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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
DETERMINATION OF BLOOD LACTATE TRAINING ZONE BOUNDARIES WITH RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION IN RUNNERS.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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This study aimed to determine the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) values corresponding to the blood lactate concentration (BLC) training zone boundaries (2 and 4 mmol.L) in moderately trained runners using the Borg CR-10 scale. Moderately trained runners (n = 95) performed a submaximal incremental test on a treadmill, recording BLC and RPE at every stage. Simple linear regression analysis was used to determine the RPE values corresponding to the BLC training zone boundaries, which revealed that RPE was significantly and strongly correlated with BLC (r= 0.821; P< 0.001; R= 0.675; adjusted R= 0.674; standard error of estimate= 1.18). The prediction equation (RPE= 1.092 × BLC + 2.143) was obtained and RPE values at the BLC training zone boundaries of 2 mmol.L and 4 mmol.L calculated as 4.3 (95% CI, 3.9-4.7) and 6.5 (95% CI, 6.0-7.1), respectively. In conclusion, the RPE values at the BLC training zone boundaries of 2 mmol.L (4.3) and 4 mmol.L (6.5) were adequately predicted. RPE (4.3 and 6.5) can be used as an affordable tool for controlling intensity in order to maintain the athletes in prescribed zones during training sessions.
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Extracellular GTP is a Potent Water-Transport Regulator via Aquaporin 5 Plasma-Membrane Insertion in M1-CCD Epithelial Cortical Collecting Duct Cells.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Background/Aims: Extracellular GTP is able to modulate some specific functions in neuron, glia and muscle cell models as it has been demonstrated over the last two decades. In fact, extracellular GTP binds its specific plasma membrane binding sites and induces signal transduction via [Ca(2+)]i increase. We demonstrate, for the first time, that extracellular GTP is able to modulate cell swelling in M1-CCD cortical collecting duct epithelial cells via upregulation of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression. Methods: We used videoimaging, immunocitochemistry, flow cytometry, confocal techniques, Western blotting and RT-PCR for protein and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: We demonstrate that AQP5 mRNA is up-regulated 7 h after the GTP exposure in the cell culture medium, and its protein level is increased after 12-24 h. We show that AQP5 is targeted to the plasma membrane of M1-CCD cells, where it facilitates cell swelling, and that the GTP-dependent AQP5 up-regulation occurs via [Ca(2+)]i increase. Indeed, GTP induces both oscillating and transient [Ca(2+)]i increase, and specifically the oscillating kinetic appears to be responsible for blocking cell cycle in the S-phase while the [Ca(2+)]i influx, with whatever kinetic, seems to be responsible for inducing AQP5 expression. Conclusion: The role of GTP as a regulator of AQP5-mediated water transport in renal cells is of great importance in the physiology of renal epithelia, due to its possible physiopathological implications. GTP-dependent AQP5 expression could act as osmosensor. In addition, the data presented here suggest that GTP might play the same role in other tissues where rapid water transport is required for cell volume regulation and maintenance of the homeostasis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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New insights into the relationship between mIGF-1-induced hypertrophy and Ca2+ handling in differentiated satellite cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Muscle regeneration involves the activation of satellite cells, is regulated at the genetic and epigenetic levels, and is strongly influenced by gene activation and environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine whether the overexpression of mIGF-1 can modify functional features of satellite cells during the differentiation process, particularly in relation to modifications of intracellular Ca2+ handling. Satellite cells were isolated from wild-type and MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic mice. The cells were differentiated in vitro, and morphological analyses, intracellular Ca2+ measurements, and ionic current recordings were performed. mIGF-1 overexpression accelerates satellite cell differentiation and promotes myotube hypertrophy. In addition, mIGF-1 overexpression-induced potentiation of myogenesis triggers both quantitative and qualitative changes to the control of intracellular Ca2+ handling. In particular, the differentiated MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic myotubes have reduced velocity and amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ increases after stimulation with caffeine, KCl and acetylcholine. This appears to be due, at least in part, to changes in the physico-chemical state of the sarcolemma (increased membrane lipid oxidation, increased output currents) and to increased expression of dihydropyridine voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, extracellular ATP and GTP evoke intracellular Ca2+ mobilization to greater extents in the MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic satellite cells, compared to the wild-type cells. These data suggest that these MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic satellite cells are more sensitive to trophic stimuli, which can potentiate the effects of mIGF-1 on the myogenic programme.
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A method for the ultrastructural preservation of tiny percutaneous needle biopsy material from skeletal muscle.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Skeletal muscle biopsies require transecting the muscle fibers resulting, in structural damage near the cut ends. Classically, the optimal ultrastructural preservation has been obtained by the use of relatively large biopsies in which the tissue fibers are restrained by ligating to a suitable retaining support prior to excision, and by examining regions at some distance from the cut ends. However, these methods require invasive surgical procedures. In the present study, we present and substantiate an alternative approach that allows for the excellent ultrastructural preservation of needle biopsy samples, even the very small samples obtained through tiny percutaneous needle biopsy (TPNB). TPNB represents an advantage, relative to standard muscle biopsy techniques and to other needle biopsies currently in use, as in addition to not requiring a skin incision, it leaves no scars in the muscle and requires an extremely brief recovery period. It is most appropriate for obtaining repeated samples in horizontal studies, e.g., in order to follow changes with athletic training and/or aging in a single individual and for studies of sarcopenic muscles in elderly patients. Due to the small size of the sample, TPNB may present limited usefulness for classical pathology diagnostics. However, it offers the major advantage of allowing multiple samples within a single session and this may be useful under specific circumstances.
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Growth associated protein 43 is expressed in skeletal muscle fibers and is localized in proximity of mitochondria and calcium release units.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The neuronal Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP43), also known as B-50 or neuromodulin, is involved in mechanisms controlling pathfinding and branching of neurons during development and regeneration. For many years this protein was classified as neuron-specific, but recent evidences suggest that a) GAP43 is expressed in the nervous system not only in neurons, but also in glial cells, and b) probably it is present also in other tissues. In particular, its expression was revealed in muscles from patients affected by various myopathies, indicating that GAP43 can no-longer considered only as a neuron-specific molecule. We have investigated the expression and subcellular localization of GAP43 in mouse satellite cells, myotubes, and adult muscle (extensor digitorum longus or EDL) using Western blotting, immuno-fluorescence combined to confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Our in vitro results indicated that GAP43 is indeed expressed in both myoblasts and differentiating myotubes, and its cellular localization changes dramatically during maturation: in myoblasts the localization appeared to be mostly nuclear, whereas with differentiation the protein started to display a sarcomeric-like pattern. In adult fibers, GAP43 expression was evident with the protein labeling forming (in longitudinal views) a double cross striation reminiscent of the staining pattern of other organelles, such as calcium release units (CRUs) and mitochondria. Double immuno-staining and experiments done in EDL muscles fixed at different sarcomere lengths, allowed us to determine the localization, from the sarcomere Z-line, of GAP43 positive foci, falling between that of CRUs and of mitochondria. Staining of cross sections added a detail to the puzzle: GAP43 labeling formed a reticular pattern surrounding individual myofibrils, but excluding contractile elements. This work leads the way to further investigation about the possible physiological and structural role of GAP43 protein in adult fiber function and disease.
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Transcriptional profile of GTP-mediated differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.
Purinergic Signal.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Several purine receptors have been localised on skeletal muscle membranes. Previous data support the hypothesis that extracellular guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) is an important regulatory factor in the development and function of muscle tissue. We have previously described specific extracellular binding sites for GTP on the plasma membrane of mouse skeletal muscle (C2C12) cells. Extracellular GTP induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations that results in membrane hyperpolarisation through Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, as has been demonstrated by patch-clamp experiments. This GTP-evoked increase in intracellular Ca(2+) is due to release of Ca(2+) from intracellular inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive stores. This enhances the expression of the myosin heavy chain in these C2C12 myoblasts and commits them to fuse into multinucleated myotubes, probably via a phosphoinositide-3-kinase-dependent signal-transduction mechanism. To define the signalling of extracellular GTP as an enhancer or modulator of myogenesis, we investigated whether the gene-expression profile of differentiated C2C12 cells (4 and 24 h in culture) is affected by extracellular GTP. To investigate the nuclear activity and target genes modulated by GTP, transcriptional profile analysis and real-time PCR were used. We demonstrate that in the early stages of differentiation, GTP up-regulates genes involved in different pathways associated with myogenic processes, including cytoskeleton structure, the respiratory chain, myogenesis, chromatin reorganisation, cell adhesion, and the Jak/Stat pathway, and down-regulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. GTP also increases the expression of three genes involved in myogenesis, Pp3ca, Gsk3b, and Pax7. Our data suggests that in the myogenic C2C12 cell line, extracellular GTP acts as a differentiative factor in the induction and sustaining of myogenesis.
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Effects of hypoxia on nocturnal erection quality: a case report from the Manaslu expedition.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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High altitude environment represents a fine model to study physiological and pathophysiological effects of oxygen availability on sleep-related erections (SREs).
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Effects of acute and chronic low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on PC12 cells during neuronal differentiation.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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The purpose of this study was to provide information about the in vitro neuritogenesis during cell exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) of different intensities and durations using pheochromocytoma-derived cell line (PC12 cells) as neuronal model.
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Acute and cumulative effects of focused high-frequency vibrations on the endocrine system and muscle strength.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute and long-term effects of local high-intensity vibration (HLV, f = 300 Hz) on muscle performance and blood hormone concentrations in healthy young men. Totally 18 subjects (cV group) were studied in two sessions, either without (control) or with HLV treatment. The protocol was the same on both control and test days, except that, in the second session, subjects underwent HLV treatment. Counter-movement jumping (CMJ), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) test, and hormonal levels were measured before the procedure, immediately thereafter, and 1 h later. To assess the long-term effects of HLV, the cV group was subjected to HLV on the leg muscles for 4 weeks, and a second group (cR group, n = 18) embarked upon a resistance training program. All subjects underwent an MVC test and an isokinetic (100 deg/s) test before training, 4 weeks after training, and 2 months after the end of training. The HLV protocol significantly increased the serum level of growth hormone (GH, P < 0.05) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK, P < 0.05), and decreased the level of cortisol (P < 0.05). None of GH, CPK or testosterone levels were altered in controls. There was a significant improvement in MVC (P < 0.05). After 4 weeks, both the cV and cR groups demonstrated significant improvement in MVC and isokinetic tests (P < 0.05). This increase persisted for at least 2 months. Our results indicate that HLV influences the levels of particular hormones and improves neuromuscular performance. Our results indicate that HLV has a long-term beneficial effect comparable to that of resistance training.
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Tiny percutaneous needle biopsy: An efficient method for studying cellular and molecular aspects of skeletal muscle in humans.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2010
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Needle biopsy is widely used to obtain specimens for physiological, anatomical and biochemical studies of skeletal muscle (SM). We optimized a procedure which we termed tiny percutaneous needle biopsy (TPNB), to efficiently gather good numbers of human satellite cells and single dissociated fibers for the functional study of skeletal muscle; these samples permit isolation of high-quality RNA and sufficient amounts of proteins to allow molecular analysis. Moreover, TPNB showed a clear advantage in that the technique was easier than other procedures used on healthy volunteers in human trials. TPNB is a very safe minor surgical procedure. It is less traumatic than needle aspiration biopsy, and significant complications are improbable. TPNB should become established as an important tool in the investigation of SM and may be employed to study various physiological aspects of SM in human subjects. We suggest that TPNB should also be used in the study of muscle diseases and disorders including muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, and metabolic defects.
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Oxidative stress in the denervated muscle.
Free Radic. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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Following experimental hind limb denervation in rats, this study demonstrates that oxidative stress occurs and advances an hypothesis about its origin. In fact: (i) ROS are formed; (ii) membrane lipids are oxidized; (iii) oxidized ion channels and pumps may lead to increased [Ca(2+)](i); all the above mentioned events increase with denervation time. In the denervated muscle, (iv) mRNA abundance of cytoprotective and anti-oxidant proteins (Hsp70, Hsp27, Sod1, Catalase, Gpx1, Gpx4, Gstm1), as well as (v) SOD1 enzymatic activity and HSP70i protein increase; (vi) an unbalance in mitochondrial OXPHOS enzymes occurs, presumably leading to excess mitochondrial ROS production; (vii) increased cPLA2alpha expression (mRNA) and activation (increased [Ca(2+)](i)) may lead to increased hydroperoxides release. Since anti-oxidant defences appear inadequate to counterbalance increased ROS production with increased denervation time, an anti-oxidant therapeutic strategy seems to be advisable in the many medical conditions where the nerve-muscle connection is impaired.
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Effect of in-water oxygen prebreathing at different depths on decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet activation.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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Effect of in-water oxygen prebreathing at different depths on decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet activation in scuba divers was evaluated. Six volunteers participated in four diving protocols, with 2 wk of recovery between dives. On dive 1, before diving, all divers breathed normally for 20 min at the surface of the sea (Air). On dive 2, before diving, all divers breathed 100% oxygen for 20 min at the surface of the sea [normobaric oxygenation (NBO)]. On dive 3, before diving, all divers breathed 100% O2 for 20 min at 6 m of seawater [msw; hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) 1.6 atmospheres absolute (ATA)]. On dive 4, before diving, all divers breathed 100% O2 for 20 min at 12 msw (HBO 2.2 ATA). Then they dove to 30 msw (4 ATA) for 20 min breathing air from scuba. After each dive, blood samples were collected as soon as the divers surfaced. Bubbles were measured at 20 and 50 min after decompression and converted to bubble count estimate (BCE) and numeric bubble grade (NBG). BCE and NBG were significantly lower in NBO than in Air [0.142+/-0.034 vs. 0.191+/-0.066 (P<0.05) and 1.61+/-0.25 vs. 1.89+/-0.31 (P<0.05), respectively] at 20 min, but not at 50 min. HBO at 1.6 ATA and 2.2 ATA has a similar significant effect of reducing BCE and NBG. BCE was 0.067+/-0.026 and 0.040+/-0.018 at 20 min and 0.030+/-0.022 and 0.020+/-0.020 at 50 min. NBG was 1.11+/-0.17 and 0.92+/-0.16 at 20 min and 0.83+/-0.18 and 0.75+/-0.16 at 50 min. Prebreathing NBO and HBO significantly alleviated decompression-induced platelet activation. Activation of CD62p was 3.0+/-0.4, 13.5+/-1.3, 10.7+/-0.9, 4.5+/-0.7, and 7.6+/-0.8% for baseline, Air, NBO, HBO at 1.6 ATA, and HBO at 2.2 ATA, respectively. The data show that prebreathing oxygen, more effective with HBO than NBO, decreases air bubbles and platelet activation and, therefore, may be beneficial in reducing the development of decompression sickness.
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Oxidative stress and muscle homeostasis.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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The term oxidative stress is often used to indicate a condition in which the accumulation of reactive oxygen species is considered just damaging. We will discuss both the physiological and pathological role of oxidative stress on skeletal muscle homeostasis and function, and how oxidative stress can activates opposite signaling molecule to regulate gene and protein expression to guarantee muscle adaptation and to trigger a pathological condition.
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A subpopulation of rat muscle fibers maintains an assessable excitation-contraction coupling mechanism after long-standing denervation despite lost contractility.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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To define the time course and potential effects of electrical stimulation on permanently denervated muscle, we evaluated excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) of rat leg muscles during progression to long-term denervation by ultrastructural analysis, specific binding to dihydropyridine receptors, ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR-1), Ca channels and extrusion Ca pumps, gene transcription and translation of Ca-handling proteins, and in vitro mechanical properties and electrophysiological analyses of sarcolemmal passive properties and L-type Ca current (ICa) parameters. We found that in response to long-term denervation: 1) isolated muscle that is unable to twitch in vitro by electrical stimulation has very small myofibers but may show a slow caffeine contracture; 2) only roughly half of the muscle fibers with "voltage-dependent Ca channel activity" are able to contract; 3) the ECC mechanisms are still present and, in part, functional; 4)ECC-related gene expression is upregulated; and 5) at any time point, there are muscle fibers that are more resistant than others to denervation atrophy and disorganization of the ECC apparatus. These results support the hypothesis that prolonged "resting" [Ca] may drive progression of muscle atrophy to degeneration and that electrical stimulation-induced [Ca] modulation may mimic the lost nerve influence, playing a key role in modifying the gene expression of denervated muscle. Hence, these data provide a potential molecular explanation for the muscle recovery that occurs in response to rehabilitation strategies developed based on empirical clinical observations.
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Modulation of redox status and calcium handling by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in C2C12 muscle cells: A real-time, single-cell approach.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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The biological effects of electric and magnetic fields, which are ubiquitous in modern society, remain poorly understood. Here, we applied a single-cell approach to study the effects of short-term exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on muscle cell differentiation and function using C2C12 cells as an in vitro model of the skeletal muscle phenotype. Our focus was on markers of oxidative stress and calcium (Ca(2+)) handling, two interrelated cellular processes previously shown to be affected by such radiation in other cell models. Collectively, our data reveal that ELF-EMFs (1) induced reactive oxygen species production in myoblasts and myotubes with a concomitant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential; (2) activated the cellular detoxification system, increasing catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; and (3) altered intracellular Ca(2+)homeostasis, increasing the spontaneous activity of myotubes and enhancing cellular reactivity to a depolarizing agent (KCl) or an agonist (caffeine) of intracellular store Ca(2+)channels. In conclusion, our data support a possible link between exposure to ELF-EMFs and modification of the cellular redox state, which could, in turn, increase the level of intracellular Ca(2+)and thus modulate the metabolic activity of C2C12 cells.
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Oxidative-induced membrane damage in diabetes lymphocytes: effects on intracellular Ca(2 +) homeostasis.
Free Radic. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2009
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Oxidative stress is linked to several human diseases, including diabetes. However, the intracellular signal transduction pathways regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) remain to be established. Deleterious effects of ROS stem from interactions with various ion transport proteins such as ion channels and pumps, primarily altering Ca(2 +) homeostasis and inducing cell dysfunction. This study characterized the Ca(2 +) transport system in lymphocytes of patients with type-2 diabetes, evaluating the possible correlation between cell modifications and the existence of specific oxidative stress damage. Lymphocytes from type-2 diabetes patients displayed oxidative stress features (accumulation of some ROS species, membrane peroxidation, increase in protein carbonyls, increase in SOD and Catalase activity) and Ca(2 +) dyshomeostasis (modified voltage-dependent and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-mediated Ca(2 +) channel activities, decrease in Ca(2 +) pumps activity). The data support a correlation between oxidative damage and alterations in intracellular Ca(2 +) homeostasis, possibly due to modification of the ionic control in lymphocytes of type-2 diabetes patients.
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Effects of local vibrations on skeletal muscle trophism in elderly people: mechanical, cellular, and molecular events.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Several studies have examined the effects of vibrations on muscle mass and performance in young healthy people. We studied the effects of vibrations on muscles of elderly male and female volunteers (65-85 years of age) diagnosed with sarcopenia. We applied mechanical vibrations locally (local vibrational training) to the thigh muscles at 300 Hz for a period of 12 weeks, starting with a session of 15 min stimulation once a week and increasing to three sessions of 15 min per week. Treated muscles displayed enhanced maximal isometric strength and increased content of fast MyHC-2X myosin. Single muscle fiber analysis did not show any change in cross-sectional area or in specific tension. Analysis of transcriptional profiles by microarray revealed changes in gene expression after 12 weeks of local vibrational training. In particular, pathways related with energy metabolism, sarcomeric protein balance and oxidative stress response were affected. We conclude that vibration treatment is effective in counteracting the loss of muscular strength associated with sarcopenia and the mode of action of vibration is based on cellular and molecular changes which do not include increase in fiber or muscle size.
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Energetics of karate (kata and kumite techniques) in top-level athletes.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Breath-by-breath O(2) uptake (VO2, L min(-1)) and blood lactate concentration were measured before, during exercise, and recovery in six kata and six kumite karate Word Champions performing a simulated competition. VO2max, maximal anaerobic alactic, and lactic power were also assessed. The total energy cost (VO2TOT mL kg(-1) above resting) of each simulated competition was calculated and subdivided into aerobic, lactic, and alactic fractions. Results showed that (a) no differences between kata and kumite groups in VO2max, height of vertical jump, and Wingate test were found; (b) VO2TOT were 87.8 +/- 6.6 and 82.3 +/- 12.3 mL kg(-1) in kata male and female with a performance time of 138 +/- 4 and 158 +/- 14 s, respectively; 189.0 +/- 14.6 mL kg(-1) in kumite male and 155.8 +/- 38.4 mL kg(-1) in kumite female with a predetermined performance time of 240 +/- 0 and 180 +/- 0 s, respectively; (c) the metabolic power was significantly higher in kumite than in kata athletes (p < or = 0.05 in both gender); (d) aerobic and anaerobic alactic sources, in percentage of the total, were significantly different between gender and disciplines (p < 0.05), while the lactic source was similar; (e) HR ranged between 174 and 187 b min(-1) during simulated competition. In conclusion, kumite appears to require a much higher metabolic power than kata, being the energy source with the aerobic contribution predominant.
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Molecular basis of the myogenic profile of aged human skeletal muscle satellite cells during differentiation.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2009
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Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass, strength and function. Human muscle proteins are synthesized at a slower rate in the elderly than in young adults, leading to atrophy and muscle mass loss with a decline in the functional capability. Additionally, aging is accompanied by a decrease in the ability of muscle tissue to regenerate following injury or overuse due to the impairment of intervening satellite cells, in which we previously reported oxidative damage evidences. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of aging on myoblasts and myotubes obtained from human skeletal muscle, and characterize the transcriptional profile as molecular expression patterns in relation to age-dependent modifications in their regenerative capacity. Our data show that the failure to differentiate does not depend on reduced myogenic cell number, but difficulty to complete the differentiation program. Data reported here suggested the following findings: (i) oxidative damage accumulation in molecular substrates, probably due to impaired antioxidant activity and insufficient repair capability, (ii) limited capability of elderly myoblasts to execute a complete differentiation program; restricted fusion, possibly due to altered cytoskeleton turnover and extracellular matrix degradation and (iii) activation of atrophy mechanism by activation of a specific FOXO-dependent program.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.