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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sensory, psychological and behavioural interventions for managing agitation in older adults with dementia.
Health Technol Assess
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Agitation is common, persistent and distressing in dementia and is linked with care breakdown. Psychotropic medication is often ineffective or harmful, but the evidence regarding non-pharmacological interventions is unclear.
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Telomere length in human blastocysts.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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This is a retrospective study aiming to assess telomere length in human embryos 4 days post fertilization and to determine whether it is correlated to chromosomal ploidy, embryo developmental rate and patient age. Embryos were donated from patients undergoing treatment in the assisted conception unit. Seven couples took part, generating 35 embryos consisting of 1130 cells. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) measured the telomere length of every cell using a pan-telomeric probe. Conventional FISH on six chromosomes was used to assess aneuploidy in the same cells. Maternal and paternal age, referral reason, embryo developmental rate and type of chromosomal error were taken into account. Chromosomally abnormal cells were associated with shorter telomeres than normal cells for embryos that were developmentally slow. Cells produced by women of advanced maternal age and those with a history of repeated miscarriage tended to have substantially shorter telomeres. There was no significant difference in telomere length with respect to the rate of embryo development 5 days post fertilization. Telomeres play an important role in cell division and shorter telomeres may affect embryonic ploidy. Reduced telomere length was associated with aneuploid cells and embryos from women of advanced maternal age.
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Spatial and spatio-temporal models with R-INLA.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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During the last three decades, Bayesian methods have developed greatly in the field of epidemiology. Their main challenge focusses around computation, but the advent of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) and in particular of the WinBUGS software has opened the doors of Bayesian modelling to the wide research community. However model complexity and database dimension still remain a constraint. Recently the use of Gaussian random fields has become increasingly popular in epidemiology as very often epidemiological data are characterised by a spatial and/or temporal structure which needs to be taken into account in the inferential process. The Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) approach has been developed as a computationally efficient alternative to MCMC and the availability of an R package (R-INLA) allows researchers to easily apply this method. In this paper we review the INLA approach and present some applications on spatial and spatio-temporal data.
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Preformulated Implementation Intentions to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Objective: To evaluate an intervention based on implementation intention principles designed to increase uptake of colorectal cancer screening, and to examine differential efficacy by socioeconomic deprivation. Method: In England, adults aged between 60 and 69 years are invited for biennial fecal occult blood testing. A test kit and an information leaflet are mailed to each individual by the "Hubs" that deliver the national screening program. In the intervention group, three preformulated implementation intentions, based on known barriers to carrying out the test, were added to the information leaflet. Over a 12-week period, each week was randomly allocated to either the intervention (n = 12,414 invitations) or the control condition (n = 10,768), with uptake recorded at the Hub. Socioeconomic deprivation of each individuals area of residence was categorized into tertiles. Results: There was no overall difference in uptake between control (40.4%) and intervention (39.7%) conditions, odds ratio (OR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.91, 1.04]. There was an interaction with deprivation, OR = 1.11, 95% CI [1.04, 1.18], but the positive effect observed in the lowest socioeconomic status (SES) tertile was small (35.2% vs. 33.0%), OR = 1.103, 95% CI [1.01, 1.21], and offset by a negative effect in the least deprived tertile (45.6% vs. 48.2%), OR = 0.90, 95% CI [0.82, 0.99]. The intervention had no significant effect in the middle tertile (38.9% vs. 40.8%), OR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.81, 1.04]. Conclusion: Preformulated implementation intentions did not increase overall colorectal cancer screening uptake and failed to make a sufficiently large impact on uptake among lower SES groups to merit their future use in this context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Bayesian models for cost-effectiveness analysis in the presence of structural zero costs.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Bayesian modelling for cost-effectiveness data has received much attention in both the health economics and the statistical literature, in recent years. Cost-effectiveness data are characterised by a relatively complex structure of relationships linking a suitable measure of clinical benefit (e.g. quality-adjusted life years) and the associated costs. Simplifying assumptions, such as (bivariate) normality of the underlying distributions, are usually not granted, particularly for the cost variable, which is characterised by markedly skewed distributions. In addition, individual-level data sets are often characterised by the presence of structural zeros in the cost variable. Hurdle models can be used to account for the presence of excess zeros in a distribution and have been applied in the context of cost data. We extend their application to cost-effectiveness data, defining a full Bayesian specification, which consists of a model for the individual probability of null costs, a marginal model for the costs and a conditional model for the measure of effectiveness (given the observed costs). We presented the model using a working example to describe its main features. © 2013 The authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence to therapy with blood pressure-lowering drugs in the setting of primary cardiovascular prevention.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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To estimate the cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence to blood pressure (BP)-lowering drug therapy in a large population without signs of preexisting cardiovascular (CV) disease.
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A novel method to value real options in health care: the case of a multicohort human papillomavirus vaccination strategy.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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A large number of economic evaluations have already confirmed the cost-effectiveness of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination strategies. Standard analyses might not capture the full economic value of novel vaccination programs because the cost-effectiveness paradigm fails to take into account the value of active management. Management decisions can be seen as real options, a term used to refer to the application of option pricing theory to the valuation of investments in nonfinancial assets in which much of the value is attributable to flexibility and learning over time.
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Spatial and spatio-temporal models with R-INLA.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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During the last three decades, Bayesian methods have developed greatly in the field of epidemiology. Their main challenge focusses around computation, but the advent of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) and in particular of the WinBUGS software has opened the doors of Bayesian modelling to the wide research community. However model complexity and database dimension still remain a constraint. Recently the use of Gaussian random fields has become increasingly popular in epidemiology as very often epidemiological data are characterised by a spatial and/or temporal structure which needs to be taken into account in the inferential process. The Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) approach has been developed as a computationally efficient alternative to MCMC and the availability of an R package (R-INLA) allows researchers to easily apply this method. In this paper we review the INLA approach and present some applications on spatial and spatio-temporal data.
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Probabilistic sensitivity analysis in health economics.
Stat Methods Med Res
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Health economic evaluations have recently become an important part of the clinical and medical research process and have built upon more advanced statistical decision-theoretic foundations. In some contexts, it is officially required that uncertainty about both parameters and observable variables be properly taken into account, increasingly often by means of Bayesian methods. Among these, probabilistic sensitivity analysis has assumed a predominant role. The objective of this article is to review the problem of health economic assessment from the standpoint of Bayesian statistical decision theory with particular attention to the philosophy underlying the procedures for sensitivity analysis.
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Inequalities in the provision of cardiovascular screening to people with severe mental illnesses in primary care: cohort study in the United Kingdom THIN Primary Care Database 2000-2007.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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People with severe mental illnesses (SMI), including schizophrenia, are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Guidelines recommend regular CVD screening and in the United Kingdom, since 2004, General Practitioners are remunerated for annual reviews.
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Inequalities in participation in an organized national colorectal cancer screening programme: results from the first 2.6 million invitations in England.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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An organized, population-based, colorectal cancer screening programme was initiated in England in 2006 offering biennial faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) to adults aged 60-69 years. Organized screening programmes with no associated financial costs to the individual should minimize barriers to access for lower socio-economic status (SES) groups. However, SES differences in uptake were observed in the pilot centres of the UK programme, so the aim of this analysis was to identify the extent of inequalities in uptake by SES, ethnic diversity, gender and age in the first 28 months of the programme. Design Cross-sectional analysis of colorectal cancer screening uptake data.
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Improving adherence in osteoporosis: a new management algorithm for the patient with osteoporosis.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Bisphosphonates are the first-choice treatment for osteoporosis. They effectively increase bone mineral density, reduce markers of bone resorption, and lower the incidence of new fractures in patients with osteoporosis-related fracture. However, the efficacy observed in clinical trials may not be realized in a real-life setting, partly due to poor adherence to therapy, with a significant worsening of clinical outcomes. Several issues contribute to poor adherence to osteoporosis medication, including inconvenient dosing regimens and concerns about possible adverse events. Although strategies to improve adherence have been investigated, new approaches are required.
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A semantic approach for the homogeneous identification of events in eight patient databases: a contribution to the European eu-ADR project.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2009
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The overall objective of the eu-ADR project is the design, development, and validation of a computerised system that exploits data from electronic health records and biomedical databases for the early detection of adverse drug reactions. Eight different databases, containing health records of more than 30 million European citizens, are involved in the project. Unique queries cannot be performed across different databases because of their heterogeneity: Medical record and Claims databases, four different terminologies for coding diagnoses, and two languages for the information described in free text. The aim of our study was to provide database owners with a common basis for the construction of their queries. Using the UMLS, we provided a list of medical concepts, with their corresponding terms and codes in the four terminologies, which should be considered to retrieve the relevant information for the events of interest from the databases.
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A decision-theoretic framework for the application of cost-effectiveness analysis in regulatory processes.
Pharmacoeconomics
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2009
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Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) represents the most important tool in the health economics literature to quantify and qualify the reasoning behind the optimal decision process in terms of the allocation of resources to a given health intervention. However, the practical application of CEA in the regulatory process is often limited by some critical barriers, and decisions in clinical practice are frequently influenced by factors that do not contribute to efficient resource allocation, leading to inappropriate drug prescription and utilization. Moreover, most of the time there is uncertainty about the real cost-effectiveness profile of an innovative intervention, with the consequence that it is usually impossible to obtain an immediate and perfect substitution of a product with another having a better cost-effectiveness ratio. The objective of this article is to propose a rational approach to CEA within regulatory processes, basing our analysis in a Bayesian decision-theoretic framework and proposing an extension of the application of well known tools (such as the expected value of information) to such cases. The regulator can use these tools to identify the economic value of reducing the uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness profile of the several alternatives. This value can be compared with the one that is generated by the actual market share of the different treatment options: one that is the most cost effective and others in the same therapeutic category that, despite producing clinical benefits, are less cost effective.
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Economic burden of human papillomavirus-related diseases in Italy.
PLoS ONE
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Human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 impose a substantial burden of direct costs on the Italian National Health Service that has never been quantified fully. The main objective of the present study was to address this gap: (1) by estimating the total direct medical costs associated with nine major HPV-related diseases, namely invasive cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia, cancer of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and head and neck, anogenital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and (2) by providing an aggregate measure of the total economic burden attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infection.
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Novel health economic evaluation of a vaccination strategy to prevent HPV-related diseases: the BEST study.
Med Care
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The development of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases is not understood perfectly and uncertainties associated with commonly utilized probabilistic models must be considered. The study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a quadrivalent-based multicohort HPV vaccination strategy within a Bayesian framework.
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The prevalence of primary angle closure glaucoma in European derived populations: a systematic review.
Br J Ophthalmol
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To estimate the prevalence of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in European derived populations.
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Governance of preventive Health Intervention and On time Verification of its Efficiency: the GIOVE Study.
BMJ Open
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The GIOVE Study was aimed to the achievement of allocative efficiency of the budget allocated to the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced diseases. An ex-ante determination of the most efficient allocation of resources between screening and multicohort quadrivalent immunisation programmes was followed by the ex-post assessment of the allocative efficiency actually achieved after a 12-month period.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.