changes in Art. 59 in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), we propose to protect and to suppress names within Ophiocordycipitaceae, and to present taxonomic revisions in the genus Tolypocladium, based on rigorous and extensively sampled molecular phylogenetic analyses. When approaching this task, we considered the principles of priority, monophyly, minimizing taxonomic revisions, and the practical utility of these fungi within the wider biological research community.
Related JoVE Video
Functional roles of Syk in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation is a series of complex biological responses to protect the host from pathogen invasion. Chronic inflammation is considered a major cause of diseases, such as various types of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and cancers. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) was initially found to be highly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has been known to play crucial roles in adaptive immune responses. However, recent studies have reported that Syk is also involved in other biological functions, especially in innate immune responses. Although Syk has been extensively studied in adaptive immune responses, numerous studies have recently presented evidence that Syk has critical functions in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and is closely related to innate immune response. This review describes the characteristics of Syk-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes the recent findings supporting the crucial roles of Syk in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and diseases, and discusses Syk-targeted drug development for the therapy of inflammatory diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetic reassessment of Hyaloscyphaceae sensu lato (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) based on multigene analyses.
Fungal Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyaloscyphaceae is the largest family in Helotiales, Leotiomycetes. It is mainly characterized by minute apothecia with well-differentiated hairs, but its taxonomic delimitation and infrafamilial classification remain ambiguous. This study performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using multiple genes including the ITS-5.8S rDNA, the D1-D2 region of large subunit of rDNA, RNA polymerase II subunit 2, and the mitochondrial small subunit. The primary objective was to evaluate the phylogenetic utility of morphological characters traditionally used in the taxonomy of Hyaloscyphaceae through reassessment of the monophyly of this family and its genera. The phylogenetic analyses inferred Hyaloscyphaceae as being a heterogeneous assemblage of a diverse group of fungi and not supported as monophyletic. Among the three tribes of Hyaloscyphaceae only Lachneae formed a monophyletic lineage. The presence of hairs is rejected as a synapomorphy, since morphologically diversified hairs have originated independently during the evolution of Helotiales. The true- and false-subiculum in Arachnopezizeae are hypothesized to have evolved through different evolutionary processes; the true-subiculum is likely the product of a single evolutionary origin, while the false-subiculum is hypothesized to have originated multiple times. Since Hyaloscyphaceae sensu lato was not resolved as monophyletic, Hyaloscyphaceae sensu stricto is redefined and only applied to the genus Hyaloscypha.
Related JoVE Video
Taxonomic Re-evaluation of Megacollybia Species in Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The diversity of the genus Megacollybia in Korea was examined based on morphological observation and analysis of molecular data. Currently, the genus is consisted of nine species with a global distribution. However, only M. platyphylla has been reported in the floral survey of Korea. During our re-evaluation of the taxonomic diversity of Megacollybia in Korea, six Megacollybia specimens collected in 2012 were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and morphology. Here, we report two Megacollybia species, M. clitocyboidea and M. marginata, as newly recorded species from Korea. The microscopic features of the two species are provided in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first phylogenetic analysis of Korean Megacollybia species.
Related JoVE Video
A brief chronicle of the genus cordyceps fr., the oldest valid genus in cordycipitaceae (hypocreales, ascomycota).
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases.
Related JoVE Video
Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus and Rodwayella citrinula, Two Unrecorded Taxa of Hyaloscyphaceae (Tribe Arachnopezizeae) in Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A fungal survey that targeted the tribe Arachnopezizeae (Hyaloscyphaceae, Helotiales) was conducted in Korea. One variety belonging to Proliferodiscus and one species belonging to Rodwayella are recorded for the first time from Korea. Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus differs from P. earoleucus by its amyloid reaction in ascal apices and larger asci. Rodwayella citrinula is distinguished from other members of the genus by small ascospores and its occurrence on grasses. The descriptions, illustrations and cultural characteristics of the species are provided.
Related JoVE Video
Functional roles of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.
Related JoVE Video
(5-Hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)methyl 6-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylate, a kojic acid derivative, inhibits inflammatory mediator production via the suppression of Syk/Src and NF-?B activation.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Numerous derivatives of kojic acid have been synthesised to expand its immunopharmacological uses. Kojic acid is known to have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenesis effects. We found that (5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)methyl 6-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylate (MHNC) strongly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) in an initial screening experiment. In this study, we explored the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of MHNC and its inhibitory mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells and HCl/EtOH-treated ICR mice. MHNC dose-dependently diminished the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. This compound also suppressed the upregulation of mRNA levels for the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 genes. Additionally, the transcriptional activation of these genes was inhibited by MHNC through the suppression of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B subunits (p65 and p50), as determined by a luciferase reporter assay. Interestingly, MHNC treatment was found to suppress a series of upstream signalling cascades consisting of I?B?, AKT, PDK1, Src, and Syk for NF-?B activation. Furthermore, a direct enzyme assay with purified Src and Syk and luciferase assays using Src and Syk overexpression indicated that these enzymes were directly inhibited by MHNC. Finally, MHNC (20mg/kg) prevented inflammatory symptoms of the stomach in mice treated with HCl/EtOH by reducing phospho-I?B? levels. Taken together, our data suggest that MHNC may negatively modulate in vitro and in vivo inflammatory responses via the direct suppression of Syk/Src and NF-?B.
Related JoVE Video
A mushroom extract Piwep from Phellinus igniarius ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a mushroom extract from Phellinus igniarius in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The medicinal mushroom, Phellinus igniarius, contains biologically active compounds that modulate the human immune system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35-55) in C57BL/6 female mice. A water-ethanol extract of Phellinus igniarius (Piwep) was delivered intraperitoneally every other day for the entire experimental course. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord were examined. Piwep injection profoundly decreased the daily incidence rate and clinical score of EAE. The Piwep-mediated inhibition of the clinical course of EAE was accompanied by suppression of demyelination and infiltration of encephalitogenic immune cells including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and B cells in the spinal cord. Piwep reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the spinal cord and integrin-? 4 in the lymph node of EAE mice. Piwep also inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-? in the lymph node of EAE mice. The results suggest that a mushroom extract, Piwep, may have a high therapeutic potential for ameliorating multiple sclerosis progression.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-inflammatory activities and mechanisms of Artemisia asiatica ethanol extract.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Compositae) is a representative herbal plant used to treat infection and inflammatory diseases. Although Artemisia asiatica is reported to have immunopharmacological activities, the mechanisms of these activities and the effectiveness of Artemisia asiatica preparations in use are not known.
Related JoVE Video
ATF-2/CREB/IRF-3-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of Korean red ginseng water extract.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is one of the representative traditional herbal medicines prepared from Panax ginseng Meyer (Araliaceae) in Korea. It has been reported that KRG exhibits a lot of different biological actions such as anti-aging, anti-fatigue, anti-stress, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Although systematic studies have investigated how KRG is able to ameliorate various inflammatory diseases, its molecular inhibitory mechanisms had not been carried out prior to this study.
Related JoVE Video
Lancemaside A from Codonopsis lanceolata modulates the inflammatory responses mediated by monocytes and macrophages.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we aimed to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of lancemaside A from Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) in the inflammatory responses of monocytes (U937 cells) and macrophages (RAW264.7 cells). Lancemaside A significantly suppressed the inflammatory functions of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO), the expression of the NO-producing enzyme inducible NO synthase (iNOS), the upregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD80, and the morphological changes induced by LPS exposure. In addition, lancemaside A diminished the phagocytic activity of RAW264.7 cells and boosted the neutralizing capacity of these cells when treated with the radical generator sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Interestingly, lancemaside A strongly blocked the adhesion activity of RAW264.7 cells to plastic culture plates, inhibited the cell-cell and cell-fibronectin (FN) adhesion of U937 cells that was triggered by treatment with an anti-?1-integrin (CD29) antibody and immobilized FN, respectively. By evaluating the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways and the levels of related nuclear transcription factors, lancemaside A was found to block the activation of inhibitor of ?B kinase (IKK) and p65/nuclear factor- (NF-) ?B. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory function of lancemaside A is the result of its strong antioxidative and IKK/NF-?B inhibitory activities.
Related JoVE Video
Whole genome and global gene expression analyses of the model mushroom Flammulina velutipes reveal a high capacity for lignocellulose degradation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flammulina velutipes is a fungus with health and medicinal benefits that has been used for consumption and cultivation in East Asia. F. velutipes is also known to degrade lignocellulose and produce ethanol. The overlapping interests of mushroom production and wood bioconversion make F. velutipes an attractive new model for fungal wood related studies. Here, we present the complete sequence of the F. velutipes genome. This is the first sequenced genome for a commercially produced edible mushroom that also degrades wood. The 35.6-Mb genome contained 12,218 predicted protein-encoding genes and 287 tRNA genes assembled into 11 scaffolds corresponding with the 11 chromosomes of strain KACC42780. The 88.4-kb mitochondrial genome contained 35 genes. Well-developed wood degrading machinery with strong potential for lignin degradation (69 auxiliary activities, formerly FOLymes) and carbohydrate degradation (392 CAZymes), along with 58 alcohol dehydrogenase genes were highly expressed in the mycelium, demonstrating the potential application of this organism to bioethanol production. Thus, the newly uncovered wood degrading capacity and sequential nature of this process in F. velutipes, offer interesting possibilities for more detailed studies on either lignin or (hemi-) cellulose degradation in complex wood substrates. The mutual interest in wood degradation by the mushroom industry and (ligno-)cellulose biomass related industries further increase the significance of F. velutipes as a new model.
Related JoVE Video
NMR and GC-MS based metabolic profiling and free-radical scavenging activities of Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under different media and light conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 purines, 3 pyrimidines, 7 sugars, 11 fatty acids, and 5 other metabolites) by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The mycelia grown in nitrogen media and under dark conditions showed the lowest growth and ergosterol levels, essential to a functional fungal cell membrane; these mycelia, however, had the highest levels of putrescine, which is involved in abiotic stress tolerance. In contrast, mycelia cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY) media and under light conditions contained relatively higher levels of fatty acids, including valeric acid, stearic acid, lignoceric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, hepadecenoic acid, and linoleic acid. These mycelia also had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and did not exhibit growth retardation due to enhanced asexual development caused by higher levels of linoleic acid. Therefore, we suggested that a light-enriched environment with SDAY media was more optimal than dark condition for cultivation of C. pruinosa mycelia as biopharmaceutical or nutraceutical resources.
Related JoVE Video
Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycota, Cordycipitaceae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycota, Cordycipitaceae) was sequenced. This mitochondrial genome is 33,277?bp in length and consisted of 14 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA subunits and 27 transfer RNAs. The overall nucleotide composition of is 36.98% A, 26.23% T, 15.21% G and 11.59% C, with an AT bias of 73.21%. The mtDNA of C. militaris contains a total of eight group-? introns of which total size is 11,052?bp in length and four of them are in the rnl gene. The mitochondrial genome of C. militaris presented here provides the complete genome information of C. militaris.
Related JoVE Video
Complete mitochondrial genome of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria pseudobassiana (Ascomycota, Cordycipitaceae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria pseudobassiana (Ascomycota, Cordycipitaceae) was determined and found to be 28,006?bp in length. It encodes genes for 14 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNA subunits, 25 transfer RNAs with the synteny identical to those of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii. The overall base composition is 36.7% A, 35.8% T, 15.3% C and 12.2% G with an AT content of 72.5%. Group-? introns were found in large rRNA gene (rnl) and cox2 gene that include rps3 gene and putative GIY-YIG homing endonuclease, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of B. pseudobassiana will contribute to the investigation of the phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and biogeography of Beauveria.
Related JoVE Video
Syk and Src are major pharmacological targets of a Cerbera manghas methanol extract with kaempferol-based anti-inflammatory activity.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerbera manghas L. (Apocynaceae), a semi-mangrove medicinal plant distributed throughout tropical and subtropical countries, is traditionally known to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, cardiotonic, and hypotensive activity. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a methanol extract of the leaves of Cerbera manghas and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated to validate the ethnopharmacological use of this plant.
Related JoVE Video
Bioactive activities of natural products against herpesvirus infection.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one human herpesvirus, which establish long-term latent infection for the life of the host. While anti-viral drugs exist that limit herpesvirus replication, many of these are ineffective against latent infection. Moreover, drug-resistant strains of herpesvirus emerge following chemotherapeutic treatment. For example, resistance to acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues can occur when mutations arise in either HSV thymidine kinase or DNA polymerases. Thus, there exists an unmet medical need to develop new anti-herpesvirus agents with different mechanisms of action. In this Review, we discuss the promise of anti-herpetic substances derived from natural products including extracts and pure compounds from potential herbal medicines. One example is Glycyrrhizic acid isolated from licorice that shows promising antiviral activity towards human gammaherpesviruses. Secondly, we discuss anti-herpetic mechanisms utilized by several natural products in molecular level. While nucleoside analogues inhibit replicating herpesviruses in lytic replication, some natural products can disrupt the herpesvirus latent infection in the host cell. In addition, natural products can stimulate immune responses against herpesviral infection. These findings suggest that natural products could be one of the best choices for development of new treatments for latent herpesvirus infection, and may provide synergistic anti-viral activity when supplemented with nucleoside analogues. Therefore, it is important to identify which natural products are more efficacious anti-herpetic agents, and to understand the molecular mechanism in detail for further advance in the anti-viral therapies.
Related JoVE Video
JAK2-targeted anti-inflammatory effect of a resveratrol derivative 2,4-dihydroxy-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)benzamide.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemical derivatization of resveratrol has been widely conducted in an effort to overcome its chemical instability and therapeutic potential. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol derivatives containing an amide functionality using in vitro macrophage models that were stimulated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, and using several animal inflammatory disease models. Of the resveratrol derivatives tested, compound 8 (2,4-dihydroxy-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)benzamide) most strongly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as the mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), TNF-?, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells, differentiated U937 cells, and peritoneal macrophages. The inhibitory activity of compound 8 was apparently mediated by suppressing the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, STAT-3, STAT-5, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3. The direct target of compound 8 was revealed to be Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) but not TANK-binding kinase (TBK) 1 using the direct kinase assay and analyses of complex formation with these molecules. Additionally, upstream kinase of TBK1 seems to be also inhibited by compound 8. This compound also strongly ameliorated mouse inflammatory symptoms seen in arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated colitis, EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis, collagen type II-triggered arthritis, and acetic acid-induced writhing. Therefore, of the resveratrol derivatives that we tested, compound 8 was determined to have the strongest anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo and may potentially be developed for use as a novel anti-inflammatory drug.
Related JoVE Video
A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC50 of 5?M were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Novel antioxidant Peptide derived from the ultrafiltrate of ovomucin hydrolysate.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The techno-functional properties of ovomucin as a gel-forming agent and its biological properties are well-known. The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant activity in ovomucin hydrolysate using radical scavenging assays. Electrophoresis showed that ovomucin isolated from whole egg was well separated. Ovomucin hydrolysis was carried out using microbial protease according to different incubation times. These ovomucin hydrolysates exhibited 85% antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay after a 2 h incubation with protease and retained 90% activity until 24 h. At an incubation time of 4 h, the activity of ovomucin hydrolysates reached approximately 90%, corresponding to 115 ?M gallic acid equivalent, regardless of the proteases used. The partially purified fraction of the hydrolysate by ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was collected and then analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Two peptides, LDEPDPL and NIQTDDFRT, in this fraction were identified. The antioxidant activities of these two synthesized peptides were measured to be 51.8 and 24.7% by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay.
Related JoVE Video
Two novel Talaromyces species isolated from medicinal crops in Korea.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two novel biverticillate Talaromyces species, T. angelicus and T. cnidii, were collected from the medicinal crops Angelica gigas and Cnidium officinale, respectively, in Korea. Phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the ?-tubulin gene as well as morphological analyses revealed that the two species differ from any known Talaromyces species. Talaromyces angelicus is related to T. flavovirens in the phylogeny of the ITS region, but the new species is grouped together with Penicillium liani and T. pinophilus in terms of its ?-tubulin phylogeny, and its growth rate on Czapek yeast autolysate differs from that of T. flavovirens. Talaromyces cnidii is phylogenetically similar to T. siamensis, but exhibits differences in the morphologies of the colony margin, metulae, and conidia.
Related JoVE Video
De Novo assembly and comparative analysis of the enterococcus faecalis genome (KACC 91532) from a Korean Neonate.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using a newly constructed de novo assembly pipeline, finished genome level assembly had been conducted for the probiotic candidate strain E. faecalis KACC 91532 isolated from a stool samples of Korean neonates. Our gene prediction identified 3,061 genes in the assembled genome of the strain. Among these, nine genes were specific only for the E. faecalis KACC 91532, compared with all of the four known reference genomes (EF62, D32, V583, OG1RF). We identified genes related to phenotypic characters and detected E. faecalis KACC 91532-specific evolutionarily accelerated genes using dN/dS analysis. From these results, we found the potential risk of KACC 91532 as a useful probiotic strain and identified some candidate genetic variations that could affect the function of enzymes.
Related JoVE Video
Four Newly Recorded Amanita Species in Korea: Amanita sect. Amanita and sect. Vaginatae.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We collected nearly 70 specimens of Amanita species during a diversity study of Korean mushrooms conducted in 2012. In this study, we primarily investigated 23 Amanita specimens belonging to sections Amanita and Vaginatae. Based on sequence data of the internal transcribed spacers and partial large subunit of ribosomal RNA and morphological characteristics, we identified the following 15 phylogenetic species: A. alboflavescens, A. ceciliae, A. farinosa, A. fulva, A. griseofolia, A. ibotengutake, A. melleiceps, A. orientifulva, A. pantherina, A. rubrovolvata, A. sinensis, A. subglobosa, A. vaginata, A. cf. vaginata f. alba, and an undescribed Amanita species. In this study, four of the identified Amanita species (A. griseofolia, A. ibotengutake, A. orientifulva, and A. sinensis) were reported for the first time in Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Penicillium daejeonium sp. nov., a new species isolated from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two isolates of monoverticillate Penicillium species were collected from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea. Multigene phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and genes encoding ?-tubulin (benA) and calmodulin (cmd), as well as morphological analyses revealed that the two isolates are members of the P. sclerotiorum complex in Penicillium subgenus Aspergilloides, but different from species of the P. sclerotiorum complex. The isolates are closely related to P. cainii, P. jacksonii, and P. viticola in terms of their multigene phylogeny, but their colony and conidiophore morphologies differ from those of closely related species. The name P. daejeonium is proposed for this unclassified new species belonging to the P. sclerotiorum complex in subgenus Aspergilloides.
Related JoVE Video
Dysregulation of KSHV replication by extracts from Carthamus tinctorius L.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) is traditionally used to reduce ailments from diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue and diseases of blood circulation and the cardiovascular system. Flower extracts from CT are known to have antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and to inhibit tumor promotion in mouse skin carcinogenesis. In order to discover new antiviral agents from CT extracts, we tested whether CT extracts contain antiviral activity against gammaherpesvirus infection. This study demonstrated that treatment with CT extracts disrupted KSHV latency in the viral-infected host cells, iSLK-BAC16. n-Hexane and EtOH fractions of CT extracts critically affected at least two stages of the KHSV life-cycle by abnormally inducing KSHV lytic reactivation and by severely preventing KSHV virion release from the viral host cells. In addition to the effects on KSHV itself, CT extract treatments induced cellular modifications by dysregulating cell-cycle and producing strong cytotoxicity. This study demonstrated for the first time that CT extracts have antiviral activities that could be applied to development of new anti-gammaherpesviral agents.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and optical characterization of silicon nanoparticles.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Various reaction conditions, such as quantity of reducing agent and reaction time were investigated with the aim of finding a simple, optimized synthetic route for the synthesis of luminescent silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs). Si NPs were synthesized from the reaction of ethylenediammonium chloride and magnesium silicide via a low temperature solution route. Optical characterizations of silicon nanoparticles were achieved by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. As the reaction time longer, silicon nanoparticles grew and their emission wavelength shifted to the longer wavelength. The monotonic shift of the photoluminescence as a function of excitation wavelength resulted in the excitation of different sizes of nanocrystals that had different optical transition energies.
Related JoVE Video
Adsorption and desorption characteristics of gradient distributed Bragg reflector porous silicon layers.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adsorption and desorption characteristics of gradient distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) porous silicon (PSi) were investigated under the exposure of organic vapors. Gradient DBR PSi whose average pore size decreased as the lateral distance from the Pt electrode increased was generated by using an asymmetric etching configuration. The reflection resonances were measured as a function of lateral distance from a point closest to the plate Pt electrode to a position on the silicon surface. Two types of gradient DBR PSi (H- and HO-terminated gradient DBR PSi) were used in this study. The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using the gradient DBR PSi had been achieved. When the vapor of VOCs condensed in the nanopores, the gradient DBR PSi modified with hydrophobic and hydrophilic functionality exhibited different pore adsorption and desorption characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
Withaferin A inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by suppressing the Akt signaling pathway.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Withaferin A (Wit A), a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, exhibits anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory and anti-angiogenic properties and antitumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wit A on protease-mediated invasiveness of the human metastatic cancer cell lines Caski and SK-Hep1. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in marked inhibition of the TGF???induced increase in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?9 in Caski cell line. These effects of Wit A were dose-dependent and showed a correlation with suppression of MMP?9 mRNA expression levels. Treatment with Wit A resulted in an ~1.6-fold induction of MMP-9 promoter activity, which was also suppressed by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in inhibition of TGF???induced phosphorylation of Akt, which was involved in the downregulation of expression of MMP-9 at the protein level. Introduction with constitutively active (CA)?Akt resulted in a partial increase in the secretion of TGF-?-induced MMP-9 blocked by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. According to these results, Wit A may inhibit the invasive and migratory abilities of Caski cells through a reduction in MMP-9 expression through suppression of the pAkt signaling pathway. These findings indicate that use of Wit A may be an effective strategy for control of metastasis and invasiveness of tumors.
Related JoVE Video
AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Andrographolide (AG) is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ? ), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and interferon-beta (IFN- ? ) in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/activator protein (AP)-1 and (2) I ? B kinase ? (IKK ? )/interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.
Related JoVE Video
Alteration of media composition and light conditions change morphology, metabolic profile, and beauvericin biosynthesis in Cordyceps bassiana mycelium.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic alterations of Cordyceps bassiana mycelium were investigated under the following culture medium and light conditions: dextrose agar supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract (SDAY) medium with light (SL), SDAY medium without light (SD), nut medium without light (ND), and iron-supplemented SDAY medium without light (FD). The levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, lysine, ornithine, and proline were significantly higher under SD and SL conditions. The levels of most of the alcohols, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid esters, sterols, and terpenes were higher under the ND condition than in the other conditions, but beauvericin was not detectable under the ND condition. The FD condition was favorable for the enhanced production of aminomalonic acid, malic acid, mannonic acid, and erythritol. Thus, the metabolic characteristics of C. bassiana can be manipulated by varying the cultivation conditions, rendering this fungus potentially favorable as a nutraceutical and medicinal resource.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa methanol extract.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. is a representative Thai medicinal plant traditionally used in South Asian countries to relieve various inflammatory symptoms. However, no systematic studies on its anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms have been reported.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular Characterization and Morphology of Two Endophytic Peyronellaea Species from Pinus koraiensis in Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Species of Phoma and its allies were isolated during a survey on the diversity of endophytic fungi associated with pine trees in Korea. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer and ?-tubulin gene sequences, two Phoma-like species from the needles of Pinus koraiensis were identified as Peyronellaea calorpreferens and P. glomerata. They were also morphologically identified based on the previous descriptions. Here, we report P. calorpreferens and P. glomerata being present in Korea as endophytic fungi in Pinus koraiensis.
Related JoVE Video
Optical and electrical properties of merocyanine dye LB films by various time of UV irradiation and heat treatment.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique provides many possibilities for the control of film thickness, dimensions, and molecular structures on the nanometer scale. Various kinds of dye molecules have been found to form the J-aggregation which has been used as sensitizers of silver halide photography for long time. In recent years, they attract attention as model systems for investigating the ultra-fast exciton dynamics, materials for ultra-fast nonlinear optical devices, fluorescence probes for mitochondrial membranes. We fabricated the merocyanine dye LB films with arachidic acid (AA). In order to observe the J-aggregation of the merocyanine dye LB films, CdCl2 and KHCO3 solutions were added in subphase. From the optical absorption spectra of the mixed dye LB films (6Me-Ds:AA = 1:2) at different layers, the optical absorption peak was about 520 nm. However, the optical absorption peak of the LB films was shifted to 600 nm, when CdCl2 and KHCO3 solutions were added. This is the consequence result to the J-aggregation of the merocyanine dye. We also investigated the optical absorption peak of the LB films according to various time at 60 degrees C and 275 nm UV. We measured the STM morphology of the merocyanine dye LB film (1 layer) before UV irradiation and heat treatment. The morphology size of the LB film on HOPG was 5 nm. The roughness and molecular size were about 66.163 pm and 0.176 nm, respectively. The J-aggregation of this type was also accompanied by large morphological changes. We analyze the morphology and electrical properties of the LB films by the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM).
Related JoVE Video
Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum KACC 91563.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bifidobacterium longum strains predominate in the colonic microbiota of breast-fed infants. Here we report the complete genome sequence of B. longum subsp. longum KACC 91563, isolated from feces of neonates. A single circular chromosome of 2,385,301 bp contains 1,980 protein-coding genes, 56 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA operons.
Related JoVE Video
Optimal supplementation of dexamethasone for clinical purposed expansion of mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are generally considered to represent a very promising tool for bone repair, no optimal protocol has yet been developed for the isolation and expansion of these cells for large-scale clinical applications.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Beauveria is a cosmopolitan anamorphic genus of arthropod pathogens that includes the agronomically important species, B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, which are used as mycoinsecticides for the biological control of pest insects. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Beauveria is monophyletic within the Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales), and both B. bassiana and B. brongniartii have been linked developmentally and phylogenetically to Cordyceps species. Despite recent interest in the genetic diversity and molecular ecology of Beauveria, particularly as it relates to their role as pathogens of insects in natural and agricultural environments, the genus has not received critical taxonomic review for several decades. A multilocus phylogeny of Beauveria based on partial sequences of RPB1, RPB2, TEF and the nuclear intergenic region, Bloc, is presented and used to assess diversity within the genus and to evaluate species concepts and their taxonomic status. B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, both which represent species complexes and which heretofore have lacked type specimens, are redescribed and types are proposed. In addition six new species are described including B. varroae and B. kipukae, which form a biphyletic, morphologically cryptic sister lineage to B. bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, which also is morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distant from B. bassiana, B. asiatica and B. australis, which are sister lineages to B. brongniartii, and B. sungii, an Asian species that is linked to an undetermined species of Cordyceps. The combination B. amorpha is validly published and an epitype is designated.
Related JoVE Video
Photolysis properties of merocyanine dye LB films by various time of UV irradiation.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We fabricated the merocyanine dye LB films with arachidic acid (MD LB films). We compared absorption peak of before and after added Cd2+. The optical absorption peak of the MD LB films was shifted to 610 nm at 535 nm, when Cd2+ ions were added. We also investigated the optical absorption peak of the LB films by various time at 365 nm UV. We confirmed J-aggregation and photolysis properties. This is that studied the application possibility of the switching device and the nonvolatile memory.
Related JoVE Video
Structural properties of phase-change InSbTe thin films grown at a low temperature by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The feasibility of new InSbTe (IST) chalcogenide materials at the deposition temperatures of 225 and 250 degrees C using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for phase-change random access memory (PRAM) applications was investigated. Samples grown at 225 degrees C consisted of the main InTe phase, including a small amount of Sb. On the other hand, samples grown at 250 degrees C included the crystalline phases of InSb and InSbTe. MOCVD-IST materials are powerful candidates for highly-integrated PRAM applications.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative genomics of the mating-type loci of the mushroom Flammulina velutipes reveals widespread synteny and recent inversions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mating-type loci of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei, maintenance of compatible nuclei as heterokaryons, and fruiting body development. Regions near mating-type loci in fungi often show adapted recombination, facilitating the generation of novel mating types and reducing the production of self-compatible mating types. Compared to other fungi, mushroom fungi have complex mating-type systems, showing both loci with redundant function (subloci) and subloci with many alleles. The genomic organization of mating-type loci has been solved in very few mushroom species, which complicates proper interpretation of mating-type evolution and use of those genes in breeding programs.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of cytokine expression by a butanol extract from Cordyceps bassiana.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cordyceps species have been known since long as a multi-utility ethnomedicinal herbal in Korea, China and Japan. It has been reported to exhibit a number of properties such as anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, antiinflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity effects. In a previously conducted study, we had demonstrated that the ethanol extract of Cordyceps bassiana was able to suppress the production of interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma in macrophages and T lymphocytes. In this study, we were able to further explore the molecular basis of its inhibitory mechanism using a butanol fraction of this herbal (Cb-BF) preparation. Similarly, this fraction also blocked the expression of cytokines such as IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as well as the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and their production of IFN-gamma but not IL-4. Cb-BF suppressed the luciferase activities that are mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, activator protein (AP)-1, and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-1. In agreement with this, these fractions diminished the translocation of the transcription factors into the nucleus. The study also demonstrated that the upstream signaling events for the activation of these factors such as spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), janus kinase (JAK)-2, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were suppressed. Therefore, these results suggest that the butanol extract of Cordyceps bassiana may contain more than one active component capable of inhibiting the inflammatory signaling cascade and this can be considered as a potential candidate for treatment of diseases that require suppression of immune system.
Related JoVE Video
Growth and Cultural Characteristics of Ophiocordyceps longissima Collected in Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the effect of nutritional and environmental factors on Ophiocordyceps longissima mycelial growth. The longest colony diameter was observed on Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics complete medium plus yeast extract, Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics minimal medium, and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA); however, malt-extract yeast-extract agar, SDA plus yeast extract, yeast-extract malt-extract peptone dextrose agar, SDA, oatmeal agar, and potato dextrose agar showed higher mycelia density. A temperature of 25? was optimum and 7.0 was the optimum pH for mycelial growth. Colony diameter was similar under light and dark conditions. Maltose and yeast extract showed the highest mycelial growth among carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. The effect of mineral salts was less obvious; however, K(3)PO(4) showed slightly better growth than that of the other mineral salts tested. Among all nutrition sources tested, complex organic nitrogen sources such as yeast extract, peptone, and tryptone were best for mycelial growth of O. longissima. Ophiocordyceps longissima composite medium, formulated by adding maltose (2% w/v), yeast extract (1% w/v), and K(3)PO(4) (0.05% w/v) resulted in slightly longer colony diameter. In vitro mycelial O. longissima growth was sustainable and the production of fruiting bodies could be used for commercial purposes in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancing Effect of Shimizuomyces paradoxus on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Canola, Plant Growth of Cucumber, and Harvest of Tomato.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shimizuomyces paradoxus showed no inhibitory effect against plant pathogen fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani. The S. paradoxus culture filtrate showed higher seed germination and seedling growth rates in canola than distilled water and potato-dextrose broth. A conidial suspension of 1.0×10(4)/mL resulted in the highest growth stimulating effects on total plant length, and fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots in cucumber, when compared to the highest suspension concentration. Total plant length and shoot weight increased with the foliar spray treatment, and root length and root weight increased by simultaneous treatments of soil drenching and foliar spray in cucumber. Lower concentrations of the S. paradoxus conidial suspension increased the harvest of tomato fruit.
Related JoVE Video
Cultural Characteristics of Ophiocordyceps heteropoda Collected from Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Isolates of Ophiocordyceps heteropoda (Kobayasi) collected from Mt. Halla on Jeju-do, Korea were tested for mycelial growth on different agar media and in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources. Similarly, isolates were also incubated at different temperatures as well as under continuous light and dark conditions. Growth was better on Hamada agar, basal medium, and malt-yeast agar, but poor on Czapek-Dox agar. Different carbon sources such as dextrin, saccharose, starch, lactose, maltose, fructose, and dextrose resulted in better growth. Complex organic nitrogen sources such as yeast extract and peptone revealed the most effective growth. Mycelial growth was best at 25?. The growth rate was faster in the dark than the light, but mycelial density was less compact in the dark.
Related JoVE Video
Berberine sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through proteasome-mediated downregulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 proteins.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid which has a wide spectrum of clinical applications including anti-tumor, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we showed that co-treatment with subtoxic doses of BBR and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis in human renal cancer cells, Caki cells, but not in normal tubular kidney cells. Treatment of Caki cells with BBR resulted in downregulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 proteins in a dose-dependent manner. The BBR-induced downregulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 proteins were involved in proteasome dependent pathways, which was confirmed by the result that pre-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibited berberine-induced downregulation of the c-FLIP and Mcl-1 proteins. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited the cell death induced by the combined treatment with BBR and TRAIL as well as recovered the expression levels of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 downregulated by treatment with BBR. These results suggested that BBR-stimulated TRAIL-induced apoptosis is dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species through the downregulation of c-FLIP and Mcl-1 proteins. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that BBR enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human renal cancer cells by ROS-mediated c-FLIP and Mcl-1 down-regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Heterothallic Type of Mating System for Cordyceps cardinalis.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cordyceps cardinalis successfully produced its fruiting bodies from multi-ascospore isolates. However, subcultures of multi-ascospore isolates could not produce fruiting bodies after few generations. Fruiting body production also differed from sector to sector of the same isolate. Single ascospore isolates were then co-inoculated in combinations of two to observe the fruiting characteristics. Combinations of certain isolates produced perithecial stromata formation, whereas other combinations did not produce any fruiting bodies. These results show that C. cardinalis is a heterothallic fungus, requiring two isolates of opposite mating types for fruiting body production. It was also shown that single ascospore isolates are hermaphrodites.
Related JoVE Video
Growth and Cultural Characteristics of Cordyceps cardinalis Collected from Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cordyceps cardinalis was reported in Japan and the USA in 2004, and its fruiting bodies have recently been cultured in Korea. Herbarium specimens preserved at the Cordyceps Research Institute, Mushtech, Korea were revised and identified as C. cardinalis, based on morphological characters and conidial structures. Most of the C. cardinalis specimens were collected from Mt. Halla in Jeju-do. The effects of various nutritional sources and environmental conditions such as temperature and pH on mycelial growth of C. cardinalis were studied. Oatmeal agar, Martins peptone dextrose agar, and Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics complete medium plus yeast extract resulted in the best mycelial growth. Among carbon sources, cereals, and nitrogen sources, maltose, oatmeal, and peptone resulted in the best mycelial growth respectively. Mineral salts helped to increase growth rate but only resulted in thin mycelial density, similar to water agar. A temperature of 25? and a pH of 7 resulted in the highest mycelial growth. Based on these results, a Cordyceps cardinalis composite medium (CCM) was formulated with 1% maltose, 2% oatmeal, 1% peptone, and 2% agar. Use of the CCM resulted in slightly better mycelial growth than that of other commonly used agar media. Only organic nitrogen sources imparted a reddish pigmentation to the agar media, but this character diminished after several subcultures. A 7 day culture duration resulted in the best mycelial growth.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis by topical application of the butanol extract of Cordyceps bassiana in NC/Nga mice.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Cordyceps species are insect-borne mushrooms that have been ethnopharmacologically used for skin diseases such as eczema and dermatitis.
Related JoVE Video
Cultural Characteristics of Shimizuomyces paradoxus Collected from Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated the cultural characteristics of Shimizuomyces paradoxus in different nutritional and environmental conditions. The highest mycelial growth was observed in Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics complete medium plus yeast extract agar medium, and the optimal temperature and pH were 25? and pH 8.0, respectively. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were 1% dextrose and 1% peptone in agar. However, in liquid culture the highest dry mycelium weight was found for the potato dextrose agar and potato sucrose agar broths. The optimum inoculum size was five mycelial discs (5 mm) per 100 mL of broth, and the optimum liquid culture period was 25 days. This is the first ever report of S. paradoxus cultural characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
Characteristics of Metacordyceps yongmunensis, a New Species from Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metacordyceps yongmunensis is a newly reported species from Korea, which is very similar to Cordyceps species in morphological characters. It grows on large lepidopteran pupa, and numerous white stromata grow on a single host. Mycelial growth characteristics of M. yongmunensis isolates were studied in different media and at different temperatures. Also, different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and mineral salts were tested for mycelial growth of M. yongmunensis. Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics complete medium plus yeast extract, Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics minimal medium, and Martins peptone dextrose agar produced longer colony diameters and more compact mycelial density than other media. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 25?. Carbon sources such as sucrose, soluble starch, dextrose, glucose, dextrin, maltose, and fructose showed better mycelial growth, whereas peptone, yeast extract and tryptone resulted in the best mycelial growth of all of the nitrogen sources tested. All of the mineral salts tested showed similar growth as the control, except K2HPO4 which showed longer colony diameter and more compact mycelial density. The compact colonies were white and cottony with a greenish margin. The results showed that M. yongmunensis is an easy fungus to growas it grew from 30 to more than 50 mm in 2 wk.
Related JoVE Video
Suppression of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced tumor cell invasion by apigenin via the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apigenin has special interest for the development of chemopreventive agents against cancer because it is a widely distributed plant flavonoid that has antitumor properties. In this study, we investigated the apigenin effects on the protease-mediated invasiveness in human metastatic cancer cell lines Caski, SK-Hep1, and MDA-231. We found that apigenin markedly inhibits the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced increase in MMP-9 expression and activity in several cancer cell lines. These effects of apigenin are dose-dependent and correlate with the suppression of MMP-9 mRNA expression levels. PMA caused about a 5-fold induction in MMP-9 promoter activity, which was also suppressed by apigenin treatment in Caski cells. We found that apigenin could inhibit PMA-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), which was involved in the down-regulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) at mRNA levels. Furthermore, the treatment of inhibitors specific for p38 MAPK (SB203580) to Caski cells caused the reduction of MMP-9 expression. Restoration of p38 expression partly increased PMA-induced MMP-9 secretion blocked by apigenin treatment in Caski cells. These results showed apigenin might inhibit the invasion and migration abilities of Caski cells by reducing the MMP-9 expression through suppressing the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings indicate that apigenin might be a useful strategy for controlling metastasis and the invasiveness of tumors.
Related JoVE Video
p38-targeted inhibition of interleukin-12 expression by ethanol extract from Cordyceps bassiana in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cordyceps species have been known as ethnopharmacologically valuable mushroom in Korea, China, and Japan. This plant has been reported to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities such as antioxidative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antiobesity effects. Although numerous pharmacological potentials of Cordyceps spp. have been demonstrated, immunomodulatory effect of Cordyceps bassiana has not been published yet. To evaluate its immunomodulatory activity, macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were employed and the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) was explored in terms of understanding its molecular inhibitory mechanism. Seventy percent of ethanol extract from Cordyceps bassiana (Cb-EE) was able to suppress the expression of IL-12, a cytokine regulating interferon-? (IFN-?)-producing T helper type 1 (Th1) polarization response, at the transcriptional levels. The inhibitory effect of Cb-EE seemed to be due to activator protein-1 (AP-1) translocation inhibition, according to immunoblotting analysis with nuclear fraction and luciferase assay. In agreement with this, Cb-EE strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of p38, a prime signal to stimulate AP-1 translocation and IL-12 production, strongly suppressed by SB203580, a p38 inhibitor. Furthermore, this extract also suppressed IFN-? production in both phytohemaglutinin A and LPS-activated splenocytes. Our results suggest that Cb-EE can be applied as a Th1 response regulatory herbal medicine.
Related JoVE Video
Vaginal mucosal flap as a sling preservation for the treatment of vaginal exposure of mesh.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures are used for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The procedures with synthetic materials can have a risk of vaginal erosion. We experienced transobturator suburethral sling (TOT) tape-induced vaginal erosion and report the efficacy of a vaginal mucosal covering technique.
Related JoVE Video
Chemical sensor based on porous silicon dual transducers.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novel porous Si exhibiting dual optical properties, both Fabry-Perot fringe (optical reflectivity) and photoluminescence, were developed and used as chemical sensors. Porous Si samples were prepared by an electrochemical etch of p-type silicon under the illumination with a 300 W tungsten filament bulb for the duration of etch. The surface of porous Si was characterized by FT-IR instrument. The porosity of samples was about 80%. Both reflectivity and photoluminescence were simultaneously measured under the exposure of organic vapors. The shift of Fabry-Perot fringe to the longer wavelength under the exposure of chloroform vapors was obtained. The steady-state photoluminescence spectra and quenching photoluminescence under the exposure of various organic vapors were obtained. A set of organic compounds were analyzed by both quenching photoluminescence and change of optical thickness.
Related JoVE Video
Optimum Conditions for Artificial Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps cardinalis.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stromatal fruiting bodies of Cordyceps cardinalis were successfully produced in cereals. Brown rice, German millet and standard millet produced the longest-length of stromata, followed by Chinese pearl barley, Indian millet, black rice and standard barley. Oatmeal produced the shortest-length of fruiting bodies. Supplementation of pupa and larva to the grains resulted in a slightly enhanced production of fruiting bodies; pupa showing better production than larva. 50~60 g of brown rice and 10~20 g of pupa mixed with 50~60 mL of water in 1,000 mL polypropylene (PP) bottle was found to be optimum for fruiting body production. Liquid inoculation of 15~20 mL per PP bottle produced best fruiting bodies. The optimal temperature for the formation of fruiting bodies was 25?, under conditions of continuous light. Few fruiting bodies were produced under the condition of complete darkness, and the fresh weight was considerable low, compared to that of light condition.
Related JoVE Video
Successful Development of Cordyceps bassiana Stromata from Beauveria bassiana.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A specimen of Beauveria bassiana was collected from Yang-yang of Gangwon province, Korea in October 2006. Conidial isolates were prepared from the specimen by the dilution method and inoculated in brown rice medium for fruiting body production. After nearly two months incubation for perithecial stromata developed from single isolates as well as from their combinations. They were determined as Cordyceps bassiana by observing the stromatal characters and their conidial structures. This is the first report of the development of C. bassiana from B. bassiana cultures.
Related JoVE Video
Cultural Characteristics and Fruiting Body Production in Cordyceps bassiana.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Single ascospore isolates of Cordyceps bassiana were observed for their colony pigmentation on Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract (SDAY) plates and were inoculated in a brown rice medium for production of fruiting bodies. Colony pigmentation did not show any relationship with perithecial stromata formation. The isolates were also grown on opposite sides of SDAY agar plates and were observed for vegetative compatibility. Neither vegetative compatibility nor perithecial stromata could be found to be related to each other. It was concluded that fertile fruiting body production was independent of colony pigmentation and vegetative compatibility. Synnemata formation was found to be more common than perithecial stromata formation. This might be due to its highly conidiogenous anamorphic stage, i.e., Beauveria bassiana.
Related JoVE Video
Cordyceps pruinosa extracts induce apoptosis of HeLa cells by a caspase dependent pathway.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cordyceps is a parasitic fungus and has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat illnesses, promote longevity, increase athletic power, and relieve exhaustion and cancer. In this study, we reveal the mechanisms underlying apoptosis induced by Cordyceps pruinosa butanol fraction (CPBF) in the human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line, HeLa.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular authentication of 21 Korean artemisia species (Compositae) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism based on trnL-F region of chloroplast DNA.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study describes the molecular authentication of 21 Korean Artemisia species using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique based on the trnL-F sequences in chloroplast DNA. Five different banding patterns were generated from 21 Artemisia species using HinfI restriction enzyme. A. apiacea, A. keiskeana and A. sieversiana have specific banding patterns. The remaining 18 species had shared two banding patterns. Phylogenetic analysis based on trnL-F sequence variations showed results similar to PCR-RFLP banding patterns. It suggested that the trnL-F region does not have sufficient variations to identify the 21 Artemisia species. However, the specific banding patterns for A. apiacea, A. keiskeana and A. sieversiana can be utilized as a DNA marker for discriminating them from other Artemisia species. These markers will be also useful for developing A. apiacea, A. keiskeana and A. sieversiana into new medicine and food based on their efficacy.
Related JoVE Video
The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits.
Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present a 6-gene, 420-species maximum-likelihood phylogeny of Ascomycota, the largest phylum of Fungi. This analysis is the most taxonomically complete to date with species sampled from all 15 currently circumscribed classes. A number of superclass-level nodes that have previously evaded resolution and were unnamed in classifications of the Fungi are resolved for the first time. Based on the 6-gene phylogeny we conducted a phylogenetic informativeness analysis of all 6 genes and a series of ancestral character state reconstructions that focused on morphology of sporocarps, ascus dehiscence, and evolution of nutritional modes and ecologies. A gene-by-gene assessment of phylogenetic informativeness yielded higher levels of informativeness for protein genes (RPB1, RPB2, and TEF1) as compared with the ribosomal genes, which have been the standard bearer in fungal systematics. Our reconstruction of sporocarp characters is consistent with 2 origins for multicellular sexual reproductive structures in Ascomycota, once in the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina and once in the common ancestor of Neolectomycetes. This first report of dual origins of ascomycete sporocarps highlights the complicated nature of assessing homology of morphological traits across Fungi. Furthermore, ancestral reconstruction supports an open sporocarp with an exposed hymenium (apothecium) as the primitive morphology for Pezizomycotina with multiple derivations of the partially (perithecia) or completely enclosed (cleistothecia) sporocarps. Ascus dehiscence is most informative at the class level within Pezizomycotina with most superclass nodes reconstructed equivocally. Character-state reconstructions support a terrestrial, saprobic ecology as ancestral. In contrast to previous studies, these analyses support multiple origins of lichenization events with the loss of lichenization as less frequent and limited to terminal, closely related species.
Related JoVE Video
Systematics and evolution of the genus Torrubiella (Hypocreales, Ascomycota).
Mycol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Torrubiella is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi that primarily attacks spiders and scale insects. Based on the morphology of the perithecia, asci, and ascospores, it is classified in Clavicipitaceae s. lat. (Hypocreales), and is considered a close relative of Cordyceps s. 1., which was recently reclassified into three families (Clavicipitaceae s. str., Cordycipitaceae, Ophiocordycipitaceae) and four genera (Cordyceps s. str, Elaphocordyceps, Metacordyceps, and Ophiocordyceps). Torrubiella is distinguished morphologically from Cordyceps s. lat. mainly by the production of superficial perithecia and the absence of a well-developed stipitate stroma. To test and refine evolutionary hypotheses regarding the placement of Torrubiella and its relationship to Cordyceps s. lat., a multi-gene phylogeny was constructed by conducting ML and Bayesian analyses. The monophyly of Torrubiella was rejected by these analyses with species of the genus present in Clavicipitaceae, Cordycipitaceae, and Ophiocordycipitaceae, and often intermixed among species of Cordyceps s. lat. The morphological characters traditionally used to define the genus are, therefore, not phylogenetically informative, with the stipitate stromata being gained and/or lost several times among clavicipitaceous fungi. Two new genera (Conoideocrella, Orbiocrella) are proposed to accommodate two separate lineages of torrubielloid fungi in the Clavicipitaceae s. str. In addition, one species is reclassified in Cordyceps s. str. and three are reclassified in Ophiocordyceps. The phylogenetic importance of anamorphic genera, host affiliation, and stipitate stromata is discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma associated with intrahepatic duct stones.
Asian J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been well established that the long-term prognosis of intrahepatic duct stones (IHDS) is complicated by the late development of biliary cirrhosis with associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC). Despite recent improvements in imaging studies, accurate preoperative diagnosis of IHCC is difficult. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the clinical features of patients with IHDS with IHCC.
Related JoVE Video
A combined ITS rDNA and beta-tubulin phylogeny of Thai species of Hypocrella with non-fragmenting ascospores.
Mycol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A combined ITS and beta-tubulin gene phylogeny has revealed new species of Hypocrella and Aschersonia related to the type species Hypocrella discoidea from natural forest in Thailand. As a result, Hypocrella calendulina and Hypocrella luteola are named as new species with Aschersonia sensu stricto anamorphs for specimens previously identified as Hypocrella discoidea sensu Petch. Hypocrella siamensis and Aschersonia minutispora are described as new species, both exhibiting brown stromata, with the former producing whole ascospores.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.