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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antigenicity and immunogenicity of a novel Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite derived synthetic vaccine construct.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a major malaria sporozoite surface antigen currently being considered as vaccine candidate. Plasmodium vivax CS (PvCS) protein comprises a dimorphic central repeat fragment flanked by conserved regions that contain functional domains involved in parasite invasion of host cells. The protein amino (N-terminal) flank has a cleavage region (region I), essential for proteolytic processing prior to parasite invasion of liver cells.
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Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein ?-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with ?-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum were identified in the P. vivax genome. The peptides identified in silico were chemically synthesized; circular dichroism studies indicated partial or high ?-helical content. Antigenicity was evaluated using human sera samples from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Eight of these fragments were selected and used to assess immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. ELISA assays indicated strong reactivity of serum samples from individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions and sera of immunized mice, with the ?-helical coiled coil structures. In addition, ex vivo production of IFN-? by murine mononuclear cells confirmed the immunogenicity of these structures and the presence of T-cell epitopes in the peptide sequences. Moreover, sera of mice immunized with four of the eight antigens recognized native proteins on blood-stage P. vivax parasites, and antigenic cross-reactivity with three of the peptides was observed when reacted with both the P. falciparum orthologous fragments and whole parasites. Results here point to the ?-helical coiled coil peptides as possible P. vivax malaria vaccine candidates as were observed for P. falciparum. Fragments selected here warrant further study in humans and non-human primate models to assess their protective efficacy as single components or assembled as hybrid linear epitopes.
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Novel birch pollen specific immunotherapy formulation based on contiguous overlapping peptides.
Clin Transl Allergy
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Synthetic contiguous overlapping peptides (COPs) may represent an alternative to allergen extracts or recombinant allergens for allergen specific immunotherapy. In combination, COPs encompass the entire allergen sequence, providing all potential T cell epitopes, while preventing IgE conformational epitopes of the native allergen.
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Antigenicity and immunogenicity of a novel chimeric peptide antigen based on the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (PvCS) protein is a major sporozoite surface antigen involved in parasite invasion of hepatocytes and is currently being considered as vaccine candidate. PvCS contains a dimorphic central repetitive fragment flanked by conserved regions that contain functional domains.
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Malaria vaccine candidate: design of a multivalent subunit ?-helical coiled coil poly-epitope.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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A new strategy for the rapid identification of new malaria antigens based on protein structural motifs was previously described. We identified and evaluated the malaria vaccine potential of fragments of several malaria antigens containing ?-helical coiled coil protein motifs. By taking advantage of the relatively short size of these structural fragments, we constructed different poly-epitopes in which 3 or 4 of these segments were joined together via a non-immunogenic linker. Only peptides that are targets of human antibodies with anti-parasite in vitro biological activities were incorporated. One of the constructs, P181, was well recognized by sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of adults living in malaria-endemic areas. Affinity purified antigen-specific human antibodies and sera from P181-immunized mice recognised native proteins on malaria-infected erythrocytes in both immunofluorescence and western blot assays. In addition, specific antibodies inhibited parasite development in an antibody dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. Naturally induced antigen-specific human antibodies were at high titers and associated with clinical protection from malaria in longitudinal follow-up studies in Senegal.
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Antibody-mediated and cellular immune responses induced in naive volunteers by vaccination with long synthetic peptides derived from the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a leading malaria vaccine candidate. We describe the characterization of specific immune responses induced in 21 malaria-naive volunteers vaccinated with long synthetic peptides derived from the CS protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720. Both antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses were analyzed. Antibodies were predominantly of IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes, recognized parasite proteins on the immunofluorescent antibody test, and partially blocked sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cell lines in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from most volunteers (94%) showed IFN-? production in vitro upon stimulation with both long signal peptide and short peptides containing CD8+ T-cell epitopes. The relatively limited sample size did not allow conclusions about HLA associations with the immune responses observed. In summary, the inherent safety and tolerability together with strong antibody responses, invasion blocking activity, and the IFN-? production induced by these vaccine candidates warrants further testing in a phase II clinical trial.
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Preclinical vaccine study of Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein derived-synthetic polypeptides formulated in montanide ISA 720 and montanide ISA 51 adjuvants.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a leading malaria vaccine candidate previously assessed in animals and humans. Here, combinations of three synthetic polypeptides corresponding to amino (N), central repeat (R), and carboxyl (C) regions of the CS protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51 adjuvants were assessed for immunogenicity in rodents and primates. BALB/c mice and Aotus monkeys were divided into test and control groups and were immunized three times with doses of 50 and 100 ?g of vaccine or placebo. Antigen-specific antimalarial antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent antibody test, and IFN-? responses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELIspot). Both vaccine formulations were highly immunogenic in both species. Mice developed better antibody responses against C and R polypeptides, whereas the N polypeptide was more immunogenic in monkeys. Anti-peptide antibodies remained detectable for several months and recognized native proteins on sporozoites. Differences between Montanide ISA 720 and Montanide ISA 51 formulations were not significant.
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Phase I safety and immunogenicity trial of Plasmodium vivax CS derived long synthetic peptides adjuvanted with montanide ISA 720 or montanide ISA 51.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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We assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a mixture of three synthetic peptides derived from the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51. Forty healthy malaria-naive volunteers were allocated to five experimental groups (A-E): four groups (A-D) were immunized intramuscularly with 50 and 100 ?g/dose injections of a mixture of N, R, and C peptides formulated in the two different adjuvants at 0, 2, and 4 months and one group was administered placebo. Vaccines were immunogenic, safe, well tolerated, and no serious adverse events related to the vaccine occurred. Seroconversion occurred in > 90% of the vaccines and antibodies recognized the sporozoite protein on immunofluorescent antibody test. Vaccines in Montanide ISA 51 showed a higher sporozoite protein recognition and interferon production. Results encourage further testing of the vaccine protective efficacy.
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The malaria circumsporozoite protein has two functional domains, each with distinct roles as sporozoites journey from mosquito to mammalian host.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Plasmodium sporozoites make a remarkable journey from the mosquito midgut to the mammalian liver. The sporozoites major surface protein, circumsporozoite protein (CSP), is a multifunctional protein required for sporozoite development and likely mediates several steps of this journey. In this study, we show that CSP has two conformational states, an adhesive conformation in which the C-terminal cell-adhesive domain is exposed and a nonadhesive conformation in which the N terminus masks this domain. We demonstrate that the cell-adhesive domain functions in sporozoite development and hepatocyte invasion. Between these two events, the sporozoite must travel from the mosquito midgut to the mammalian liver, and N-terminal masking of the cell-adhesive domain maintains the sporozoite in a migratory state. In the mammalian host, proteolytic cleavage of CSP regulates the switch to an adhesive conformation, and the highly conserved region I plays a critical role in this process. If the CSP domain architecture is altered such that the cell-adhesive domain is constitutively exposed, the majority of sporozoites do not reach their target organs, and in the mammalian host, they initiate a blood stage infection directly from the inoculation site. These data provide structure-function information relevant to malaria vaccine development.
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Strain-transcending Fc-dependent killing of Plasmodium falciparum by merozoite surface protein 2 allele-specific human antibodies.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2010
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It is widely accepted that antibody responses against the human parasitic pathogen Plasmodium falciparum protect the host from the rigors of severe malaria and death. However, there is a continuing need for the development of in vitro correlate assays of immune protection. To this end, the capacity of human monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in eliciting phagocytosis and parasite growth inhibition via Fc? receptor-dependent mechanisms was explored. In examining the extent to which sequence diversity in merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) results in the evasion of antibody responses, an unexpectedly high level of heterologous function was measured for allele-specific human antibodies. The dependence on Fc? receptors for opsonic phagocytosis and monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent parasite inhibition was demonstrated by the mutation of the Fc domain of monoclonal antibodies against both MSP2 and a novel vaccine candidate, peptide 27 from the gene PFF0165c. The described flow cytometry-based functional assays are expected to be useful for assessing immunity in naturally infected and vaccinated individuals and for prioritizing among blood-stage antigens for inclusion in blood-stage vaccines.
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Long synthetic peptides for the production of vaccines and drugs: a technological platform coming of age.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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Long synthetic peptides (LSPs) have a variety of important clinical uses as synthetic vaccines and drugs. Techniques for peptide synthesis were revolutionized in the 1960s and 1980s, after which efficient techniques for purification and characterization of the product were developed. These improved techniques allowed the stepwise synthesis of increasingly longer products at a faster rate, greater purity, and lower cost for clinical use. A synthetic peptide approach, coupled with bioinformatics analysis of genomes, can tremendously expand the search for clinically relevant products. In this Review, we discuss efforts to develop a malaria vaccine from LSPs, among other clinically directed work.
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Acquired antibody responses against Plasmodium vivax infection vary with host genotype for duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2010
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Polymorphism of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) is associated with susceptibility to and the severity of Plasmodium vivax malaria in humans. P. vivax uses DARC to invade erythrocytes. Individuals lacking DARC are resistant to P. vivax erythrocytic infection. However, susceptibility to P. vivax in DARC+ individuals is reported to vary between specific DARC genotypes. We hypothesized that the natural acquisition of antibodies to P. vivax blood stages may vary with the host genotype and the level of DARC expression. Furthermore, high parasitemia has been reported to effect the acquisition of immunity against pre-erythrocytic parasites. We investigated the correlation between host DARC genotypes and the frequency and magnitude of antibodies against P. vivax erythrocytic stage antigens.
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Malaria vaccines - The long synthetic peptide approach: Technical and conceptual advancements.
Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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This review describes the advances in malaria antigen discovery and vaccine development using the long synthetic peptide platforms that have been made available during the past 5 years. The most recent technical developments regarding peptide synthesis with the optimized production of large synthetic fragments are discussed. Clinical trials of long synthetic peptides are also reviewed. These trials demonstrated that long synthetic peptides are safe and immunogenic when formulated with various adjuvants. In addition, long synthetic peptides can elicit an antibody response in humans and have demonstrated inhibitory activity against parasite growth in vitro. Finally, new approaches to exploit the abundance of genomic data and the flexibility and speed of peptide synthesis are proposed.
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Malarial hemozoin is a Nalp3 inflammasome activating danger signal.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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Characteristic symptoms of malaria include recurrent fever attacks and neurodegeneration, signs that are also found in patients with a hyperactive Nalp3 inflammasome. Plasmodium species produce a crystal called hemozoin that is generated by detoxification of heme after hemoglobin degradation in infected red blood cells. Thus, we hypothesized that hemozoin could activate the Nalp3 inflammasome, due to its particulate nature reminiscent of other inflammasome-activating agents.
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Intranasal administration of the synthetic polypeptide from the C-terminus of the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium berghei with the modified heat-labile toxin of Escherichia coli (LTK63) induces a complete protection against malaria challenge.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Needle-free procedures are very attractive ways to deliver vaccines because they diminish the risk of contamination and may reduce local reactions, pain or pain fear especially in young children with a consequence of increasing the vaccination coverage for the whole population. For this purpose, the possible development of a mucosal malaria vaccine was investigated. Intranasal immunization was performed in BALB/c mice using a well-studied Plasmodium berghei model antigen derived from the circumsporozoite protein with the modified heat-labile toxin of Escherichia coli (LTK63), which is devoid of any enzymatic activity compared to the wild type form. Here, we show that intranasal administration of the two compounds activates the T and B cell immune response locally and systemically. In addition, a total protection of mice is obtained upon a challenge with live sporozoites.
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Sequence conservation in Plasmodium falciparum alpha-helical coiled coil domains proposed for vaccine development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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The availability of the P. falciparum genome has led to novel ways to identify potential vaccine candidates. A new approach for antigen discovery based on the bioinformatic selection of heptad repeat motifs corresponding to alpha-helical coiled coil structures yielded promising results. To elucidate the question about the relationship between the coiled coil motifs and their sequence conservation, we have assessed the extent of polymorphism in putative alpha-helical coiled coil domains in culture strains, in natural populations and in the single nucleotide polymorphism data available at PlasmoDB.
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The synthetic Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite peptide PfCS102 as a malaria vaccine candidate: a randomized controlled phase I trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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Fully efficient vaccines against malaria pre-erythrocytic stage are still lacking. The objective of this dose/adjuvant-finding study was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a vaccine candidate based on a peptide spanning the C-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCS102) in malaria naive adults.
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The N-terminal domain of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein represents a target of protective immunity.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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The N-terminal domain of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) has been largely neglected in the search for a malaria vaccine in spite of being a target of inhibitory antibodies and protective T cell responses in mice. Thus, in order to develop this region as a vaccine candidate to be eventually associated with other candidates and, in particular, with the very advanced C-terminal counterpart, synthetic constructs representing N- and C-terminal regions of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei CSP were administered as single or combined formulations in mice. We show that the antisera generated against the combinations inhibit sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes in vitro better than antisera against single peptides. Furthermore, two different P. falciparum CSP N-terminal constructs (PfCS22-110 and PfCS65-110) were recognized by serum samples from people living in malaria-endemic regions. Importantly, recognition of the short N-terminal peptide (PfCS65-110) by sera from children living in a malaria-endemic region was associated with protection from disease. Taken together, these results underline the potential of using such fragments as malaria vaccine candidates.
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Evaluation of two long synthetic merozoite surface protein 2 peptides as malaria vaccine candidates.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a promising vaccine candidate against Plasmodium falciparum blood stages. A recombinant 3D7 form of MSP2 was a subunit of Combination B, a blood stage vaccine tested in the field in Papua New Guinea. A selective effect in favour of the allelic family not represented by the vaccine argued for a MSP2 vaccine consisting of both dimorphic variants. An alternative approach to recombinant manufacture of vaccines is the production of long synthetic peptides (LSP). LSP exceeding a length of well over 100 amino acids can now be routinely synthesized. Synthetic production of vaccine antigens cuts the often time-consuming steps of protein expression and purification short. This considerably reduces the time for a candidate to reach the phase of clinical trials. Here we present the evaluation of two long synthetic peptides representing both allelic families of MSP2 as potential vaccine candidates. The constructs were well recognized by human immune sera from different locations and different age groups. Furthermore, peptide-specific antibodies in human immune sera were associated with protection from clinical malaria. The synthetic fragments share major antigenic properties with native MSP2. Immunization of mice with these antigens yielded high titre antibody responses and monoclonal antibodies recognized parasite-derived MSP2. Our results justify taking these candidate poly-peptides into further vaccine development.
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The C-terminal domain of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 self-assembles into alpha-helical coiled coil tetramer.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Proteins located on the surface of the pathogenic malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are objects of intensive studies due to their important role in the invasion of human cells and the accessibility to host antibodies thus making these proteins attractive vaccine candidates. One of these proteins, merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) represents a leading component among vaccine candidates; however, little is known about its structure and function. Our biophysical studies suggest that the 40 residue C-terminal domain of MSP3 protein self-assembles into a four-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil structure where alpha-helices are packed "side-by-side". A bioinformatics analysis provides an extended list of known and putative proteins from different species of Plasmodium which have such MSP3-like C-terminal domains. This finding allowed us to extend some conclusions of our studies to a larger group of the malaria surface proteins. Possible structural and functional roles of these highly conserved oligomerization domains in the intact merozoite surface proteins are discussed.
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Evidence for multiple B- and T-cell epitopes in Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage antigen 3.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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Liver-stage antigen 3 (LSA-3) is a new vaccine candidate that can induce protection against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge. Using a series of long synthetic peptides (LSP) encompassing most of the 210-kDa LSA-3 protein, a study of the antigenicity of this protein was carried out in 203 inhabitants from the villages of Dielmo (n = 143) and Ndiop (n = 60) in Senegal (the level of malaria transmission differs in these two villages). Lymphocyte responses to each individual LSA-3 peptide were recorded, some at high prevalences (up to 43%). Antibodies were also detected to each of the 20 peptides, many at high prevalence (up to 84% of responders), and were directed to both nonrepeat and repeat regions. Immune responses to LSA-3 were detectable even in individuals of less than 5 years of age and increased with age and hence exposure to malaria, although they were not directly related to the level of malaria transmission. Thus, several valuable T- and B-cell epitopes were characterized all along the LSA-3 protein, supporting the antigenicity of this P. falciparum vaccine candidate. Finally, antibodies specific for peptide LSP10 located in a nonrepeat region of LSA-3 were found significantly associated with a lower risk of malaria attack over 1 year of daily clinical follow-up in children between the ages of 7 and 15 years, but not in older individuals.
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CSP--a model for in vivo presentation of Plasmodium berghei sporozoite antigens by hepatocytes.
PLoS ONE
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One target of protective immunity against the Plasmodium liver stage in BALB/c mice is represented by the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), and mainly involves its recognition by IFN-? producing specific CD8+T-cells. In a previous in vitro study we showed that primary hepatocytes from BALB/c mice process Plasmodium berghei (Pb) CSP (PbCSP) and present CSP-derived peptides to specific H-2k(d) restricted CD8+T-cells with subsequent killing of the presenting cells. We now extend these observations to an in vivo infection model in which infected hepatocytes and antigen specific T-cell clones are transferred into recipient mice inducing protection from sporozoite (SPZ) challenge. In addition, using a similar protocol, we suggest the capacity of hepatocytes in priming of naïve T-cells to provide protection, as further confirmed by induction of protection after depletion of cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) by cytochrome c (cyt c) treatment or using traversal deficient parasites. Our results clearly show that hepatocytes present Plasmodium CSP to specific-primed CD8+T-cells, and could also prime naïve T-cells, leading to protection from infection. These results could contribute to a better understanding of liver stage immune response and design of malaria vaccines.
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Cell biological characterization of the malaria vaccine candidate trophozoite exported protein 1.
PLoS ONE
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In a genome-wide screen for alpha-helical coiled coil motifs aiming at structurally defined vaccine candidates we identified PFF0165c. This protein is exported in the trophozoite stage and was named accordingly Trophozoite exported protein 1 (Tex1). In an extensive preclinical evaluation of its coiled coil peptides Tex1 was identified as promising novel malaria vaccine candidate providing the rational for a comprehensive cell biological characterization of Tex1. Antibodies generated against an intrinsically unstructured N-terminal region of Tex1 and against a coiled coil domain were used to investigate cytological localization, solubility and expression profile. Co-localization experiments revealed that Tex1 is exported across the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and located to Maurers clefts. Change in location is accompanied by a change in solubility: from a soluble state within the parasite to a membrane-associated state after export to Maurers clefts. No classical export motifs such as PEXEL, signal sequence/anchor or transmembrane domain was identified for Tex1.
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Engineering, conjugation, and immunogenicity assessment of Escherichia coli O121 O antigen for its potential use as a typhoid vaccine component.
Glycoconj. J.
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State-of-the-art production technologies for conjugate vaccines are complex, multi-step processes. An alternative approach to produce glycoconjugates is based on the bacterial N-linked protein glycosylation system first described in Campylobacter jejuni. The C. jejuni N-glycosylation system has been successfully transferred into Escherichia coli, enabling in vivo production of customized recombinant glycoproteins. However, some antigenic bacterial cell surface polysaccharides, like the Vi antigen of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, have not been reported to be accessible to the bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase PglB, hence hamper development of novel conjugate vaccines against typhoid fever. In this report, Vi-like polysaccharide structures that can be transferred by PglB were evaluated as typhoid vaccine components. A polysaccharide fulfilling these requirements was found in Escherichia coli serovar O121. Inactivation of the E. coli O121 O antigen cluster encoded gene wbqG resulted in expression of O polysaccharides reactive with antibodies raised against the Vi antigen. The structure of the recombinantly expressed mutant O polysaccharide was elucidated using a novel HPLC and mass spectrometry based method for purified undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (Und-PP) linked glycans, and the presence of epitopes also found in the Vi antigen was confirmed. The mutant O antigen structure was transferred to acceptor proteins using the bacterial N-glycosylation system, and immunogenicity of the resulting conjugates was evaluated in mice. The conjugate-induced antibodies reacted in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with E. coli O121 LPS. One animal developed a significant rise in serum immunoglobulin anti-Vi titer upon immunization.
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Heterologous prime-boost regimen adenovector 35-circumsporozoite protein vaccine/recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin expressing the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite induces enhanced long-term memory immunity in BALB/c mice.
Vaccine
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Sustained antibody levels are a hallmark of immunity against many pathogens, and induction of long-term durable antibody titers is an essential feature of effective vaccines. Heterologous prime-boost approaches with vectors are optimal strategies to improve a broad and prolonged immunogenicity of malaria vaccines.
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Malaria vaccine development using synthetic peptides as a technical platform.
Adv. Immunol.
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The review covers the development of synthetic peptides as vaccine candidates for Plasmodium falciparum- and Plasmodium vivax-induced malaria from its beginning up to date and the concomitant progress of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) that enables the production of long peptides in a routine fashion. The review also stresses the development of other complementary tools and actions in order to achieve the long sought goal of an efficacious malaria vaccine.
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